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Quality of Life and Adjustment in Youths with Asthma: The Contributions of Family Rituals and the Family Environment

Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Silva, Neuza; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Fonte: Family Process Institute Publicador: Family Process Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This cross-sectional study explored the relationships among family ritual meaning, cohesion, conflict, and health-related quality of life (both specific to chronic health condi- tions and in general), and the emotional and behavioral problems reported by youths with asthma. Participants included 149 Portuguese children and adolescents between the ages of 8 and 18 who had been diagnosed with asthma and attended outpatient services at three public hospitals. The results showed that stronger family ritual meaning predicted a more positive family environment (i.e., higher cohesion levels and lower conflict levels), better health-related quality of life, and fewer emotional and behavior problems in youths. Fur- thermore, family cohesion and conflict mediated the links between family ritual meaning and health-related quality of life, and emotional and behavioral problems. These results did not change after controlling for participant age, gender, and asthma severity. The find- ings of this study suggest that family ritual meaning contributes to the adaptation of youths with asthma via its positive association with the family environment. The implica- tions for multicontextual interventions with families are briefly discussed with regard to the positive role of family rituals and of their potential as a modifiable factor in families with increased health challenges.

Biografia e Autobiografia Universal (Para um Modelo de Análise dos Rituais de Produção e Consumo na Arte Multimédia)

Fernandes, Marta Sofia Bento Pires
Fonte: Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto; FBAUP Publicador: Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto; FBAUP
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Universal Biography and Autobiography: for a model of analysis of the rituals of production and consumption in multimedia art regards the study and analysis of alternative forms of questioning how we create our collective cultural memory through objects and rituals. The field of investigation here shown stands apart from areas of History or Art criticism. The approach to rituals is made from the Socio-cultural view point, aspiring to recognize a model of cultural profusion. Foremost, the role of memory in the construction of cultural content is here analyzed. With that intent, the validity between external devices, such as hermeneutics and rituals, is discussed on that construction. Approaching broad themes such as Memory, Culture, Language, dichotomies between Hermeneutics and Rituals, Text and Image are established to understand an evolution from traditional rituals to contemporary ones in artistic activity. It is questioned and suggested that contemporary rituals, with their potential of being performative manifestations that centre on the individual, constitute a privileged format for a transverse language, independent of religion, nationality or group. Being the investigation developed in the scope of the Master in Multimedia Art...

Family Rituals: Mapping the postmodern family through time, space and emotion

Costa, Rosalina
Fonte: Journal of Comparative Family Studies Publicador: Journal of Comparative Family Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Beyond metaphors of fragility, fluidity and liquidity, this paper intends to address the question of “what makes the contemporary family?” Inspired by the work of David Morgan, the postmodern family is mapped looking at family practices, specifically the ones which fit into a larger category: family rituals within divorced families with small children. Methodologically, the analysis relies on the accounts on birthday anniversaries, family vacations and Christmas celebrations, provided through episodic interviews, applied to Portuguese middle-class both men and women, in the context of a broader qualitative study. While some sociological recent theorization emphasizes the image of a family of inaccurate contours; through rituals it can be experienced by the actors themselves and, at the same time, observed and perceived by outsiders. In divorced families, children play a major role in the adults’ meanings of family rituals, forcing its reinvention. The experiences of “the last” or “the first” birthday, vacations or Christmas “prior to” or “after” the divorce, “with” and “without” the children, are iconic of how rituals somehow suspend families’ daily life in the view of a “special time and space.” This ephemeral condition is fundamental to understand not only “the families we live with...

Rituals Enhance Consumption

Vohs, Kathleen D.; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael Irwin
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances the enjoyment of ensuing consumption—an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that ritual behaviors compared to a no-ritual condition, made chocolate more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption like ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing rituals oneself enhanced consumption more than merely watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Last, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance consumption enjoyment due to the greater involvement they prompt in the experience.

Rituals Alleviate Grieving for Loved Ones, Lovers, and Lotteries

Norton, Michael Irwin; Gino, Francesca
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Three experiments explored the impact of mourning rituals after losses—of loved ones, lovers, and lotteries—on mitigating grief. Participants who were directed to reflect on past rituals or who were assigned to complete novel rituals after experiencing losses reported lower levels of grief. Increased feelings of control after rituals mediated the link between use of rituals and reduced grief after losses, and the benefits of rituals accrued not only to individuals who professed a belief in rituals’ effectiveness but also those who did not. Although the specific rituals in which people engage after losses vary widely by culture and religion—and among our participants—our results suggest a common psychological mechanism underlying their effectiveness: regained feelings of control.

Visiting Deities of the Hopi, Newar and Marind-anim: A Comparative Study of Seasonal Myths and Rituals in Horticultural Societies

Witzel, Michael E.J.; Anand, Suma
Fonte: Traditional Cosmology Society Publicador: Traditional Cosmology Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The mythologies and rituals of the three populations show a remarkable amount of overlap, in spite of their distant locations: in northern Arizona, the Kathmandu Valley, and southern New Guinea. They exhibit the mytheme of a large number of visiting deities that appear at certain periods during the year. These ritually undertake a number of actions, usually related to the agricultural cycle, and then return to their respective homes. Usually violent sacrifice is involved as well. It will be suggested how these myths and sacrifices evolved in Neolithic horticultural societies, by pathway dependency, from earlier Palaeolithic beliefs.; Sanskrit and Indian Studies

La signification des rites associés au décès de la personne soignée, pour des infirmières œuvrant en milieu hospitalier

Meilleur, Karine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Le phénomène de la mort a été et sera toujours présent au sein des sociétés. Bien que la mort soit une étape triste et pénible à vivre, elle n’en demeure pas moins un événement inévitable et bien réel. Cependant, il existe des moyens, comme la pratique des rites, permettant d’atténuer la souffrance causée par un décès. Malgré tout, il n’est pas rare de constater l’absence ou le peu de temps consacré aux rites lors d’un décès en milieu hospitalier (O’Gorman, 1998; Lemieux, 1991; Leonetti, 2004; Hamonet, 1992; Piquet, 1999; Hanus, 1999; Vachon, 2007; Hasendhal, 1998). Les raisons susceptibles d’être à l’origine de cette situation peuvent découler du fait que les progrès de la médecine et des technologies amènent à croire que l’être humain est invulnérable face à la mort et que celle-ci représente un échec vis-à-vis la maladie. Le manque de formation des soignants par rapport à la mort (Leonetti, 2004; Goopy, 2005; Blum, 2006) est aussi à considérer. Finalement, la tendance de certaines sociétés occidentales qui occultent et nient la mort (O’Gorman, 1998; Piquet, 1999; Matzo et al., 2001; MSSS, 2004; Leonetti, 2004; SFAP, 2005; Goopy, 2005) constitue une autre possibilité. Pourtant...

Death Rituals in the New Diaspora: Funerals in the Lives of Ghanaians in South Florida

Arhin-Sam, Evelyn E
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This thesis addresses the lack of attention to practices that take place in settings not considered primarily religious, such as life-cycle rituals in the growing body of literature on religious practices of recently emerging African diaspora communities in the West. It argues that these practices are not only filters for indigenous African religious beliefs but also furnish for African migrants contexts that perform functions similar to those performed by the formal African diaspora religious institutions. Using ethnography, the study investigated the role of death rituals in the lives of Ghanaian members of the United Ghanaians Association of South Florida. The findings show that funerals organized in South Florida for relatives of members of the Association enable this trans-migrant community to participate in the lives of their relatives in Ghana. Funerals also furnish for these migrants contexts for performing aspects of their culture helping to cultivate a shared sense of being together or identity, in the process. The study suggests that to understand the full dynamics of African migrant religious experience, a respectful attention must be paid to all the rites of passage that African migrants perform in the West, not only those within formal religious institutions.

Burial Practices of the Third Millennium BCE in the Middle Euphrates Region : An Interpretation of Funerary Rituals; Begräbnis-Methoden des dritten Millenniums BCE im Euphrates Mittleren Gebiet : eine Interpretation von Begräbnisritualen

Sang, Li
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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The primary objective of the analyses and investigations in this paper has been expected to explicitly relate ritual to the archaeology of mortuary practices. To determine how mortuary data are used to reconstruct ancient funerary rituals in the Middle Euphrates communities during the third millennium BCE, we have to examine the specific archaeological records, in which the acts and expressions involved in the practice of funerary rituals have left their material imprint, although in a very small proportion. The evaluation upon funerary practices in the Middle Euphrates valley with a particular concentration on the four sites in the close vicinity of the region demonstrates a dramatic increase of EBA funerary record by the middle of the third millennium BCE. Most of the surviving burials at these sites belong to the EBAIII-IV as well as EBA IVA, dating to the mid-late of the third millennium BCE (e.g., Period 2B at Jerablus Tahtani, Phases A-C at Tell Ahmar, Periods IV-III at Banat settlement complex, and Period IIA-B at Gre Virike), as opposed to the first half of that era that is characterized by the rarity of burials in their communities. Attempts to understand different patterns of funerary practices have emphasized the concept of ritual as our purpose of this study. The third millennium mortuary data from the Middle Euphrates sites considered in this study have revealed considerably rich material of the tomb contents...

Rituales funerarios en el Egipto Faraónico: el libro de las respiraciones; Funerary rituals in Pharaonic Egypt: books of breathing

Ruiz Martínez, Sandra
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
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RESUMEN: El presente trabajo consiste en un estudio sobre los rituales funerarios que se realizaban en el Egipto Faraónico. La importancia de estas ceremonias reside en su capacidad para garantizar la inmortalidad del difunto. Uno de los rituales más importantes, junto al famoso proceso de la momificación, fue el de la Apertura de la Boca, que permitía al difunto volver a respirar, hablar y comer. Pero para asegurar la vida eterna, el difunto precisaba de un ajuar y algún ejemplar de literatura funeraria en su tumba. Éste último cumplía con la función de guiar al fallecido al Más Allá, donde obtendría su vida eterna.; ABSTRACT: The present work is a study about funerary rituals performed in Pharaonic Egypt. The importance of these ceremonies lies in its ability to ensure the immortality of the deceased. One of the most important rituals was the famous process of mummification, but it was also very important the rite of Opening the Mouth, which allowed the deceased to breathe, to talk and to eat. But to ensure eternal life, the deceased needed a grave goods and a funerary texts at his tomb. The funerary texts were a kind of guide that help the deceased to get his eternal life.; Grado en Historia

Shia rituals the impact of Shia rituals on Shia socio-political character; Shi'a rituals

Elbadri, Rachid
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 89 p. : ill., maps ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis argues that Ashura rituals do not represent the embodiment of a culture of death; they represent a spiritual awakening, strengthening faith by condensing and intensifying religious events, unifying and empowering the Shia identity. Secondly, it argues that Ashura rituals are not merely rituals of lamentation or a source of salvation and redemption, but represent an inspiring force with dynamic principles used as a popular platform to effect changes in the socio-political sphere. This research probes into the historical evolution in form and content of Ashura rituals. It reveals three major stages Ashura rituals that have passed through. This research uses a model derived from Emile Durkheim's social ritual theory to explain how rituals transform knowledge into belief and membership into belonging. It reveals how Ashura rituals are constructed, embraced, and evolved as well as how they are shaping Shia identity and communal sense. The discussion also centers around important Shia leaders who were instrumental in shifting the meanings of Ashura from the soteriological to the revolutionary meanings as well as leaders who have operationalized such meanings. It compares current ritual practice in Iran and Lebanon. Lastly...

Cosmic horizons and social voices

Warrell, Lindy
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1407939 bytes; 3794327 bytes; 2411906 bytes; 2304861 bytes; 1137251 bytes; 98541 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //1990 EN
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The fieldwork on which this dissertation is based was done in Sri Lanka from 1984 to 1986 when the critique of the of the anthropologist as 'Knower of the Other' was surfacing in the literature (Fabian, 1983, Clifford and Marcus, 1986, Marcus and Fisher 1986). When I returned from the field most works of this genre were generally unknown in Adelaide. However, I began by writing with the insights of Bakhtin who himself had inspired central dimensions of the burgeoning critique of anthropological practice. Like Bakhtin's work, the debates about ethnographic authority continue to invite us to reflect upon the methods employed in the production of any text which claims to define the world of others. It therefore seems appropriate for me to preface this dissertation by highlighting relevant features of the processes which have culminated in this work, Cosmic Horizons and Social Voices. The nature of my fieldwork was distinctive. I did not work in a spatially constrained community. Rather my work was anchored by the work of specialist ritual practitioners, both deity priests and performers. Because the practitioners themselves not only live in dispersed locations but are also highly mobile in relation to the work that they do, my work entailed extensive travel in and between urban centres and rural areas across several provincial divisions. In the course of eighteen months of this kind of fieldwork...

WELCOMING THE NEWBORN: THE MODERNITY OF SOME VIETNAMESE RITUALS; A ACOLHIDA DO RECÉM-NASCIDO: A MODERNIDADE DE ALGUNS RITUAIS VIETNAMITAS

Cân-Liêm, Luong; Thành-Châu, Nguyen; Nhung, aLê-Thi Hong
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/06/2003 POR
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A partir da consideração de diferenças entre a civilização ocidental e a oriental na maneira de conceber as relações entre os elementos constitutivos da cultura foram observados os processos e a construção dos processos de identificação das relações homem-mulher, adulto-criança, hierarquiasubordinação nas culturas da Ásia que estão atualmente margeando a modernidade devido à mundialização das referências culturais. O presente artigo baseou-se em observações clínicoantropológicas que mostraram que certos rituais da acolhida do recém-nascido vietnamita persistem em sua significação moderna. O artigo descreve e explica o significado tradicional de alguns destes rituais: o fio no pulso; o desenho da sobrancelha; a massagem; o processo de nomeação; a entrado do neonato no espaço domiciliar; as festas do primeiro mês e do primeiro aniversário, mostrando as alterações dentro do novo contexto.; Taking into account the differences between the Occidental and the Oriental civilizations with regard to the way they conceptualize the relationships between the constitutive elements of culture, the present study observed the Asian cultural processes and identification construction between man-woman, adult-child...

Diretrizes para pensar a midiatização dos rituais de consumo nas telenovelas brasileiras; Directrices para pensar la mediatización de los rituales de consumo en las telenovelas brasileñas; Guidelines to think the mediatization of consumption rituals in Brazilian telenovelas

Mauro, Rosana; Trindade, Eneus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo não avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/10/2015 POR
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O artigo busca contextualizar a telenovela nos estudos que abordam a midiatização, de modo geral, e, mais especificamente, a midiatização do consumo. O objetivo é trazer possíveis desdobramentos de pesquisa sobre o assunto pela perspectiva da representação dos rituais cotidianos de consumo nas telenovelas. Pretende-se discutir, brevemente, estudos que trazem novos horizontes de pesquisa na área, como o do pesquisador Andreas Hepp (2014), e suas possíveis aplicabilidades na telenovela brasileira.; El artículo pretende contextualizar los estudios de telenovelas que tratan de la mediatización, en general, y más específicamente, la mediatización de consumo. El objetivo es traer posibles desarrollos de investigación a través de la perspectiva de la representación de los rituales cotidianos de consumo en las telenovelas. La intención es discutir, brevemente, los estudios que traen nuevos horizontes de investigación sobre el tema, como Andreas Hepp (2014), y su posible aplicación en la telenovela brasileña.; This paper aims to contextualize the telenovela in studies about the mediatization, in general, and more specifically, the mediatization of consumption. The intent is to bring possible research developments about the subject by the perspective of representation of the daily rituals of consumption in telenovelas. We intend to discuss...

Is it sweet and honourable to die for the country? civic rituals and military discipline in the Contestado War; É doce e honroso morrer pela pátria? rituais cívicos e disciplina militar na Guerra do Contestado

Rodrigues, Rogerio Rosa; Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/10/2013 POR
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This paper analyzes the civic rituals enacted by the Brazilian army during the repression of the Contestado movement. The analysis is based on public speeches given by army officers at military exercises. It is postulated that these public speeches aimed to discipline soldiers, justify the war casualty and shape the identity of the internal enemy, the Contestado rebels. The rituals also point to the close relationship between the army and national politics, particularly with the republican regime the army helped establish in 1889. Such strategy was inspired not only by past experiences but also by body to body conflicts with rebels in the south of Brazil. The paper starts by looking at the discipline and militarization of rituals acted out by followers of Saint João Maria, and then highlights religious aspects of military action taken in the battlefield during the Contestado war.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7976.2012v19n28p31 O artigo tem como objetivo analisar os rituais cívicos celebrados pelo Exército brasileiro durante a repressão ao movimento do Contestado. As fontes de referência para a análise são os discursos proferidos pelos oficiais e lidos publicamente durante os exercícios militares. A hipótese defendida é de que os discursos oficiais tinham como objetivo imediato disciplinar os soldados...

Devotion rituals: gifts at Contestado messianism; Rituais de devoção: dádivas no messianismo do Contestado

Vianna Bezerra de Menezes, Celso; Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/10/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This work intends to analyze the devotees of Saint João Maria's religious practices, from an inland region of Paraná state's south and from the Santa Catarina's plateau. The devotion and the cult to the Saint can be found at the region where, almost a century ago, occurred the Contestado War, a millenialist and messianic movement. Using the multisited ethnography, we intend to understand these religious practices, through a theoretical proposal which appears by an emergent anthropology field of discussions related to the performance studies. Based on Stanley Tambiah, we propose an approach that privileges the rituals of these practices, supported by a dialogue between anthropology and theatrical perspectives coming from Victor Turner and Richard Schechner works.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7976.2012v19n28p112 Este trabalho visa analisar as práticas religiosas dos devotos de São João Maria, em uma região interiorana do sul do estado do Paraná e do planalto catarinense. A devoção e o culto ao santo são presentes na região onde, há quase um século, ocorreu a Guerra do Contestado, um movimento de cunho milenarista e messiânico. Procura-se, através de uma etnografia multi-situada, apreender estas práticas religiosas com uma proposta teórica que surge de um campo emergente na antropologia de discussões associadas aos estudos de performance. A partir dos estudos de Stanley Tambiah...

Festa de padroeiro e rituais festivos no território Kalunga : o sentido da tradição em um sítio patrimonial = Patron saint feast and festive rituals in kalunga territory : the meaning of tradition in a heritage site; Patron saint feast and festive rituals in kalunga territory : the meaning of tradition in a heritage site

Lima, Luana Nunes Martins de; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Revista Cenário Publicador: Revista Cenário
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2014 POR
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As festas de padroeiros realizadas nas comunidades quilombolas do Sítio Histórico e Patrimônio Cultural Kalunga, em Goiás, constituem tradições que vinculam valores simbólicos à reprodução material da vida. A proposta deste artigo é compreender o sentido destas tradições festivas e sua inserção em um sítio patrimonial, a partir de uma festa de padroeiro na qual se realizou trabalhos de campo e pesquisa participante - a Romaria de Nossa Senhora Aparecida. Em sua dimensão religiosa, as festas e rituais religiosos atribuem ao espaço sentidos de pertença, e ao grupo que deles compartilham e os vivenciam, uma identidade própria. Assim, é possível afirmar que o patrimônio destas comunidades não é percebido pelos seus moradores com base nos atributos de uma institucionalidade legada ao seu território, mas, sobretudo, pelos sentidos da tradição vivida coletivamente, o que maximiza as relações afetivas sobre o lugar.; The patrons saints festivities held in the quilombolas communities of Sítio Histórico e Patrimônio Cultural Kalunga, in Goiás, are traditions that bind symbolic values to the material reproduction of life. The purpose of this article is to understand the meaning of these festive traditions and its insertion in a heritage site...

World Renewal Rituals among the Postclassic Yucatec Maya and Contemporary Ch'orti' Maya

Vail,Gabrielle; Looper,Matthew G.
Fonte: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas Publicador: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
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Archaeological, epigraphic, and ethnohistoric studies indicate that world renewal rituals were an important feature of prehispanic Maya society and continue to play a seminal role in indigenous communities throughout the Maya area today. Our discussion examines two examples of the multitude of such rituals that were performed to recreate the world by replicating the actions undertaken by the primordial deities at the beginning of the present creation. The first involves ceremonies performed by the Yucatec Maya during the Postclassic period (13th through 15th centuries) to ritually terminate the old year and begin anew by establishing a "tree" to mark the trees set up in the four quadrants at the creation of the present world, as documented in the prehispanic Maya codices and the colonial period Books of Chilam Balam, written by indigenous scribes in the alphabetic script introduced by the Spanish friars in the 16th century. The second involves Ch'orti' speakers living in southern Guatemala today, who perform similar rituals that involve a series of ceremonies undertaken over the course of the rainy season to ensure agricultural fertility. Both ritual complexes involve foundation events, acts of sacrifice, petitions to the rain and earth deities...

What is the importance of executing rituals 'correctly' and why do people continue to engage in them?

Viviers,Hennie
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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Rituals, borne out of our embodied practical reason, are deeds that are counterintuitive in terms of cause and effect. From a cognitive point of view, two kinds of religious rituals can be identified: special agent rituals, where superhuman agents act on human patients (onceoff, highly emotional; e.g. initiations, weddings) and special instrument and patient rituals, where human agents act on superhuman patients (repeated, less emotional; e.g. sacrifices, Holy Communion). The idea of 'correctness' applies more stringently to the first kind than the second, for instance: Jacob's blessing of Ephraim and Manasseh in Genesis 48. Rituals stabilise, reconstitute and replicate our 'cosmos' or imaginative worlds as they realign our intersubjective relations. They are tenacious and persistent, because they evoke, usually in an emotional and motivational way, our sense of urgency, our deeply felt need to maintain sound social relations and our intuitive ability to form notions of a counterintuitive world. The aim of this article was therefore to highlight and illustrate the role our evolved mental tools play when conducting rituals, especially when conducting some rituals 'correctly' and others less stringently so. Furthermore, the psychological appeal that rituals have on the human mind was also explained.

"Missing in action": the significance of bodies in African bereavement rituals

Martin,Jarred; van Wijk,Charles; Hans-Arendse,Chesray; Makhaba,Luvuyo
Fonte: Psychology in Society Publicador: Psychology in Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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The authors of this paper offer a turn to embodiment in exploring the role of bodies in "black", South African bereavement rituals and mourning practices². This paper is born out of the trauma de-briefing program for the crew of a South African Navy vessel after the death of a comrade during an anti-piracy operation off the east coast of southern Africa. Herein we attempt to grapple with the unique complexities of the physical presence of bodies in African mourning rituals in the context of the deceased's body being "lost at sea". First we establish the operational context of naval deployment and the loss of the sailor's body at sea. Second we outline some of the corporeal configurations of black South African bereavement rituals. Here we draw specific attention to bodies in processes of grief and mourning, for the deceased and mourners. Lastly, drawing on testimonies from four South African Navy personnel present during the operational deployment, we highlight the significant role played by bodies in African bereavement rituals. In sum, we suggest the need to re-matter the materiality of bodies in psychological literature on African bereavement rituals.