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Pressupostos da obrigação de restituir o enriquecimento sem causa no Código Civil brasileiro; Requisites of the obligation created by unjust enrichment under the Brazilian civil code

Hildebrand, Lucas Fajardo Nunes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/06/2010 PT
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O objetivo da dissertação é investigar os Pressupostos da Obrigação de Restituir o Enriquecimento sem Causa no Código Civil Brasileiro. O enriquecimento sem causa, que tem antecedentes romanos, é reconhecido no Brasil independente desde os tempos do Império, passou por uma rejeição quando do advento do Código Civil de 1916, que não o previu expressamente, porém retomou sua força ao longo do século XX, ao fim do qual já era corrente a opinião de que se tratava de fonte de obrigações autônoma. Na vigência do Código Civil de 1916 não havia unanimidade quanto à enumeração e ao preenchimento de sentido dos pressupostos da obrigação restituitória. Uma minoria dispensava os requisitos do empobrecimento e da correlação entre o enriquecimento e o empobrecimento em favor de um novo pressuposto, qual seja, o de que o enriquecimento se dê à custa de outrem. O Código Civil de 2002, nos arts. 884 a 886, regulou expressamente o enriquecimento sem causa como fonte de obrigação, sendo que os autores atuais têm em geral indicado como seus pressupostos a existência de um (i) enriquecimento que ocorra (ii) à custa de outrem sem (iii) justa causa e que (iv) não concorra com outro remédio jurídico (i.e., subsidiariedade)...

Electrical restitution in the endocardium of the intact human right ventricle.

Morgan, J M; Cunningham, D; Rowland, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 EN
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OBJECTIVE--To characterise electrical restitution in the intact human heart. PATIENTS AND METHODS--A series of monophasic action potential electrical restitution curves were constructed from a single right ventricular endocardial site in eight patients (three men) without structural heart disease aged 52-68 (mean 55 years). A combination pacing/monophasic action potential electrode was used to pace and record monophasic action potentials at drive cycle lengths of from 350 ms to 1500 ms. Ventricular extrastimuli were delivered at 20 cycle intervals and decreased from the longest coupling interval attainable without escape beats. RESULTS--Restitution curves shifted downward and towards the left; steady state action potential duration shifted from the restitution plateau and descended the curve, the amount of shift being linearly related to drive cycle length in two patients in whom the relation could be assessed; the amount of monophasic action potential shortening was a function of the degree of prematurity and that relation was unaffected by drive rate; the magnitude of restitution and the time constant of the restitution curve were not changed significantly by altered drive cycle length. CONCLUSION--In the intact heart in vivo, electrical restitution (of the monophasic action potential) has similar characteristics to those (of the transmembrane action potential) in cellular preparations in vitro. Thus the alteration of action potential plateau currents by instantaneous rate change or drug effects...

The role of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current in electrical restitution in ferret ventricular cells.

Janvier, N C; McMorn, S O; Harrison, S M; Taggart, P; Boyett, M R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/1997 EN
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1. The mechanisms underlying electrical restitution (recovery of action potential duration after a preceding beat) were investigated in ferret ventricular cells. The time to 80% recovery (t80) of action potential duration was approximately 204 ms. 2. At a holding potential of -80 mV, the Ca2+ current (ICa) reactivated and the delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) deactivated very rapidly (t80: approximately 32 and approximately 93 ms, respectively). The kinetics of both currents are too fast to account for electrical restitution alone. 3. The putative inward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current (INa-Ca) produced by the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger in response to the intracellular Ca2+ transient reprimed (t80: 189 ms) with the same time course as mechanical restitution (recovery of contraction) and with a similar time course to electrical restitution. 4. Substantial reduction of inward INa-Ca, by buffering intracellular Ca2+ with the acetyl methyl ester form of BAPTA, shortened the action potential and greatly altered the electrical restitution curve. Subsequent addition of nifedipine (to block ICa) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (to block the transient outward current, ITO) further altered the electrical restitution curve. 5. Any time-dependent current that contributes to the action potential is likely to affect the time course of electrical restitution. Although ICa...

Action Potential Duration Restitution Portraits of Mammalian Ventricular Myocytes: Role of Calcium Current

Tolkacheva, Elena G.; Anumonwo, Justus M. B.; Jalife, José
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Construction of the action potential duration (APD) restitution portrait allows visualization of multiple aspects of the dynamics of periodically paced myocytes at various basic cycle lengths (BCLs). For the first time, we obtained the restitution portrait of isolated rabbit and guinea pig cardiac ventricular myocytes and analyzed the time constant, τ, of APD accommodation and the slopes of different types of restitution curves, Sdyn and S12, measured at varying BCLs. Our results indicate that both τ and the individual slopes are species and pacing dependent. In contrast, the mutual relationship between slopes Sdyn and S12 does not depend on pacing history, being a generic feature of the species. In addition, the maximum slope S12, measured in the restitution portrait at the lowest BCL, predicts the onset of alternans. Further, we investigated the role of the L-type calcium current, ICa-L, in the restitution portrait. We found that ICa-L dramatically affects APD accommodation, as well as the individual slopes Sdyn and S12 measured in the restitution portrait. However, peak calcium current plays a role only at small values of BCL. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the restitution portrait is a powerful technique to investigate restitution properties of periodically paced cardiac myocytes and the onset of alternans...

A Cellular Automata-based Model for Simulating Restitution Property in a Single Heart Cell

Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat; Pourhasanzade, Fateme
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Ventricular fibrillation is the cause of the most sudden mortalities. Restitution is one of the specific properties of ventricular cell. The recent findings have clearly proved the correlation between the slope of restitution curve with ventricular fibrillation. This; therefore, mandates the modeling of cellular restitution to gain high importance. A cellular automaton is a powerful tool for simulating complex phenomena in a simple language. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells where the behavior of each cell is determined by the behavior of its neighboring cells as well as the automata rule. In this paper, a simple model is depicted for the simulation of the property of restitution in a single cardiac cell using cellular automata. At first, two state variables; action potential and recovery are introduced in the automata model. In second, automata rule is determined and then recovery variable is defined in such a way so that the restitution is developed. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the generated restitution curve in our study is compared with the restitution curves from the experimental findings of valid sources. Our findings indicate that the presented model is not only capable of simulating restitution in cardiac cell...

L-arginine uptake by cationic amino acid transporter 2 is essential for colonic epithelial cell restitution

Singh, Kshipra; Coburn, Lori A.; Barry, Daniel P.; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Restoration of the colonic epithelial barrier is an important response during colitis. L-arginine (L-Arg) is a semiessential amino acid that reduces murine colitis induced by Citrobacter rodentium. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) proteins increase L-Arg uptake into cells. L-Arg is utilized to produce nitric oxide (NO), by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), or L-ornithine (L-Orn) by arginase (Arg) enzymes. The latter is followed by generation of polyamines by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and L-proline (L-Pro) by ornithine aminotransferase (OAT). We show that L-Arg enhanced epithelial restitution in conditionally immortalized young adult mouse colon (YAMC) cells in a wound repair model, and in isolated mouse colonic epithelial cells (CECs), using a cell migration assay. Restitution was impaired by C. rodentium. Wounding induced CAT2, and inhibition of L-Arg uptake by the competitive inhibitor L-lysine (L-Lys) or by CAT2 shRNA, but not CAT1 shRNA, decreased restitution. Migration was impaired in CECs treated with L-Lys or from CAT2−/− mice. Wounding increased Arg1 expression, and inhibition of arginase with S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) or Arg1 shRNA inhibited restitution in YAMC cells; cell migration in CECs was also impaired by BEC. Inhibition of ODC or iNOS did not alter restitution. L-Orn or L-Pro restored restitution in cells treated with BEC or Arg1 shRNA...

Ethical Considerations of Dissemination and Restitution of Findings in Global Health Research

Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fregonese, Federica; Alam, Nazmul
Fonte: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM) Publicador: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This case study discusses ethical obligations regarding the extent and scope of knowledge dissemination and restitution strategies in the context of global health research.; Cette étude de cas porte sur les obligations éthiques concernant l’étendue et la portée des stratégies de dissémination et de restitution des connaissances dans un contexte de recherche en santé mondiale.; Étude de cas / Case study

The force-interval relationship of the left ventricle: a quantitative description in patients with ischemic heart disease

Ritchie, R.; Wuttke, R.; Hii, J.; Jarrett, R.; Carey, A.; Horowitz, J.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
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Quantitative descriptions of the mechanical restitution curve as a description of variability in ventricular performance with coupling interval in isolated tissue preparations are widely available. In humans, however, in vivo examination of the force-interval relationship is restricted to test pulse intervals shorter than the sinus cycle length (i.e., incomplete mechanical restitution). The primary objectives in this investigation were therefore to examine this aspect of mechanical restitution in patients with ischemic heart disease and to develop a quantitative description of the phenomenon. Mechanical restitution curves were constructed in 40 patients, most of whom had well-preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function, undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization for the investigation of chest pain, using a single premature test pulse interval during baseline atrial pacing. The mechanical restitution curve, the relationship between LV + dP/dtmax and test pulse interval, was fitted to a rectangular hyperbolic function. From this, the parameter c, the calculated proportional decrease in LV + dP/dtmax at 60% of the resting cycle length, was derived. The mechanical restitution curve-fitting model (involving determination of c) satisfactorily described the force-interval relationship in 37 of the 40 patients studied (as a rectangular hyperbola in 31 and with simple linear regression in 6 patients). The refractory period of the atria/atrioventricular node limited accurate use of the model in the remaining three patients. The parameter c was inversely proportional to both baseline atrial pacing cycle length (P < .001) and LV ejection fraction (P < .02) In patients with normal LV ejection fractions...

Opfer und Täter - Eine Bibliographie zu Außergerichtlichem Tatausgleich, Konfliktausgleich, Mediation, Opferhilfe, Opferschutz, Schadenswiedergutmachung, Täter-Opfer-Ausgleich und weiteren damit verbundenen Problembereichen; Victims and Offenders - Restorative Justice, Restitution, Mediation, Victim Support, Victim Protection, Reparation, Victim-Offender Mediation : a Bibliography

Kerner, Hans-Jürgen
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
DE_DE
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Diese alphabetisch geordnete Bibliographie baut auf einer internen Arbeitsbibliographie der sog. Forschungsgruppe Täter-Opfer-Ausgleich auf. Sie strebt langfristig einen vollständigen Nachweis der im deutschen Sprachraum erscheinenden selbständigen Verlagsveröffentlichungen und unselbständigen Schriften (namentlich Aufsätzen in Fachzeitschriften), aber auch der sog. Grauen Literatur (namentlich Vereinsbroschüren, Jahresberichte, Statistiken) an. Gerade im letzteren Bereich sind die Beteiligten auf Hilfe von außen angewiesen. Derzeit ist die Sammlung in einigen Teilbereichen noch lückenhaft. Bei Schriften in anderen Sprachen ist von vorne herein nur an eine für den deutschen Bereich voraussichtlich besonders wichtige, exemplarische Auswahl (namentlich von Schriften zur Restorative Justice) gedacht. Unter dem Obertitel „Täter und Opfer“ stehen Schriften zum Täter-Opfer-Ausgleich, zum Außergerichtlichen Tatausgleich, zum Konfliktausgleich, zur Mediation und zur Schadenswiedergutmachung im Mittelpunkt. Aspekte von Opferhilfe, Opferschutz, Opferentschädigung und damit verbundenen Problembereichen werden mit berücksichtigt.; This bibliography on „Offenders and Victims“ is alphabetically organized. It is based on a working bibliography as used internally by the so-called Research Group on Victim-Offender-Reconciliation. In the long run the group aims at a comprehensive documentation of all publications on the general topic produced in the German language. Publications by publishing houses...

Property Restitution and Collective Memories in the Czech Republic and Poland after 1989

TYSZKA, Stanisław
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This thesis examines the politics of memory in the Czech Republic and Poland after 1989 in relation to restitution of nationalized property as a measure of post-communist transitional justice. The dominant historical discourses in both countriees are analyzed on the basis of restitution legislation and procedures and public debates. The latter saw the emergence of various historical narratives of victimhood, constructed around memories of different historical injustices, and justifying or opposing claims for restitution or compensation for lost property. The thesis compares restitution claims made by various groups of former owners expropriated during several waves of property revolutions in the twentieth century: property issues related to the post-war forced population transfers, property issues related to the Holocaust, the claims of the former aristocracy and the landed gentry, and, finally, those of the Catholic Church. The analysis shows that the dynamics of restitution and memory were for the most part determined by the general processes of coming to terms with the communist past, and demonstrates that memories of communism have influenced the processes of dealing with World War II. In both national cases it is possible to identify dominant memory discourses that shaped the dynamics of restitution debates. In the Czech Republic...

Complementary and Alternative Mechanisms Beyond Restitution: An interest-oriented approach to resolving international cultural heritage disputes

PETERS, Robert
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Disputes over the restitution and return of cultural materials have steadily increased in recent years. While several restitution claims pertaining to Nazi-confiscated art have been resolved, other cases relating to the appropriation of cultural materials during war, foreign or colonial occupation, theft, or as a consequence of illicit trafficking have proliferated. Despite these challenges and recent developments in international law, international treaty law and current State practice in resolving restitution disputes primarily focus on arguments associated with State interests and property rights, and thus do little to accommodate the interests of the various stakeholders involved in restitution disputes. Moreover, because of major legal obstacles claimants face in restitution cases (namely the non-retroactivity of international treaty law, the protection of the bona fide purchaser and provisions on the lapse of time), a purely legal approach is not a viable option in many restitution disputes. Therefore, this dissertation introduces an approach that aims at taking into account the interests of the various stakeholders in the resolution of these disputes. In a second step, complementary and alternative mechanisms in the resolution of restitution disputes are examined in order to accommodate these different interests. The utilization of this interest-oriented approach will allow restitution disputes to be resolved in a more sustainable and cooperative manner; moreover...

¿Porque ha funcionado la restitución de tierras en otros países y no en Colombia?; ¿Why it has worked the restitution of land in other countries and not in Colombia?

Rincon Prada, Belky sulay; Rojas Guerra, Luz Edilma
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gestión de Desarrollo Administrativo Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gestión de Desarrollo Administrativo
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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En este ensayo se hace un análisis sobre la restitución de tierras, porque ha funcionado en otros países y no en Colombia. Para que a las personas desplazadas sigan ejerciendo el goce efectivo de su territorio, su hábitat, sus tradiciones y demás derechos conexos al territorio, es preciso proveer las condiciones necesarias. Se da a conocer el entorno acerca de la restitución de tierras forjando un panorama global desde el desarrollo rural, económico y de la defensa nacional y se analiza el resultado favorable de procesos de restitución de tierras en otros países.; In this research work was carried out to analyze the return of land because it has worked in other countries and not in Colombia. For displaced people continue to exercise the full enjoyment of their territory, their habitat, their traditions and other related rights to the territory. It will announce the setting on land restitution was forging a overall picture from the rural economic development and national defense

The project of land restitution in Colombia: an illustration of the civilizing force of hypocrisy?; El proyecto de restitución de tierras en Colombia: ¿ilustración de la fuerza civilizadora de la hipocresía?

Saffon, Maria Paula
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2010 SPA
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This article offers a theoretical interpretation of the dispositions on land restitution contained in the famous “Victims’ Bill”, which was debated in the Colombian Congress during the year 2008. The bill included specific mechanisms aimed at guaranteeing the restitution of land to victims of the Colombian armed conflict. At the time, the bill was endorsed by all the main political actors in the country –notably the government and the elites that support it, on the one hand, and victims’ and human rights organizations and other opposition groups, on the other–. The fact that the restitution of land to victims of the Colombian armed conflict was being considered as a serious possibility by all political actors in the country seemed to indicate the existence of a consensus among actors whose positions are ordinarily opposed, on an issue that has traditionally led to high levels of polarization. This consensus is quite puzzling, because it seems to be at odds with the interests and/or the conceptions of justice advocated by these political actors, and because the restitution of land faces enormous difficulties both from a factual and a normative point of view, which indicates that it may not necessarily be the best alternative for dealing with the issue of land distribution in Colombia. This article offers an interpretation of said consensus...

Dilemmas in Regards to the Restitution of Lands in Colombia; Los dilemas de la restitución de tierras en Colombia

Uprimny-Yepes, Rodrigo; Sánchez, Nelson Camilo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2010 SPA
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The text argues that, even if different sectors of society have some strategic points of agreement on the issue of land, which converge on the specific issue of restitution, they strongly disagree on various other points. On one side are some who advocate “pure restitution” and consequently support a restitution policy that focuses on correcting the illegal dispossession and clarifying land titles and individual rights to property, which would serve to boost the land market and allow for rural development policies that modernize agricultural production, fundamentally based on large, corporate ownership. On the other end of the spectrum are advocates of what we call “comprehensive restitution,” who promote adopting a restitution policy that meets the requirements not only of corrective justice but also of recognition and redistribution, advancing the interest of peasant, indigenous, and afro-Colombian communities.; El texto sostiene que si bien existen algunos encuentros estratégicos en el tema de tierras en distintos sectores de la sociedad, los cuales confluyen en el tema específico de la restitución, también existen diametrales desacuerdos sobre el tema. Por un lado, están quienes abogan por una “restitución fina”...

Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia; La restitución de la tierra y la prevención del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia

Gómez-Isa, Felipe
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2010 SPA
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The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.; El conflicto armado interno en Colombia se caracteriza por la generación de más de tres millones de desplazados internos, con consecuencias dramáticas desde el punto de vista humanitario y desde la óptica de la protección de sus derechos. En ocasiones, las razones fundamentales de dicho desplazamiento descansan en una dinámica de control y apropiación territorial con fines tanto estratégico-militares como puramente económicos. Los estándares jurídicos de orden interno e internacional establecen el derecho de las víctimas a la restitución de sus viviendas y patrimonio como el “medio preferente” de reparación en casos de desplazamiento...

Spatial Variation of Cardiac Restitution and the Onset of Alternans

Dobrovolny, Hana Maria
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 10316127 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 19/06/2008 EN_US
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Instability in the propagation of nonlinear electro-chemical waves in the heart is responsible for life-threatening disease. This thesis describes an investigation of the effects of boundaries on cardiac wave propagation that arises from a site where an electrical stimulus is applied or from boundaries beyond which current does not flow. It is generally believed that the spatial scale for boundary effects is approximately equal to the passive length constant, lambda, of the tissue, the distance over which a a voltage pulse decays when it is below the threshold for wave generation. From the results of in vitro experiments with bullfrog cardiac tissue and through numerical simulations, I find that boundaries affect wave propagation over a much larger spatial scale and that the spatial variation in some cardiac restitution properties is correlated statistically with the onset of alternans, a possible precursor to fibrillation in the human heart.

An optical imaging system using novel illumination based on LEDs is used to determine the spatial dependence of action potential duration (APD) and the slope of the dynamic restitution curve SDRC, which describes the relationship between steady-state APD and diastolic interval. For tissue with nearly identical cells...

THE EFFECT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION TO THE PARTICLE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY DURING THE PROCESS OF MAGNETIC FILTRATION - NUMERICAL APPROACH

Kouropoulos, Giorgos
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/12/2015 ENG
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In the present study, the effect of the coefficient of restitution to the particle collection efficiency of magnetic filter during magnetic filtration of a fluid will be examined. Initially, are described the available mathematical models that give efficiency of magnetic filtration in relation to various parameters and physical quantities. Also, the role of coefficient of restitution in the magnetic filtration models will be reported. Furthermore, is formulated the basic equation that examines the change of filtration efficiency with regard to the coefficient of restitution. In the last step, a numerical example with given values from a real magnetic filter will be applied and the characteristic curves of magnetic filter will be drawn. The general conclusion that we have is that as the coefficient of restitution increases, the efficiency of magnetic filter decreases. The efficiency of magnetic filter converges in the same value, when there is elastic collision of a filtered particle.

Restitutionary road: reflecting on good governance and the role of the Land Claims Court

Pienaar,JM
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
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Although 95% of all claims that had been submitted by 1998 have indeed been processed, a mere 49% of the land that was restored since 1994 housed successful enterprises by the end of 2010. Accordingly, sixteen years into the restitution process the statistics are rather disappointing. Restitution of land as a land reform mechanism is a unique temporal process that involves various role players. This contribution focuses on the role that the Land Claims Court has to play within the context of "good governance". In this regard the legislative and policy frameworks within which restitution and the Land Claims Court operate, are first set out after which the unique characteristics of the restitution programme are highlighted. Although the main function of the Land Claims Court is to grapple with and adjudicate on legal issues, it also has a role to play in effecting good governance. This may be done by its involvement in the legal process leading up to the finalization of claims by issuing directives, acting as a review forum and by removing land from the restitution process under section 34 of the Restitution Act. However, a more pro-active role may be played by the Court by its involvement in deciding the exact form of restitution or restoration in a particular case. In this regard the Court can find that restitution has to be conditional and that certain requirements have to be met in order for the process to be effective and successful. With reference to Baphiring Community v Uys and Others (Case number LCC 64/1998) it is clear that a pro-active approach would require the Court to engage in difficult...

Determination of the coefficients of restitution, static and rolling friction of Eskom-grade coal for discrete element modelling

Teffo,V.B.; Naudé,N.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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The aim of the project was to experimentally determine the coefficient of restitution, and static and rolling friction of Eskom-grade coal for discrete element modelling (DEM). These parameters will be used in further DEM studies to simulate the flow and behaviour of coal during conveyance. For the simulation to yield realistic results, the parameters for the different coal shapes identified in the samples were determined. DEM uses spherical particles, and it was found that the difference between the DEM default parameters and those measured is significantly different, by as much as 97%, which illustrates the importance of experimentally determining these parameters. The spherical particles in DEM can be used to construct the various coal shapes identified, and the parameters measured can be used to simulate realistic results. The conveyance system can then be optimized accordingly.

Arbitrary deprivation of an unregistered credit provider's right to claim restitution of performance rendered Opperman v Boonzaaier (24887/2010) 2012 ZAWCHC 27 (17 April 2012) and National Credit Regulator v Opperman 2013 2 SA 1 (CC)

Brits,R
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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The Constitutional Court in National Credit Regulator v Opperman confirmed the Cape High Court's decision in Opperman v Boonzaaier to declare section 89(5)(c) of the National Credit Act unconstitutional. Therefore, the forfeiture to the state of an unregistered creditor provider's right to claim restitution of monies advanced in terms of an unlawful (and void) credit agreement, was held to amount to an arbitrary deprivation of property in contravention of section 25(1) of the Constitution - the property clause. The provision in effect prohibited courts from deviating from the common law's strict par delictum rule in as far as the effects of unlawful contracts are concerned, the result being that creditors could not retrieve any of the amounts extended to the debtor, despite there being no turpitude or bad faith present. The purpose of this provision was to discourage the concluding of unlawful credit agreements - for instance, agreements concluded by unregistered credit providers - so as to protect consumers against unscrupulous behaviour. Although the broad purposes of the Act are undeniably valid, the Court held that there was no "sufficient reason" for the effects that the Act had in this case, since the credit provider in question was not guilty of the behaviour that the Act tried to combat. In other words...