Página 1 dos resultados de 17530 itens digitais encontrados em 0.040 segundos

Association of Dominant and Recessive Genes Confers Anthracnose Resistance in Stem and Leaves of Common Bean

ALZATE-MARIN, Ana Lilia; SCHUSTER, Ivan; MOREIRA, Maurilio Alves; BARROS, Everaldo Goncalves de
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Different genes might be involved in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance in leaves and stem of common bean. This work aimed to study the genetic mechanisms of the resistance in the leaf and stem in segregating populations from backcrosses involving resistant cultivar AN 910408 and susceptible cultivar Ruda inoculated with spore suspensions of C. lindemuthianum race 83. Our results indicate that two genes which interact epistatically, one dominant and one recessive, are involved in the genetic control of leaf anthracnose resistance. As for stem anthracnose resistance, two genes also epistatic, one dominant and one recessive, explain the resistance to C. lindemuthianum race 83. The recessive gene is the same for leaf and stem resistance; however, the dominant genes are distinct and independent from each other. The three independent resistance genes of AN 910408 observed in this work could be derived from Guanajuato 31.; FAPEMIG; FAPESP

Análise do perfil de resistência a antibióticos e detecção dos genes de virulência e resistência em Aeromonas provenientes de amostras ambientais; Analysis of antibiotic resistance profile and detection of virulence and resistance genes in Aeromonas from environmental samples.

Moura, Elisabeth Mendes Martins de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
INTRODUÇÃO: As Aeromonas são bactérias distribuídas predominantemente em meio aquático. São consideradas patógeno emergente, podendo causar doenças em peixes como também no homem. Os problemas mais comuns são a gastrenterite no homem e morte em peixes. OBJETIVO: Este estudo foi desenvolvido para comparar a identificação fenotípica com a genotípica, e também para conhecer o perfil de resistência aos antibióticos em Aeromonas caviae, A. aquariorum, e A. sanarellii isoladas do ambiente aquático e a presença de genes de virulência e resistência. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O DNA das 24 cepas em estudo foi extraído por choque térmico e purificado utilizando CTAB. Foram realizadas as PCRs para a detecção dos genes de virulência e dos genes de resistência, após a realização do antibiograma. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 4 A. caviae das quais 3(75,0 por cento) apresentaram pelo menos um dos genes act, ast ou alt. Das 3 A. aquariorum, 1(33,3 por cento) apresentaram positividade para os genes act e ast. Entre os 5 isolados de A. sanarellii 1(50,0 por cento) possuíam os genes alt e ast. Seis isolados não foram posicionados taxonomicamente entre as espécies descritas de Aeromonas, e dentre essas um exemplar apresentou o gene alt. Em relação às enzimas MBL e AmpC foram obtidos respectivamente: 3(100 por cento) e 3(100 por cento) em A. aquariorum; 2(50...

Mapeamento de genes de resistência a três raças de Podosphaera xanthii em meloeiro (Cucumis melo L.); Mapping of resistance genes to three races of Podosphaera xanthii in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

Fazza, Ana Carolina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
O meloeiro (Cucumis melo L.) é uma cultura de grande importância econômica para o comércio de exportação brasileiro e é cultivada principalmente na região Nordeste. A produção da cultura pode ser limitada por uma doença das partes aéreas, denominada oídio, sendo no Brasil, causada pelo fungo Podosphaera xanthii. Este patógeno apresenta diversas raças definidas com base na reação de um conjunto de cultivares diferenciadoras de meloeiro. Dentre estes genótipos, o acesso PI 414723 é resistente à maior parte das raças e a linhagem Védrantais é suscetível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos: (i) estudar a herança da resistência às raças 1, 3 e 5 de P. xanthii em indivíduos da geração F2 do cruzamento PI 414723 x Védrantais e (ii) mapear os genes de resistência a estas raças com base em marcadores de polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP), de repetições de sequências simples (SSR) e análogos de genes de resistência (RGA) também nesta população. A herança da resistência foi analisada em 87 indivíduos F2 cultivados em condições de casa-de-vegetação. As três raças foram inoculadas em seis regiões eqüidistantes da nervura central em quatro folhas de cada planta. Plantas foram classificadas como resistentes ou suscetíveis com base em avaliações visuais do desenvolvimento do fungo nas folhas. As plantas foram classificadas como suscetíveis quando houve reprodução abundante de conídios e resistentes quando a reprodução foi inexistente ou escassa. Frequências de indivíduos resistentes e suscetíveis indicaram que a resistência às três raças é controlada por um gene dominante de efeito maior. Um mapa genético foi construído compreendendo 1.469 cM...

Pesquisa de genes de resistência a quinolonas em bacilos Gram negativos de origem clínica e ambiental; Research for genes of quinolone resistance in Gram negative bacilli from clinical and environmental origin

Sousa, Rafaela Rogério Floriano de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Introdução. Quinolonas são antimicrobianos sintéticos que inibem as enzimas DNA-girase e topoisomerase IV resultando na morte bacteriana. São altamente eficazes no tratamento de infecções bacterianas, especialmente causadas por bactérias Gram negativas, e portanto amplamente utilizados na medicina humana e veterinária, na qual também são empregados como profiláticos. Porém, o uso indiscriminado e inadequado levou ao aumento de bactérias resistentes a estes compostos. Esta resistência pode ocorrer devido a mutações nas enzimas DNA-girase e topoisomerase IV, e também por genes contidos em plasmídeos. Estes últimos são os principais responsáveis pela disseminação e circulação da resistência entre o meio ambiente e o ambiente hospitalar. Objetivos. Pesquisar genes de resistência a antimicrobianos do grupo das quinolonas em bactérias Gram negativas de origem clínica e ambiental que apresentam resistência fenotípica a este grupo. Material e Métodos. 73 cepas de Enterobacteriaceae e Aeromonas sp. de origem clínica e ambiental foram selecionadas para o estudo, e avaliadas quanto à sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos do grupo das quinolonas e à pesquisa de genes de resistência a este mesmo grupo e mutações no gene que codifica a enzima DNA-girase por meio de PCR e sequenciamento. Resultados. Das 73 cepas previamente selecionadas para compor o estudo...

Pesquisa de genes de resistência a antimicrobianos em filés de tilápia comercializados no município de São Paulo-SP; Search for antimicrobial resistance genes in tilapia fillets commercialized in São Paulo city SP

Bordon, Vanessa Fernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
IIntrodução A utilização excessiva de antimicrobianos na medicina humana, veterinária e agricultura resultou no aparecimento da resistência bacteriana. Este fenômeno gera problemas de saúde pública que podem resultar na reemergência de doenças infecciosas. O uso de antibióticos, principalmente de forma profilática, tornou-se prática na aquicultura, como ocorre no Brasil, onde a regulamentação para o uso de medicamentos veterinários é ineficiente. Além disso, há evidências da transferência de organismos resistentes para humanos por meio do consumo de produtos de origem animal, quando, durante a fase de criação e produção destes foram administrados antibióticos. Objetivo Pesquisar a ocorrência de genes de resistência a antibióticos em filés de tilápia comercializados em supermercados do município de São Paulo SP. Material e Métodos Foram coletadas 10 amostras de filé de tilápia e realizada a pesquisa de coliformes termotolerantes como indicadores das condições higiênico-sanitárias do alimento. Em seguida, as amostras foram inoculadas em Caldo Lúria 0,5 por cento e o DNA total das bactérias cultivadas nesse meio foi extraído por meio de choque térmico para pesquisa de genes de resistência aos antibióticos -lactâmicos e tetraciclinas pela PCR. Os genes identificados pela PCR foram confirmados pelo sequenciamento. Resultados Em 100 por cento das amostras analisadas o resultado para coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP.g-1. Na pesquisa de genes de resistência a -lactâmicos...

Presença de genes de resistência a agentes antimicrobianos em saliva, biofilme supragengival e canais radiculares infectados; Presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in saliva, supragingival biofilm and infected root canals

Moraes, Ludmila Coutinho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Embora diferentes estudos indiquem que há um aumento da resistência dos microrganismos aos agentes antimicrobianos prescritos, pouco se sabe a respeito da sua distribuição na cavidade oral. A presente dissertação está dividida em dois capítulos, representados por dois diferentes manuscritos. No manuscrito I, uma revisão sistemática foi realizada e teve como objetivo determinar quais genes de resistência a antimicrobianos foram pesquisados em saliva (S), no biofilme supragengival (SB) e canal radicular (RC). Os termos foram usados em várias combinações nas seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI, SCOPUS e OPENGREY). Após seleção dos títulos e análise dos resumos, o texto integral de cada estudo foi obtido. Foram estabelecidos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Dados epidemiológicos, características metodológicas e os resultados foram obtidos a partir dos estudos. Devido à falta de padronização da metodologia entre os trabalhos, não foi possível realizar uma meta-análise. Realizou-se análise descritiva dos dados. Um total de 151 títulos foram identificados para análise preliminar. Quarenta e nove resumos foram selecionados e 22 textos completos foram obtidos. Sete artigos contemplavam aos critérios de inclusão (S = 2; SB = 0 ...

ISCR and their association with antibiotic resistance genes

Ferreira, Sónia Cristina das Neves
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
A prevalência de bactérias resistentes a antibióticos em ambiente hospitalar tem vindo a tornar-se dramática e preocupante a nível mundial. Contudo, com a utilização inadequada de antibióticos em áreas tão diversas como a veterinária, a aquacultura e a agricultura, esta deixou de estar confinada ao ambiente hospitalar, sendo o ambiente um reservatório natural de microganismos resistentes a estes compostos. O conhecimento detalhado dos determinantes de resistência a antibióticos presentes nestes ambientes, sejam estes genes de resistência ou estruturas envolvidas na sua mobilização, é fundamental, não só do ponto de vista do conhecimento como para a eventual implementação de medidas de contenção da sua disseminação. Neste contexto, são necessários estudos que permitam conhecer o panorama mais realista da distribuição destes determinantes de resistência a antibióticos, quer no meio ambiente quer no ambiente clínico. Assim, constituiu objectivo principal deste trabalho contribuir para o conhecimento do panorama actual da prevalência e distribuição dos elementos ISCR, bem como de outros determinantes de resistência a antibióticos em espécies de Gram-negativo clinicamente relevantes (Escherichia coli...

New resistance genes in the Zea mays: exserohilum turcicum pathosystem

Ogliari,Juliana Bernardi; Guimarães,Marco Antônio; Geraldi,Isaías Olívio; Camargo,Luis Eduardo Aranha
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The use of monogenic race-specific resistance is widespread for the control of maize (Zea mays L.) helminthosporiosis caused by Exserohilum turcicum. Inoculation of 18 Brazilian isolates of E. turcicum onto elite maize lines containing previously identified resistance genes and onto differential near-isogenic lines allowed the identification of new qualitative resistance genes. The inoculation of one selected isolate on differential near-isogenic lines, F1 generations and a BC1F1 population from the referred elite lines enabled the characterization of the resistance spectrum of three new genes, one dominant (HtP), one recessive (rt) and a third with non-identified genetic action. Three physiological races of the pathogen were also identified including two with new virulence factors capable of overcoming the resistance of one of the resistance genes identified here (rt).

Characterization of a Self-Transferable Plasmid from Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Clinical Isolates Carrying Two Integron-Borne Gene Cassettes Together with Virulence and Drug Resistance Genes

Guerra, Beatriz; Soto, Sara; Helmuth, Reiner; Mendoza, M. Carmen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
An unusual self-transferable virulence-resistance plasmid (pUO-StVR2) was found in nine multidrug-resistant (ACSSuT phenotype) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium clinical isolates that were assigned to four different phage types and a single and distinctive XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. pUO-StVR2 is an IncFII plasmid of about 140 kb in length carrying the spvA, spvB, and spvC (Salmonella plasmid virulence) and rck (resistance to complement killing) genes. It also carries the oxa1/aadA1a (ampicillin resistance and streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance) gene cassette configuration located within a class 1 integron with qacEΔ1/sul1 (ammonium antiseptics resistance and sulfadiazine resistance); the transposon genes merA, tnpA, and tnpR (mercury resistance, transposase, and resolvase of Tn21, respectively); and the catA1 (chloramphenicol resistance) and tet(B) (tetracycline resistance) genes. The insertion of resistance genes into a Salmonella virulence plasmid constitutes a new and interesting example of plasmid evolution and presents a serious public health problem.

Spread of ISCR1 Elements Containing blaDHA-1 and Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Leading to Increase of Flomoxef Resistance in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Li, Chia-Chin; Chien, Chun-Chih; Tang, Ya-Fen; Su, Lin-Hui
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Increasing resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and/or cephamycins in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae exacerbates the already limited antibiotic treatment options for infections due to these microbes. In this study, the presence of resistance determinants for these antimicrobial agents was examined by PCR among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) isolates that caused bacteremia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to differentiate the clonal relationship among the isolates studied. Transferability and the location of the resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Among the 94 ESBL-KP isolates studied, 20 isolates of flomoxef-resistant ESBL-KP were identified. They all carried a DHA-1 gene and were genetically diverse. CTX-M genes were found in 18 of the isolates. Among these DHA-1/CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, ISCR1 was detected in 13 (72%) isolates, qnr genes (1 qnrA and 17 qnrB genes) were detected in 18 (100%), aac(6′)-Ib-cr was detected in 11 (61%), and 16S rRNA methylase (all armA genes) was detected in 14 (78%). Four transconjugants were available for further analysis, and qnrB4, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, armA, and blaDHA-1 were all identified on these self-transferable blaCTX-M-carrying plasmids. The genetic environments of ISCR1 associated with armA...

Influence of Soil Use on Prevalence of Tetracycline, Streptomycin, and Erythromycin Resistance and Associated Resistance Genes

Popowska, Magdalena; Rzeczycka, Marzenna; Miernik, Antoni; Krawczyk-Balska, Agata; Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This study examined differences in antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria and the presence and quantity of resistance genes in soils with a range of management histories. We analyzed four soils from agricultural systems that were amended with manure from animals treated with erythromycin and exposed to streptomycin and/or oxytetracycline, as well as non-manure-amended compost and forest soil. Low concentrations of certain antibiotic resistance genes were detected using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), with tet(B), aad(A), and str(A) each present in only one soil and tet(M) and tet(W) detected in all soils. The most frequently detected resistance genes were tet(B), tet(D), tet(O), tet(T), and tet(W) for tetracycline resistance, str(A), str(B), and aac for streptomycin resistance, and erm(C), erm(V), erm(X), msr(A), ole(B), and vga for erythromycin resistance. Transposon genes specific for Tn916, Tn1549, TnB1230, Tn4451, and Tn5397 were detected in soil bacterial isolates. The MIC ranges of isolated bacteria for tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin were 8 to >256 μg/ml, 6 to >1,024 μg/ml, and 0.094 to >256 μg/ml, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene similarity, isolated bacteria showed high sequence identity to genera typical of soil communities. Bacteria with the highest MICs were detected in manure-amended soils or soils from agricultural systems with a history of antibiotic use. Non-manure-amended soils yielded larger proportions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...

The identification of aluminium-resistance genes provides opportunities for enhancing crop production on acid soils

Ryan, P.; Tyerman, S.; Sasaki, T.; Furuichi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Zhang, W.; Delhaize, E.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Acid soils restrict plant production around the world. One of the major limitations to plant growth on acid soils is the prevalence of soluble aluminium (Al3+) ions which can inhibit root growth at micromolar concentrations. Species that show a natural resistance to Al3+ toxicity perform better on acid soils. Our understanding of the physiology of Al3+ resistance in important crop plants has increased greatly over the past 20 years, largely due to the application of genetics and molecular biology. Fourteen genes from seven different species are known to contribute to Al3+ tolerance and resistance and several additional candidates have been identified. Some of these genes account for genotypic variation within species and others do not. One mechanism of resistance which has now been identified in a range of species relies on the efflux of organic anions such as malate and citrate from roots. The genes controlling this trait are members of the ALMT and MATE families which encode membrane proteins that facilitate organic anion efflux across the plasma membrane. Identification of these and other resistance genes provides opportunities for enhancing the Al3+ resistance of plants by marker-assisted breeding and through biotechnology. Most attempts to enhance Al3+ resistance in plants with genetic engineering have targeted genes that are induced by Al3+ stress or that are likely to increase organic anion efflux. In the latter case...

Identification of wheat stripe rust resistance genes in Iranian wheat cultivars using molecular markers

Pourkhorshid, Z.; Dadkhodaie, A.; Niazi, A.; Heidari, B.; Ebrahimi, E.
Fonte: Sciencedomain international Publicador: Sciencedomain international
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Yellow or stripe rust is one of the most important and destructive wheat diseases all over the world. The best strategy to control this disease is genetic resistance through combining several resistance genes which results in achieving long lasting resistance. Marker assisted selection has provided a suitable means towards this strategy. The aim of this study was to identify the race specific seedling genes Yr5 and Yr10 and the race non-specific APR gene Yr29 in a selection of 40 Iranian genotypes using STS and SSR markers. Therefore, genomic DNA was extracted from these genotypes, the susceptible cultivar Avocet ‘S’ as negative control, and the genotypes with corresponding resistance gene (positive controls). PCR was performed using YrSTS7/8, Xpsp3000 and Xwmc44 markers for Yr5, Yr10 and Yr29, respectively. The results indicated the presence of Yr5 in only 6 genotypes. The presence of a 260 bps band also showed that Yr10 was present in 12 genotypes while Yr29 was present in 13 cultivars. As all these three genes are effective against yellow rust pathogen in Iran, it will be an advantage to transfer them to promising lines and develop durable resistance.; Zahra Pourkhorshid, Ali Dadkhodaie, Ali Niazi, Bahram Heidari, and Esmaeil Ebrahimi

Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149:K91 Isolates Obtained over a 23-Year Period from Pigs

Maynard, Christine; Fairbrother, John M.; Bekal, Sadjia; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C.; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Larivière, Serge; Harel, Josée
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
A total of 112 Escherichia coli O149:K91 strains isolated from pigs with diarrhea in Quebec, Canada, between 1978 and 2000 were characterized for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles. Tests for resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents were conducted. Resistance to tetracycline and sulfonamides was found to be the most frequent, but resistance to cefotaxime and ceftiofur was absent. An increase in the number of isolates resistant to at least three antimicrobials was observed over time. The distribution of 28 resistance genes covering six antimicrobial families (beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides) was assessed by colony hybridization. Significant differences in the distributions of tetracycline [tet(A), tet(B), tet(C)], trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV, dhfrXIII), and sulfonamide (sulI, sulII) resistance genes were observed during the study period (1978 to 2000). Sixty percent of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron, illustrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains from pigs. Amplification of the integron's variable region resulted in four distinct fragments of 1, 1.3, 1.6, and 1.8 kb, with the 1.6- and 1.8-kb fragments appearing only during the last half of the study period. Examination of linkages among the different resistance genes showed a variety of positive and negative associations. Association analysis of isolates divided into two groups...

Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains

Nakano,Viviane; Silva,Amanda do Nascimento e; Merino,Victor Rafael Castillo; Wexler,Hannah M.; Avila-Campos,Mario Julio
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. METHODS: The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. RESULTS: All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (96.4%), cephalexin (99%), cefoxitin (23%), penicillin (99%), clindamycin (34.2%) and tetracycline (53.5%). P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.

Genetic Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Linked to Class 1 and Class 2 Integrons in Commensal Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Poultry and Swine

Borie Polanco, Consuelo Fiorella; San Martín, Betty; Cornejo, Javiera; Toro, Cecilia; Lapierre, Lisette
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
The aim of this research was to identify the presence of integrons among Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and swine and to characterize the topological association of these integrons with resistance genes and assess their potential ability to transfer these elements by conjugation. One hundred and seventy-two strains of E. coli were isolated. Their resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin was studied by plate dilution. In resistant strains the presence of integrons and resistance genes was assessed by PCR. In the variable region, genes aadA1, dfrA1, and qnr were analyzed. Also, presence of tetA, tetB, and sul1 was assessed. Transference of these genes and integrons in vitro was evaluated by conjugation assays, using E. coli J53 AZ(r) as recipient strain. Seventy-eight percent and 83% of the poultry and swine strains, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the studied antimicrobials. Of the isolated strains 91 presented integrons. Resistance genes detected within the integrons were aadA1, dfrA1, and sat1. Gene qnr was not detected. Genes tet and sul1 were identified in 105 and 53 strains, respectively. Seven strains transferred their resistance determinants by conjugation. The results verify the high percentage of antibiotic resistance in the E. coli strains isolated...

Development and use of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for candidate resistance genes in wild peanuts (Arachis spp)

Alves, Dione Mendes Teixeira; Pereira, Rinaldo Wellerson; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya Cristina de Macedo; Moretzsohn, Márcio de Carvalho; Guimarães, Patrícia M.; Bertioli, David John
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an al¬lotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome and low genetic diversity. Perhaps because of its limited genetic diversity, this spe¬cies lacks resistance to a number of important pests and diseases. In contrast, wild species of Arachis are genetically diverse and are rich sources of disease resistance genes. Consequently, a study of wild peanut relatives is attractive from two points of view: to help un¬derstand peanut genetics and to characterize wild alleles that could confer disease resistance. With this in mind, a diploid population from a cross between two wild peanut relatives was developed, in order to make a dense genetic map that could serve as a reference for pea-nut genetics and in order to characterize the regions of the Arachis genome that code for disease resistance. We tested two methods for developing and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in can¬didate genes for disease resistance; one is based on single-base primer extension methods and the other is based on amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. We found single-base pair extension to be an efficient method, suitable for high-throughput, single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping; it allowed us to locate five candidate genes for resistance on our genetic map.

Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data

Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S.; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J.; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth
Fonte: PLOS Publicador: PLOS
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This is the final version. It was first published by PLOS at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133492.; Background: Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Results: Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR?s application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes...

Comparative metagenomics reveals a diverse range of antimicrobial resistance genes in effluents entering a river catchment

Rowe, Will; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Pearce, Gareth P.
Fonte: IWA Publishing Publicador: IWA Publishing
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by IWA Publishing.; The aquatic environment has been implicated as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. In order to identify sources that are contributing to these gene reservoirs, it is crucial to assess effluents that are entering the aquatic environment. Here we describe a metagenomic assessment for two types of effluent entering a river catchment. We investigated the diversity and abundance of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements and pathogenic bacteria. Findings were normalised to a background sample of river source water. Our results show that effluent contributed an array of genes to the river catchment, the most abundant being tetracycline resistance genes tetC and tetW from farm effluents and the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2 from wastewater treatment plant effluents. In nine separate samples taken across three years we found 53 different genes conferring resistance to 7 classes of antimicrobial. Compared to the background sample taken up river from effluent entry, the average abundance of genes was three times greater in the farm effluent and two times greater in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. We conclude that effluents disperse antimicrobial resistance genes...

Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains

Nakano, Viviane; Silva, Amanda do Nascimento e; Merino, Victor Rafael Castillo; Wexler, Hannah M.; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. METHODS: The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. RESULTS: All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (96.4%), cephalexin (99%), cefoxitin (23%), penicillin (99%), clindamycin (34.2%) and tetracycline (53.5%). P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.