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Trajetórias migratórias e construções identitárias de palestinos em Santa Catarina; Migratory trajectories and identity constructions of Palestinians in Santa Catarina

Soares, Gabriel Mathias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
A trajetória dos imigrantes palestinos em Santa Catarina esteve marcada por redes sociais de solidariedade étnica e familiar. Dessa forma, em todo seu percurso, as questões identitárias estiveram fortemente presentes nessa imigração caracteristicamente autônoma, sem qualquer auxílio estatal, e urbana. Os vínculos familiares, étnicos e religiosos, forneceram os alicerces para inserção econômica e social, assim como para comunidades locais e associações entre imigrantes. Intimamente associada a este processo, a Questão Palestina se fez presente durante toda trajetória desses palestinos tanto como indivíduos, como parte de uma coletividade ligada a essa questão. Fortemente marcada na memória individual e coletiva, está a expropriação e/ou a ocupação da terra habitada por eles e/ou por seus familiares mais próximos, que os afeta de diversas maneiras (social, cultural, politica e economicamente), particularmente no que se refere às causas da emigração. Associável sempre a todos, entretanto, está o pertencimento a uma coletividade cuja identidade está em questão em muitos lugares do mundo. A busca pela emancipação de seu torrão natal torna-se assim um dos elementos fundamentais de sua identidade, que por sua vez se torna uma ferramenta indispensável para manutenção do direito de retorno daqueles que foram expulsos e de seus descendentes...

A responsabilidade civil do estado em face de condutas judiciais danosas : uma análise doutrinária e jurisprudencial

Bulawski, Cláudio Maldaner
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
Em um Estado Democrático de Direito, a conduta de todos os cidadãos deve ficar delimitada pelos ditames legais. Caso adotem alguma conduta contra os parâmetros normativos, devem por isso ser responsabilizados. Não deve ser diferente se o ato partir de algum dos agentes estatais. Aliás, com mais razão ainda o Estado tem de ser responsabilizado, pois como é de competência deste a edição das leis, não poderia jamais querer, em face disso, tornar-se imune ao seu conteúdo. É nesse ínterim que entra a responsabilização do Estado por atos dos magistrados. De uma hipótese de irresponsabilidade estatal, os Estados nacionais passaram a responsabilizar-se por tais condutas, seja de forma subjetiva ou objetiva. A Constituição da República brasileira de 1988 traz algumas espécies desta responsabilidade no artigo 5°, inciso LXXV. Todavia, a pergunta que deve ser feita é: são somente essas as hipóteses pelas quais o Estado se responsabiliza nas situações de atividades judiciais danosas? A resposta é negativa. Tanto a legislação infraconstitucional, que especifica algumas circunstâncias de caráter indenizatório, como a própria Constituição, que traz a cláusula geral de indenizabilidade prevista no parágrafo 6° do artigo 37...

Inhibition of return, gap effect and saccadic reaction time to a visual target

Guimarães-Silva,S.; Gawryszewski,L.G.; Portugal,T.S.; Klausner-de-Oliveira,L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
Simple manual reaction time (MRT) to a visual target (S2) is shortened when a non-informative cue (S1) is flashed at the S2 location shortly before the onset of S2 (early facilitation). Afterwards, MRT to S2 appearing at the S1 location is lengthened (inhibition of return - IOR). Similar results have been obtained for saccadic reaction time (SRT). Moreover, when there is a temporal gap between offset of the fixation point (FP) and onset of a target (gap paradigm), SRT is shorter than SRT in an overlap paradigm (FP remains on). In the present study, we determined SRT to S2 (10º) after presenting S1 at the same eccentricity (10º) or at a parafoveal position (2º) in the same or in the opposite hemifield. In addition, we employed both gap and overlap paradigms. Twelve subjects were asked not to respond to S1 (2º or 10º) to the right or to the left of FP, but to respond by making a saccadic movement in response to S2. We obtained the following results: 1) a 40-ms gap effect, 2) an interaction between gap effect and IOR, 3) a 39-ms delay (IOR) when S2 appeared at the cued (S1) position, and 4) a smaller (17 ms) but significant inhibition when S1 occurred at 2º in the ipsilateral hemifield. Thus, a parafoveal (2º) S1 elicits an inhibition of SRT towards ipsilateral peripheral targets. Since an inhibition of the ipsilateral hemifield by a 1º eccentric cue has been reported to occur when manual responses are employed...

Binding affinity of lactose permease is not altered by the H+ electrochemical gradient

Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.52%
The x-ray structure of lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) exhibits a single sugar-binding site at the apex of a hydrophilic cavity open to the cytoplasm, and it has been postulated that the binding site has alternating access to either side of the membrane during turnover. Here, the affinity of LacY for ligand in right-side-out or inside-out membrane vesicles is measured in the absence or presence of an H+ electrochemical gradient (documentclass[12pt]{minimal} usepackage{amsmath} usepackage{wasysym} usepackage{amsfonts} usepackage{amssymb} usepackage{amsbsy} usepackage{mathrsfs} setlength{oddsidemargin}{-69pt} egin{document} egin{equation*}{Delta}{ar {{mu}}}_{{mathrm{H}}^{+}}end{equation*}end{document}) by utilizing ligand protection against alkylation. Right-side-out or inside-out membrane vesicles containing LacY with a single cysteine residue at position 148 exhibit KD values for lactose or β-d-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-β-d-galactopyranoside of ≈1.0 mM or 40 μM, respectively, and no systematic change is observed in the presence of documentclass[12pt]{minimal} usepackage{amsmath} usepackage{wasysym} usepackage{amsfonts} usepackage{amssymb} usepackage{amsbsy} usepackage{mathrsfs} setlength{oddsidemargin}{-69pt} egin{document} egin{equation*}{Delta}{ar {{mu}}}_{{mathrm{H}}^{+}}end{equation*}end{document} under conditions in which there is little or no accumulation of ligand. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which the major effect of documentclass[12pt]{minimal} usepackage{amsmath} usepackage{wasysym} usepackage{amsfonts} usepackage{amssymb} usepackage{amsbsy} usepackage{mathrsfs} setlength{oddsidemargin}{-69pt} egin{document} egin{equation*}{Delta}{ar {{mu}}}_{{mathrm{H}}^{+}}end{equation*}end{document} on sugar accumulation is caused by an increased rate of deprotonation on the inner face of the membrane...

Quantum Biology on the Edge of Quantum Chaos

Vattay, Gabor; Kauffman, Stuart; Niiranen, Samuli
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
We give a new explanation for why some biological systems can stay quantum coherent for a long time at room temperature, one of the fundamental puzzles of quantum biology. We show that systems with the right level of complexity between chaos and regularity can increase their coherence time by orders of magnitude. Systems near Critical Quantum Chaos or Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) can have long coherence times and coherent transport at the same time. The new theory tested in a realistic light harvesting system model can reproduce the scaling of critical fluctuations reported in recent experiments. Scaling of return probability in the FMO light harvesting complex shows the signs of universal return probability decay observed at critical MIT. The results may open up new possibilities to design low loss energy and information transport systems in this Poised Realm hovering reversibly between quantum coherence and classicality.

Entitlement advantage : the balance of local knowledge and capital access in real estate entitlements; Balance of local knowledge and capital access in real estate entitlements

Kelley, Scott Edward
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
Development is risky. The process of getting a shovel in the ground, steel into the sky, and rent checks into the bank involves distinct phases, each with their own risk and return profile. Generally considered the most risky, the entitlement phase is process by which the development entity gains the legal right to parcel land and develop a prescribed structure. This process sits at the confluence of all development factors: local politics, due diligence, financial support, and patience. The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical organizational structures and human capital required to reduce entitlement risk. It begins with an overview of the definition of entitlement risk by generating a connection between financial projections and the idiosyncratic entitlement process. Risk in the entitlement stage is a function of control. The entitlement process has become increasingly complex in the last few decades with landowners and developer faced with diminished control over land destiny. The study follows with a review of reported best practices enlisted by developers to alleviate the risks in the entitlement process. A paradox exists in real estate entitlements where the local player is advantaged by local information and connections...

Feasibility and economics of existing PWR transition to a higher power core using annular fuel

Beccherle, Julien
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 135 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
The internally and externally cooled annular fuel is a new type of fuel for PWRs that enables an increase in core power density by 50% within the same or better safety margins as the traditional solid fuel. Each annular fuel assembly of the same side dimensions as the solid fuel has 160 annular fuel rods arranged in a 13x13 array. Even at the much higher power density, the fuel exhibits substantially lower temperatures and a MDNBR margin comparable to that of the traditional solid fuel at nominal (100%) power. The major motivation for such an up-rate is reduction of electricity generation cost. Indeed, the capital cost per kWh(e) of the construction is smaller than the standard construction of a new reactor with solid fuel. Elaborating on previous work, we study the economic payoff of such an up-rate of an existing PWR given the expected cost of equipment and also cost of money using different assumptions. Especially, the fate of the already bought solid fuel is investigated. It is demonstrated that the highest return on investment is obtained by gradually loading annular fuel in the reactor core such that right before shutting the reactor down for the up-rate construction, two batches in the core are of annular fuel. This option implies running a core with a mixture of both annular fuel and solid fuel assemblies. In order to prove the technical feasibility of such an option...

On the Financial Sustainability of Earnings-Related Pension Schemes with “Pay-As-You-Go” Financing and the Role of Government Indexed Bonds

Robalino, David A.; Bodor, András
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
In this paper the authors reconsider the idea of an earnings-related pension system with reserves invested in indexed government bonds as a mechanism to both ensure financial sustainability and improve security. They start by reviewing the characterization of the sustainable rate of return of an earnings-related pension system with pay-as-you-go financing. The authors show that current proxies for the sustainable rate, including the Swedish "gyroscope," are not stable and propose an alternative measure that depends on the growth of the buffer-stock and the pay-as-you-go asset. Using a simple one-sector macroeconomic model that embeds a notional account pension system they then show how GDP indexed government bonds, if combined with the right measure for the sustainable rate of return on contributions, could be used to generate a sustainable and secure earnings-related pension system, without becoming a fiscal burden. The proposal is particularly attractive for countries considering reforms to earnings-related systems that have accumulated a large implicit pension debt. In this case, the government bonds allow the financing of this debt in a transparent way. The proposed mechanism can also facilitate the transition to a fully-funded pension system when the government bonds are allowed to be traded.

Granting and Renegotiating Infrastructure Concessions : Doing it Right

Guasch, J. Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
In most developing and industrial countries, infrastructure services have traditionally been provided by government enterprises, but in developing countries at least, these enterprises have often proven to be inefficient, unable to provide much-needed investments, and manipulated to achieve political objectives. By contrast, many studies have shown that over the past 30 years, private (or privatized) enterprises in developing countries have, on average, delivered superior performance and needed investments. Explanations differ on why this discrepancy exists. Private enterprises are driven by a desire for profits and may have more professional know-how in management, operating procedures, and use of appropriate technology. But perhaps the most important reason for their stronger performance is that privatization makes intervening in enterprise operations difficult for governments and politicians, so government manipulation is less likely. However, the issue, in general, has been how to ensure that the improved performance and efficiency gains are passed through to the users through lower tariffs and increased coverage...

A Political Demography of the Refugee Question. Palestinians in Jordan and Lebanon: Between protection, forced return and resettlement

DE BEL-AIR, Françoise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Refugees from Palestine are one of the oldest refugee populations in the world. And UN General Assembly Resolution 194, which anchors Palestinian refugees’ claims for their right of return to Palestine, is now 63 years old. Yet, in Jordan and Lebanon, the refugees’ main host countries, the Palestinian presence grew in importance in domestic politics through the 2000s. In Lebanon there were the political debates surrounding the granting of some civil rights to Palestinian refugees, which culminated mid-2010. In Jordan, controversies over political naturalisation stir up violent political debates. This essay explores the reasons behind the fact that, in Jordan and Lebanon, granting civil rights to refugees raises a lot of concern. It also examines how the civil rights issue cannot be separated from that of the protection of the Palestinian “cause”, the right of return. More generally, the report investigates the various perceived challenges and the outreach of Palestinian refugees’ settlement (tawtin) in each of the two countries, before and after the late 1980s-early 1990s. Return and resettlement were taken as the two extremes of a similar demographic policy, and therefore, proved to be powerful political tools for regimes and political actors...

Achieving Effective Social Protection for All in Latin America and the Caribbean : From Right to Reality

Ribe, Helena; Robalino, David A.; Walker, Ian
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Slow progress in improving the coverage of Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) traditional social protection (SP) programs, combined with the deepening of democracy, have led to calls for a new social contract to provide effective social protection to all citizens. This book highlights the main findings of a regional study by the World Bank, from right to reality: how Latin America and the Caribbean can achieve universal social protection by improving redistribution and adapting programs to labor markets. The report analyzes LAC's social insurance (SI) systems and highlights growing concerns about the incentives they may create and the behaviors they may incite on the part of workers, employers and service providers. It offers an economic analysis of the roots of these problems and suggests a way forward to achieve universal coverage in an equitable manner. The report argues that a coherent overall vision for the SP system should be established if such problems are to be understood and resolved. The goal is to turn the theoretical right to social protection...

Institutions and Firms' Return to Innovation : Evidence from the World Bank Enterprise Survey

Nguyen, Ha; Jaramillo, Patricio A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
This paper poses a question: do firms in developing countries not innovate because they are unwilling to? The question moves away from the conventional focus on the obstacles (such as the lack of access to finance) that hinder firms' innovation ability. The World Bank's Enterprise Survey is used first to estimate the return to firms' innovation across many developing countries, in terms of sales and sales per worker. Then the return to innovation is compared across countries with different levels of institutional quality. In countries with lower institutional quality (specifically, rule of law, regulatory quality, property and patent right protection), the return to firms' innovation is lower. This suggests that poor institutional environment lowers firms' return to innovation and hence discourages them from investing in researching and adopting new products.

Assessment of the Private Health Sector in the Republic of Congo

Makinen, Marty; Deville, Leo; Folsom, Amanda
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
The private health sector was officially recognized in the Republic of Congo over 20 years ago June 6, 1988, establishing the conditions for the independent practice of medicine and the medical-related and pharmaceutical professions. The Congolese government recently expressed its commitment to working with the private health sector in order to strengthen the health system, improve the health of the population and preserve the basic human right to a healthy life through the National Health Care Policy, which it adopted in 2003, the 2007-2011 National Health Development Plan and the 2010 Health Care Services Development Program. Throughout these various documents there is an acknowledgement that the lack of coordination with the private health sector is a weakness of the health system. Nevertheless, the scarcity of information about the private sector in policy and planning documents suggests that the government's engagement with the private health sector is limited. There is no official government policy on the private health sector...

The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification : A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
It has long been claimed that rural electrification greatly improves the quality of life. Lighting alone brings benefits such as increased study time and improved study environment for school children, extended hours for small businesses, and greater security. But electrification brings more than light. It's second most common use is for television, which brings both entertainment and information. The people who live in rural areas greatly appreciate these benefits and are willing to pay for them at levels more than sufficient to cover the costs. However, the evaluation of these and other benefits, as well as of their distribution, has been sparse. This report reviews recent methodological advances made in measuring the benefits of rural electrification (RE) and commends them. It also notes that the understanding of the techniques shown in project documents is sometimes weak, and quality control for the economic analysis in project documents lacking. This study shows that willingness to pay for electricity is high...

Investing in Agribusiness : A Retrospective View of a Development Bank's Investments in Agribusiness in Africa and Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Tyler, Geoff; Dixie, Grahame
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
Recent increases in the prices of agricultural commodities have spurred a surge of private investment into farming and agribusiness. Given the right types of large-scale investment, this can have a transformative effect in underdeveloped rural areas and have a positive effect on national economic development including the provision of domestic food supply to urban areas that can reduce dependence on food imports. This study analyzes the experience of the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) as an investor in commercial smallholder and estate agriculture and agro-processing in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia and the Pacific between 1948 and 2000. A simple analysis of the data was undertaken to determine whether success and failure can be correlated to any critical factors. Seventy-nine (or 49 percent) of the projects were classified as failures or moderate failures in financial terms. This review of CDC agribusiness investments corroborates the view that agribusiness investments are risky, particularly when the investment is in a start-up. While only one fifth of projects were rated complete failures...

Adoção no Brasil à luz do neoconstitucionalismo

Alves, Graziella Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
No Brasil, mais de 80 mil crianças estão acolhidas em instituições, mas apenas 10% desse total estão totalmente aptas à adoção – as demais aguardam a finalização dos processos de destituição do poder familiar. Crianças retiradas da família biológica que possuam mais de três anos de idade, negras, do sexo masculino, ou portadoras de necessidades especiais não são desejadas por aqueles que pretendem adotar, crescendo e se desenvolvendo em situação de abrigamento. Em 2009, entrou em vigor a chamada Lei de Adoção – Lei n. 12.010/09, a qual se propôs trazer efetividade ao direito à convivência familiar de crianças e adolescentes institucionalizados. Após o movimento de constitucionalização do direito civil, cumpre verificar se o atual modelo de adoção vigente no país está em conformidade com os atuais paradigmas do direito positivo brasileiro, sobretudo no reconhecimento do valor jurídico do afeto e do cuidado pela tutela dos direitos fundamentais. Destarte, este estudo propõe-se a investigar de que forma o Estado pode ou deve interferir no tocante às adoções de crianças e adolescentes, em razão das modalidades de adoção existentes e aquelas admitidas pela legislação brasileira. Nessa perspectiva questiona-se: como tornar a adoção adequada aos contornos do neoconstitucionalismo? A adoção...

Direito de arrependimento do consumidor no comércio eletrônico

Ferreira, Diego Augusto Barboza
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
O presente trabalho tem como finalidade analisar a aplicabilidade do direito de arrependimento do consumidor que se encontra presente no artigo 49 Código de Defesa do Consumidor também chamado de direito de reflexão, previsto no Código de Defesa do Consumidor, às relações de consumo através do comércio eletrônico trazem pra o meio jurídico novos temas de relevante estudos no meio jurídico, tanto pela doutrina quanto pela hermenêutica sobre a legislação costumeira, sendo que ao contrato eletrônico também se aplica esta legislação, mesmo não o elencando literalmente em seus preceitos normativos. A grande extensão da internet na rede mundial e a forma fácil de utilização pela sociedade de consumo como meio veloz, facilitador de busca aos mais diferentes produtos e serviços para atender aos seus anseios e necessidades em uma economia globalizada, rompeu fronteiras geográficas e presenciais para se contratar. Dessa forma, o Direito, como ciência que estuda o mover social, não deixaria de abarcar em sua ampla seara projetiva o consumidor nessas relações comerciais – essencialmente do seu direito de se arrepender do negócio jurídico realizado, dentro dos parâmetros definidos em lei.; Article #49 of the Brazilian Consumer Bill of Rights (CDC – Law 8.078/1990) establishes consumers’ right to return unwanted merchandise to suppliers within period of 7 days for a full refund in the case of distance contracts. This law is intended to ensure consumers’ convenience and opportunity at the moment of purchase...

Os desafios na garantia do direito à convivência familiar; Challenges in ensuring the right to family environment

Pereira, Juliana Maria Fernandes; Costa, Liana Fortunato
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
A partir de um estudo realizado em uma região metropolitana brasileira, discutiremos, neste artigo, os desafios encontrados para a inserção de crianças maiores e adolescentes institucionalizados em lares substitutos, procurando ampliar a discussão para além do enfoque predominante na literatura nacional - a adoção de bebês. O objetivo da investigação foi estudar o cadastramento de crianças maiores e adolescentes para adoção, atentando para as dificuldades na articulação entre os segmentos envolvidos e os significados construídos pelos sujeitos nesse contexto, assim como as possíveis relações entre estes aspectos e a problemática do abandono, da institucionalização e da adoção. Os dados evidenciaram que, além da escassez de candidatos que pleiteiam estas adoções, os entraves estão também relacionados a uma comunicação insuficiente entre as instâncias e às dificuldades para a definição sobre o encaminhamento dos casos. O conseqüente prolongamento da institucionalização diminui substancialmente as possibilidades tanto de inserção em lar substituto quanto de retorno ao de origem. Mais que a adoção, o trabalho evidenciou a emergente ideologia da desinstitucionalização e integração à família...

An Assessment of Discount Methods for Evaluating Efficiency of Investments in Education

MUNDA Giuseppe
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
As clearly stated by Pareto, no society can avoid the economic problem of “opposition between tastes and obstacles” that is, as in other categories of economic decisions, investments in education have to take into account their opportunity cost. This implies that when education policies need to be implemented, there is a previous need of comparing different actions and evaluating them to assess their attractiveness. In this comparison process, one of the technical difficulties which has to be solved is the choice of the correct mathematical aggregation rule (i.e. the commonly called investment evaluation criterion or discount method) to use. The internal rate of return (IRR) is widely used in educational policy and planning; the main justifications are three: 1) the choice of a discount rate may vary for different countries and at different times, while IRR is an “objective” measure, 2) IRR allows the comparison with investments in the private sector, and 3) IRR allows the comparison of investments in different educational fields, such as primary schooling and university (by simply considering the average rates of return in each field). However, the debate on the proper evaluation criterion to use, when a private investment decision has to be taken or a public project appraisal has to be carried out...

An appraisal of the right of return and compensation of Jordanian nationals of Palestinian refugee origin and Jordan's right, under international law, to bring claims relating thereto, on their behalf to and against Israel and to seek compensation as a host state in light of the conclusion of the Jordan-Israel peace treaty of 1994.

Khasawneh, Bisher Hani
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
This thesis is concerned with examining the right of return and compensation, under international law, of Jordanian nationals who are of Palestinian refugee origin exclusively and Jordan's right as their state of nationality to bring claims on their behalf to and against Israel. It does not concern itself with other categories of Palestinian refugees who are not Jordanian nationals although the two rights of return and compensation arguably apply to all Palestinian refugees. The thesis also aims at examining Jordan's right as a host country, under international law, to bring compensation claims to and against Israel for creating the Palestinian refugee problem. It examines the legal bases for such a right, under international law in the context of State Responsibility for wrongful acts along with relevant provisions of the 1994 Jordan-Israel Peace Treaty. The thesis attempts to critically assess, analyze and examine major claims that Jordan can bring to and against Israel against principles of international law both on behalf of its nationals of Palestinian refugee origin and in relation to the right of return and compensation and claims of its own as a host state to and against Israel. It also critically assesses and examines the procedures and mechanisms available for the pursuit of such claims that are available to Jordan in the context of the 1994 Jordan-Israel Peace Treaty along with non Peace Treaty based procedures and mechanisms.