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Road safety strategic analysis in Brazil: indicator and index research; Análise estratégica da segurança viária no Brasil: pesquisa de índices e indicadores

Bastos, Jorge Tiago
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
The intense economic growth that Brazil has experienced in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have resulted in an undesirable impact: the continuously increasing trend in traffic fatality numbers. This study presents a research on indicators and indexes with the objective of delivering both overall and disaggregated evidence about the road safety performance and targets in fatality reduction in Brazil at the state level taking the exposure into account. The intention is to support road safety strategic analysis in the country and to contribute to improve this critical scene. The methodological structure of this thesis consists of the following three main parts: (I) diagnosing the road safety situation at the state level using final outcome related information, in particular traffic fatality risk data; (II) setting a target number of traffic fatalities based on the relationship between the exposure level and the number of traffic fatalities in each state; and (III) suggesting domains for improvements based on the research of safety performance indicators representing three domains (road user, environment and vehicle) throughout the states. From a benchmarking point of view, we divided the Brazilian states into three separate clusters in order to provide more realistic state performance comparisons. After a data collection and indicators selection step...

Fundamentos metodológicos para a elaboração de campanhas de segurança viária; Methodological principles for road safety campaigns elaboration

Romão, Magaly Natalia Pazzian Vasconcellos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Neste trabalho foram estabelecidos os fundamentos metodológicos baseados na identificação dos fatores de risco, fatores de risco identificados, necessários na elaboração de campanhas de segurança viária, orientados pelas diretrizes estabelecidas no projeto CAST (Campaigns and Awareness-raising Strategies in Traffic Safety), o qual define a identificação do comportamento-problema gerador de acidentes como elemento essencial na definição do objetivo de cada campanha. Não havendo dados estatísticos consistentes e confiáveis dos quais seja possível extrair esta informação, foi necessário identificar os fatores comportamentais que estão na origem de atos inseguros e que devem ser prioritários na elaboração de campanhas de segurança viária. Para o efeito, foi necessário estabelecer uma metodologia que envolveu a utilização de diferentes instrumentos de coleta de dados com o objetivo de identificar os comportamentos-problema, assim como outros fatores relacionados à infraestrutura e ao meio ambiente que poderiam induzir esses comportamentos. Esta metodologia envolveu a aplicação de Grupos Focais que orientaram a elaboração de um questionário voltado para a identificação dos fatores de risco do sistema viário...

Visible light communication for intelligent transportation in road safety applications

Kumar, N.; Terra, D.; Lourenço, N.; Alves, L. N.; Aguiar, R.L.
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
This paper discusses the implementation of a light emitting diode based visible light communication system, for intelligent transportation in road safety applications. The signal processing of both, transmitter and receiver are realized in a field programmable gate array using two Spartan-3E development kits. The implemented modulation scheme is based on direct sequence spread spectrum techniques. The performance of the overall system is evaluated and results are presented. It is found that the system is well suited for traffic broadcast at low data rate and medium range. The simulation results also show that spread spectrum modulation techniques mitigate the effect of noise produced by ambient artificial light sources. © 2011 IEEE.; FCT, Government of Portugal - VIDAS, Grant (PTDC/EEATEL/ 75217/2006)

Road Safety

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
In 1999, between 750 000 and 880 000 persons died in road crashes worldwide, and another 23 to 34 million people were injured. The situation is particularly critical in low and middle income countries (LMCs) where about 86 percent of deaths from road traffic injuries occur even though these countries account for only 40 percent of all motor vehicles. The graph shows that the situation has been worsening in LMCs since 1987. There are strong social, health and economic reasons to reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs): a) casualties affect mostly economically active persons and have a ripple effect on their dependents, causing suffering and poverty; and b) crash victims represent between 30 and 86 percent of all trauma admissions. They tend to stay in hospital longer than average patients. Developed countries have been relatively successful in reducing the burden of RTIs. This shows that more, better targeted and sustainable investment can prevent RTIs and reduce the damage that results from crashes. Poorer countries clearly need a new and broader approach to road safety.

Value of a Statistical Life in Road Safety : A Benefit-Transfer Function with Risk-Analysis Guidance Based on Developing Country Data

Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL = 1.3732E−4 × (GDP per capita)∧2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries)...

Cost-effective road safety measures for reducing serious casualty crashes in South Australia

Kloeden, C.; McLean, A.; Lindsay, V.
Fonte: Road Safety Council; Perth, Western Australia Publicador: Road Safety Council; Perth, Western Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
A large number of road safety countermeasures were evaluated as to their likely effectiveness in reducing the total number of serious casualty crashes in South Australia and the cost to government authorities of their implementation. The five most promising countermeasures identified were speed limit reductions in three speed zones, raising the age of licensure and sealing the shoulders on the outside of curves.; C.N. Kloeden, A.J. McLean and V. Lindsay

Road courtesy and road safety

Hutchinson, Paul
Fonte: Centre for Automotive Safety Research Publicador: Centre for Automotive Safety Research
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
The main sections of this report deal with (a) speed, anger and aggression, and young drivers, (b) aspects of courtesy relevant to driving, and (c) campaigns. Courtesy refers both to behaviours (the presence of some and the absence of others) and to the attitudes and habits of mind that accompany behaviours. As behaviour, courtesy is mostly safe but sometimes not (when it is in conflict with the conventions of driving). As an attitude --- thinking about possible actions of other road users and adjusting one’s own behaviour, and avoiding any aggressiveness in one’s driving --- courtesy certainly should be encouraged. This is quite a complex and conditional message. Complex messages are unlikely to have much effect. Thus the present report does not recommend putting road courtesy at the centre of a road safety campaign. It might, however, be an appropriate component of a broader campaign: if some behaviour were being promoted on grounds of safety, courtesy or consideration for others could be given as a reason (that might carry weight with some audiences). Substantial advances have been made in the study of topics within social psychology that are relevant to driving: personality, attitudes, social norms, behaviours, aggression...

Heavy vehicle road safety: A scan of recent literature

Raftery, S.; Grigo, J.; Woolley, J.
Fonte: Australasian College of Road Safety Publicador: Australasian College of Road Safety
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.5%
The number of registered heavy vehicles (HV) in Australia has risen by 22% since 2005 and, with the national freight task projected to double by 2030, the number of HVs on Australian roads will continue to increase. In the 12 months to the end of June 2010 crashes involving heavy vehicles resulted in 239 fatalities and around one third of all work-related road crash fatalities occur within the freight industry. Heavy vehicle safety for both the trucking industry and the general community remains an important issue. In recognition of this the Australian Trucking Association commissioned the Centre for Automotive Safety Research to undertake a research scan to develop a knowledge base that may be used to guide the strategic direction and development of effective outcomes in the area of heavy vehicle safety. The scan focussed on five key areas: factors associated with HV crashes, road and vehicle design, human and social factors, speed management and enforcement, and the effectiveness of accreditation schemes. Gaps in knowledge were identified and recommendations for future research in the areas of fatigue, seatbelt use, traffic management, and technology are suggested.; SJ Raftery, JAL Grigo and JE Woolley

Road safety mass media campaigns: Why are results inconclusive, and what can be done?

Hutchinson, T.; Wundersitz, L.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Recent research literature on the effectiveness (or otherwise) of promoting road safety via mass media advertising is selectively reviewed. The overall picture from this is inconclusive: effects of substantial size have been rare, but effects of small size cannot be ruled out. It is then argued that attempts to use crash data to establish or disprove the cost-effectiveness of campaigns are, indeed, doomed to failure: the random variability in crash numbers is too great (and even low effectiveness may be sufficient as campaigns are very cheap per person reached). It is suggested that evaluation may need to be based on before and after comparison of behaviours or variables that can be objectively observed and are closely linked to safety – and in order to substantiate the behaviour-safety link, credible theories are needed.; T.P. Hutchinson and L.N. Wundersitz

Risky behaviours: preferable to crashes for evaluating road safety mass media campaigns?

Wundersitz, L.; Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: Australasian College of Road Safety; online Publicador: Australasian College of Road Safety; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.47%
Decades of research have failed to establish whether or not mass media advertising can reduce road crashes. The probable reason is that the random variability in crash numbers is too great (and, campaigns being very cheap per person reached, even low effectiveness may be enough to be worthwhile). Three alternatives to before-after comparison of crashes as the method of determining effectiveness of an intervention are discussed. These are real-world experiments of high methodological quality, laboratory experiments of the social psychological type, and the measurement of safety-related behaviors. The third of these, before-after comparison of behaviors or variables that can be objectively observed and are closely linked to safety, is suggested as the most promising. However, the behaviors that might plausibly be used as proxies for crashes are quite few in number, and there is an urgent research need to find more of them, together with theory implying that a change in the behavior does indeed mean a change in safety.; http://acrs.org.au/events/acrs-past-conferences/2012-acrs-conference/program/papers/; L.N. Wundersitz and T.P. Hutchinson

Context aided fusion procedure for road safety application

García, Fernando; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José M.; Jiménez, Felipe
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
Road safety applications require the most reliable and trustable sensors. Context information plays also a key role, adding trustability and allowing the study of the interactions and the danger inherent to them. Vehicle dynamics, dimensions... can be very useful to avoid misdetections when performing vehicle detection and tracking (fusion levels 0 and 1). Traffic safety information is mandatory for fusion levels 2 and 3 by evaluating the interactions and the danger involved in any detection. All this information is context information that was used in this application to enhance the capacity of the sensors, providing a complete and multilevel fusion application. Present application use three sensors: laser scanner, computer vision and inertial system, the information given by these sensors is completed with context information, providing reliable vehicle detection and danger evaluation. Test results are provided to check the usability of the detection algorithm.; This work was supported by the Spanish Government through the Cicyt projects FEDORA (GRANT TRA2010-20225-C03- 01), Driver Distraction Detector System (GRANT TRA2011-29454-C03-02). CAM through SEGVAUTO (S2009/DPI-1509).; Proceeding of: 2012 IEEE Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI)...

What can we learn from recent evaluations of road safety mass media campaigns?

Wundersitz, L.; Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: Australasian College of Road Safety Publicador: Australasian College of Road Safety
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
Mass media campaigns can play an important role in promoting road safety issues to a large proportion of the population. In order to understand what elements make a road safety mass media campaign effective and how we might enhance future campaigns, a review of the literature published during the last decade was conducted. Any general principles concerning effective mass media campaign design and development were identified within the literature. Following this, recent evaluations of road safety mass media campaigns were examined to determine whether campaigns were adopting these best practice principles and the quality of these evaluations was reviewed. A number of broad principles that can enhance the effectiveness of road safety mass media campaigns were identified. While campaign designers appear to be increasingly adhering to these principles, there is still much room for improvement. Closer examination of the road safety campaigns revealed that few were subject to thorough scientific evaluation. It is suggested that evaluations may need to be based on 'before and after' comparison of behaviours or variables that can be objectively observed and are closely linked to safety.; Lisa Wundersitz and T. Paul Hutchinson

Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.7%
This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

Dangerous Roads : Russia’s Safety Challenge

Marquez, Patricio V.; Bliss, Anthony G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.71%
As in many countries of the Europe and Central Asia Region (ECA), vehicle ownership in Russia has grown faster in the last decade than the decline in the rate of fatalities per vehicle. At the same time, road safety policies and interventions have not kept pace with the boom in motorization. In 2008, the motor vehicle fleet in the country exceeded 41 million cars, up 24 percent from 2004, and the number of drivers licensed increased by 40 percent during this period. In 2008, Russia saw nearly 30,000 road traffic deaths and about 271,000 non-fatal road traffic injuries. While these figures represent a drop of 13 percent from 2004, Russia's road traffic mortality rate is still five times higher than what is seen in several European Union (EU) countries, about twice more than in the United States, higher than in other Eastern European countries such as Poland and Hungary, and higher than the average for Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries.

China : Road Traffic Safety, the Achievements, the Challenges, and the Way Ahead

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.78%
Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected global public health problem. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic accidents each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as high as 50 million. Without increased efforts and new initiatives, the total number of road traffic injuries and fatalities worldwide is forecast to rise by 65 percent between 2000 and 2020, while in low and middle-income countries, road traffic fatalities are expected to increase by as much as 80 percent over the same period. In 2002, road traffic injuries were the ninth leading cause of years lost worldwide, equal to 2.6 percent of the global burden of disease. On current trends, by 2020, road traffic injuries are likely to be the third leading cause of years lost. Part one of this reports presents the achievements of the Chinese Government in the last five years and the challenges it faces. Part two reviews the World Bank's experience with road safety in China over the last 20 years and summarizes the legacy of its efforts and the lessons learned. Finally...

The Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 : Lessons from Argentina

Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
The United Nations decade of action for road safety 2011-2020 sets an ambitious goal to stabilize and then reduce by half the predicted level of traffic fatalities in low and middle-income countries by 2020. This goal should save around 5 million lives, avoid 50 million serious injuries, and provide an economic benefit of more than US$3 trillion. Impacts on this scale will enhance country and regional development opportunities. In line with this goal, the Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 identified five priorities: 1) road safety management capacity, 2) infrastructure safety, 3) vehicle safety, 4) road user behavior, and 5) post-crash care. This integrated development perspective is also reflected in the World Bank's new transport sector business strategy. The project's inclusive approach delivers road safety interventions in the demonstration corridors and elsewhere.

Guidelines for Mainstreaming Road Safety in Regional Trade Road Corridors

Breen, Jeanne; Humphreys, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.78%
The global crisis of road traffic injury is escalating in low-income and middle income countries to devastating effect; with road traffic crashes a leading cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.24 million people were killed on the world's roads in 2010 and between 20-50 million more suffer non-fatal injuries from road traffic collisions each year. Among young people aged 15-44 years, road traffic crashes are the second leading cause of death after HIV/AIDS. The guidelines presented here are an important contribution to addressing the challenge of road safety management in regional trade corridors. Developed jointly by the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Program (SSATP) and the World Bank, they are intended to serve as a guide for mainstreaming road safety in regional trade corridor investment programs in developing countries. The guidelines present a roadmap and set of tools with templates for terms of reference to assist in the identification, preparation and implementation of effective road safety projects in regional trade corridors...

Improving Global Road Safety : Towards Equitable and Sustainable Development, Guidelines for Country Road Safety Engagement

Bliss, Tony; Raffo, Veronica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
The sheer scale of health losses from road crashes makes road safety a development priority for the health and transport sectors of low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Poorer population groups bear a disproportionate burden of these health losses which are generally influenced by socio-economic factors and other social and environmental determinants, and increasing emphasis is being placed on global health promotion and equity as a core, crosscutting development strategy. Country development aims to promote higher living standards for all, with an emphasis on improved health, education and people's ability to participate in the economy and society. Improving road safety in LMICs contributes to the achievement of these development goals by addressing the vulnerability of citizens to catastrophic death and injury arising from road crashes and requires large-scale investments in infrastructure, institutions, vehicle fleets and the health and wellbeing of individuals. World Bank road safety projects have usually been components of larger road infrastructure and urban transport investment operations...

China Road Safety Engagement Strategy : Interim Report

Bliss, Tony; Breen, Jeanne; Howard, Eric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
The World Bank's road safety partnership with the Government of China (GOC) is maturing at a time when a deeper awareness of the negative development impacts of road crashes in low and middle-income countries coincides with the shift in road safety management policies and practices in leading high-income countries which are becoming focused on the elimination of road deaths and serious injuries, rather than accepting them as human failure and the inevitable price of economic progress. This shift in results focus is also aligned with other sustainable development initiatives addressing environmental, energy and public health goals, which present significant opportunities to capture the co-benefits of harmonized initiatives. For these reasons the World Bank and GOC agreed to review the situation in China and prepare a new road safety engagement strategy. The proposed strategy aims to facilitate an accelerated transfer of road safety knowledge and scaling up of investment at national, provincial and city levels to rapidly improve China's road safety performance...

The relationship between awareness of road safety measure and accident involvement in pre-drivers : the basis of a road safety programme

Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Jariot, Mercè; Martínez, Màrius; Montané Capdevila, Josep
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Objectives: This research aims to carry out a first validation of the QAR-Precon screening questionnaire applied in Catalonia during the drivers’ initial training, analyse the differences in risky road user behaviour according to two main variables: whether they had any experience of an accident and sex and examine the different risky road user patterns of pre-drivers. Methods: In order to group the questionnaire variables together, an exploratory factorial analysis (principal component analysis (PCA)) was used. Subsequently, the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire and the subscales were calculated. Lastly, ANOVA models were used to compare differences in the whole sample and a cluster analysis was performed to identify different risky pre-driver groups. Results: The factorial analysis (PCA) reveals the existence of five risk factors (speed and risk, external circumstances, distraction, alcohol and driving and other elements of driving) that explain 44.6% of the variance. More males than females reported that they had a higher tendency to take risks in all the risky factors exposed and injured pre-drivers reported less awareness of road safety than pre-drivers who had not been injured. A two-cluster solution indicated that it was possible to distinguish a group of pre-drivers who engaged in high risky behaviour (high group) from the group who engaged in moderate and low levels of risky road user behaviour (low group). Conclusions: The implications of these findings for programme designs and training initiatives to improve efficiency in reducing the accident rate are discussed