Página 1 dos resultados de 20 itens digitais encontrados em 0.081 segundos

Responding to AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice

Beyrer, Chris; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Mullany, Luke C; Richards, Adam K; Franck, Nicole; Samuels, Aaron; Lee, Thomas J
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Beyrer and colleagues discuss infectious disease threats in Burma and suggest policy options for responding to them.

SARS: An Emerging Global Microbial Threat.

Hughes, James M.
Fonte: American Clinical and Climatological Association Publicador: American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.72%
In March 2003, the Institute of Medicine published an update to its 1992 landmark report on emerging infections. The new report, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, describes the current spectrum of global microbial threats, factors affecting their emergence or resurgence, and measures that should be undertaken to effectively address them. Coincident with this publication came increasing reports of severe atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology among persons in southeast Asia. This new disease, designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), spread globally in a matter of weeks, infecting primarily close contacts of index patients (e.g., household members and healthcare workers caring for index patients) but also resulting in community transmission in some areas. An unprecedented worldwide collaborative effort was undertaken to determine the cause of the illness and implement prevention measures. A previously unrecognized coronavirus was identified as the causative agent, and health officials throughout the world struggled to implement measures to contain its spread, including isolation of suspect SARS cases and quarantine of exposed persons. The emergence of SARS is a timely reminder of the need to expect the unexpected and to ensure strong national and global public health partnerships when preparing for and responding to infectious diseases. Effectively addressing the threat of SARS will require enhanced global infectious disease surveillance...

Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice

Zhu, Qing; Egelston, Colt; Gagnon, Susan; Sui, Yongjun; Belyakov, Igor M.; Klinman, Dennis M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.6%
TLR ligands are promising candidates for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants that can elicit protective immunity against emerging infectious diseases. Adjuvants have been used most frequently to increase the quantity of an immune response. However, the quality of a T cell response can be more important than its quantity. Stimulating certain pairs of TLRs induces a synergistic response in terms of activating dendritic cells and eliciting/enhancing T cell responses through clonal expansion, which increases the number of responding T cells. Here, we have found that utilizing ligands for 3 TLRs (TLR2/6, TLR3, and TLR9) greatly increased the protective efficacy of vaccination with an HIV envelope peptide in mice when compared with using ligands for only any 2 of these TLRs; surprisingly, increased protection was induced without a marked increase in the number of peptide-specific T cells. Rather, the combination of these 3 TLR ligands augmented the quality of the T cell responses primarily by amplifying their functional avidity for the antigen, which was necessary for clearance of virus. The triple combination increased production of DC IL-15 along with its receptor...

Information Technology and Global Surveillance of Cases of 2009 H1N1 Influenza

Brownstein, John S.; Freifeld, Clark C.; Chan, Emily H.; Keller, Mikaela; Sonricker, Amy L.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Buckeridge, David L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.6%
The widespread adoption of increasingly sophisticated forms of information technology has paralleled the increase in rapid and far-reaching international travel. The emergence and global spread of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus illustrated not only the hazards of an interconnected world, but also the powerful role of new methods for detecting, tracking, and responding to infectious diseases.1 Although formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health,2 a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability of public health professionals to detect weak signals across borders and to raise earlier warnings of emerging disease threats.3–5

A growing global network’s role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009

Johns, Matthew C; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Fukuda, Mark; Pavlin, Julie A; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Schnabel, David C; Tobias, Steven; Tjaden, Jeffrey A; Montgomery, Joel M; Faix, Dennis J; Duffy, Mark R; Cooper, Michael J; Sanchez, Jose L; Blazes, Davi
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009, the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) identified 76 outbreaks in 53 countries. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks were identified by the global network and included a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners, several of which were in direct support of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The network also supported military forces around the world affected by the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009. With IHR (2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying...

Department of Defense influenza and other respiratory disease surveillance during the 2009 pandemic

Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Eick, Angelia A; Sanchez, Jose L; Johns, Matthew C; Pavlin, Julie A; Jarman, Richard G; Mothershead, Jerry L; Quintana, Miguel; Palys, Thomas; Cooper, Michael J; Guan, Jian; Schnabel, David; Waitumbi, John; Wilma, Alisa; Da
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.7%
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center’s Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supports and oversees surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, including respiratory diseases, of importance to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). AFHSC-GEIS accomplishes this mission by providing funding and oversight to a global network of partners for respiratory disease surveillance. This report details the system’s surveillance activities during 2009, with a focus on efforts in responding to the novel H1N1 Influenza A (A/H1N1) pandemic and contributions to global public health. Active surveillance networks established by AFHSC-GEIS partners resulted in the initial detection of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the U.S. and several other countries, and viruses isolated from these activities were used as seed strains for the 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine. Partners also provided diagnostic laboratory training and capacity building to host nations to assist with the novel A/H1N1 pandemic global response, adapted a Food and Drug Administration-approved assay for use on a ruggedized polymerase chain reaction platform for diagnosing novel A/H1N1 in remote settings, and provided estimates of seasonal vaccine effectiveness against novel A/H1N1 illness. Regular reporting of the system’s worldwide surveillance findings to the global public health community enabled leaders to make informed decisions on disease mitigation measures and controls for the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. AFHSC-GEIS’s support of a global network contributes to DoD’s force health protection...

Rapid Molecular Detection Methods for Arboviruses of Livestock of Importance to Northern Europe

Johnson, Nicholas; Voller, Katja; Phipps, L. Paul; Mansfield, Karen; Fooks, Anthony R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have been responsible for some of the most explosive epidemics of emerging infectious diseases over the past decade. Their impact on both human and livestock populations has been dramatic. The early detection either through surveillance or diagnosis of virus will be a critical feature in responding and resolving the emergence of such epidemics in the future. Although some of the most important emerging arboviruses are human pathogens, this paper aims to highlight those diseases that primarily affect livestock, although many are zoonotic and some occasionally cause human mortality. This paper also highlights the molecular detection methods specific to each virus and identifies those emerging diseases for which a rapid detection methods are not yet developed.

Evaluating influenza disease burden during the 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 influenza seasons in Mongolia

Nukiwa, Nao; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Kamigaki, Taro; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Od, Jigjidsurengiin; Od, Ishiin; Gantsooj, Baataryn; Naranzul, Tsedenbalyn; Tsatsral, Sosorbaramyn; Enkhbaatar, Luvsanbaldangiin; Tuul, Rentsengiin; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Nymadawa, Pagbaja
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
It is critical to monitor the incidence and clinical characteristics of influenza and its associated hospitalization to understand influenza disease burden. A disease burden study can inform the prioritization of a public health response. However, little is known about the epidemiology and disease burden of influenza in developing countries, including Mongolia. Thus we performed prospective data and sample collection from patients who visited outpatient clinics with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in two sites of Mongolia, Baganuur District of Ulaanbaatar and Selenghe Province, from 2008 to 2010. In total, we examined 350 ILI cases during the 2008–2009 influenza epidemic period and 1723 ILI cases during the 2009–2010 influenza epidemic period.

The Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases – a strategy for regional health security

Li, Ailan; Kasai, Takeshi
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%

Responding to emerging diseases: reducing the risks through understanding the mechanisms of emergence

Mackenzie, John S
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.77%

A nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak early detection and rapid response in China

Yang, Weizhong; Li, Zhongjie; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Jiaqi; Jin, Lianmei; Sun, Qiao; Lv, Wei; Lai, Shengjie; Liao, Yilan; Hu, Wenbiao
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS) started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real-time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and transmit information either in real time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China at the county...

Public Health Crisis Preparedness and Response in Korea

Lee, Hye-Young; Oh, Mi-Na; Park, Yong-Shik; Chu, Chaeshin; Son, Tae-Jong
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
Since the 2006 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan according to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, the Republic of Korea has prepared and periodically evaluated the plan to respond to various public health crises including pandemic influenza. Korea has stockpiled 13,000,000 doses of antiviral drugs covering 26% of the Korean population and runs 519 isolated beds in 16 medical institutions. The division of public health crisis response in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are in charge of responding to public health crises caused by emerging infectious diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza human infection, and pandemic influenza. Its job description includes preparing for emerging infectious diseases, securing medical resources during a crisis, activating the emergency response during the crisis, and fortification of capabilities of public health personnel. It could evolve into a comprehensive national agency to deal with public health crisis based on the experience of previous national emerging infectious diseases.

A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network

Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.65%
Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches...

Identification of Host-Targeted Small Molecules That Restrict Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth

Stanley, Sarah A.; Barczak, Amy K.; Silvis, Melanie R.; Luo, Samantha S.; Sogi, Kimberly; Vokes, Martha; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Carpenter, Anne E.; Moore, Christopher B.; Siddiqi, Noman; Rubin, Eric J.; Hung, Deborah T.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant threat to global health. Macrophages are the host cell for M. tuberculosis infection, and although bacteria are able to replicate intracellularly under certain conditions, it is also clear that macrophages are capable of killing M. tuberculosis if appropriately activated. The outcome of infection is determined at least in part by the host-pathogen interaction within the macrophage; however, we lack a complete understanding of which host pathways are critical for bacterial survival and replication. To add to our understanding of the molecular processes involved in intracellular infection, we performed a chemical screen using a high-content microscopic assay to identify small molecules that restrict mycobacterial growth in macrophages by targeting host functions and pathways. The identified host-targeted inhibitors restrict bacterial growth exclusively in the context of macrophage infection and predominantly fall into five categories: G-protein coupled receptor modulators, ion channel inhibitors, membrane transport proteins, anti-inflammatories, and kinase modulators. We found that fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, enhances secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and induces autophagy in infected macrophages...

Responding to Vaccine Safety Signals during Pandemic Influenza: A Modeling Study

Maro, Judith C.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Lieu, Tracy A.; Lee, Grace M.; Martin, David B.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Background: Managing emerging vaccine safety signals during an influenza pandemic is challenging. Federal regulators must balance vaccine risks against benefits while maintaining public confidence in the public health system. Methods: We developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to explore regulatory decision-making in the context of emerging vaccine safety signals during a pandemic. We simulated vaccine safety surveillance system capabilities and used an age-structured compartmental model to develop potential pandemic scenarios. We used an expert-derived multi-attribute utility function to evaluate potential regulatory responses by combining four outcome measures into a single measure of interest: 1) expected vaccination benefit from averted influenza; 2) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated febrile seizures; 3) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome; and 4) expected change in vaccine-seeking behavior in future influenza seasons. Results: Over multiple scenarios, risk communication, with or without suspension of vaccination of high-risk persons, were the consistently preferred regulatory responses over no action or general suspension when safety signals were detected during a pandemic influenza. On average...

Animal and Pandemic Influenza : A Framework for Sustaining Momentum, Fifth Global Progress Report July 2010

UN System Influenza Coordination; World Bank
Fonte: New York: United Nations Publicador: New York: United Nations
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
Global efforts continue to work towards ensuring a world capable of preventing, detecting, and responding to animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and animal diseases. Drawing on achievements and experiences of the past five years, the fifth global progress report was produced to support the discussions and to provide a record of key outcomes from international ministerial conference on animal and pandemic influenza (IMCAPI). This report presents a framework for sustaining momentum which was agreed by delegates at the April 2010 IMCAPI. The framework offers three streams of work that need sustained attention by national, regional, and global authorities despite the inevitable waning of public interest in pandemic-related issues. The three work streams are: (a) prevention and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), (b) adoption of one health approaches, and (c) readiness for response to influenza pandemics. For each, the framework envisages two expected outcomes and identifies the actions which contribute to these expected outcomes. It identifies the incentives and institutional arrangements needed to sustain momentum...

Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance

Huang, Qiu Sue; Turner, Nikki; Baker, Michael G; Williamson, Deborah A; Wong, Conroy; Webby, Richard; Widdowson, Marc-Alain
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.6%
The 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic highlighted the need for improved scientific knowledge to support better pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project, a 5-year (2012–2016) multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration, aimed to measure disease burden, epidemiology, aetiology, risk factors, immunology, effectiveness of vaccination and other prevention strategies for influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases of public health importance. Two active, prospective, population-based surveillance systems were established for monitoring influenza and other respiratory pathogens among those hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness and those enrolled patients seeking consultations at sentinel general practices. In 2015, a sero-epidemiological study will use a sample of patients from the same practices. These data will provide a full picture of the disease burden and risk factors from asymptomatic infections to severe hospitalized disease and deaths and related economic burden. The results during the first 2 years (2012–2013) provided scientific evidence to (a) support a change to NZ's vaccination policy for young children due to high influenza hospitalizations in these children; (b) contribute to the revision of the World Health Organization's case definition for severe acute respiratory illness for global influenza surveillance; and (c) contribute in part to vaccine strain selection using vaccine effectiveness assessment in the prevention of influenza-related consultations and hospitalizations. In summary...

Emerging infectious diseases: Memorandum from a WHO meeting*

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.

Emerging infectious diseases: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.