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Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark

Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Karl; Hendriksen, René S.; Bager, Flemming
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 EN
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36.21%
From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin. Major changes in the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion have occurred during the last 6 years in Denmark. The government banned the use of avoparcin in 1995 and of virginiamycin in 1998. Furthermore, the producers have voluntarily stopped all use beginning in 1999. The avoparcin ban in 1995 was followed by a decrease in the occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium (GRE) in broilers, from 72.7% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2000. The occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among isolates from pigs remained constant at around 20% from 1995 to 1997. It was shown that, in GRE from pigs, the genes encoding macrolide and glycopeptide resistance were genetically linked and that, following the decrease in the use of tylosin during 1998 and 1999, the occurrence of GRE in pigs decreased to 6.0% in 2000. From 1995 to 1997 the occurrence of erythromycin resistance among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs was almost 90%. Use of tylosin decreased considerably during 1998 and 1999...

Low-Level Resistance to Rifampin in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Meier, Patricia Stutzmann; Utz, Silvia; Aebi, Suzanne; Mühlemann, Kathrin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 EN
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36.22%
Rifampin is recommended for combination therapy of meningitis due to β-lactam-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. High-level rifampin resistance (MIC, ≥4 mg/liter) has been mapped to point mutations in clusters I and III of rpoB of the pneumococcus. The molecular basis of low-level resistance (MICs, ≥0.5 and <4 mg/liter) was analyzed. Spontaneous mutants of clinical pneumococcal isolates were selected on Columbia sheep blood agar plates containing rifampin at 0.5, 4, 10, or 50 mg/liter. Low-level resistance could be assigned to mutations in cluster II (I545N, I545L). Sensitive (MIC, <0.048 mg/liter) wild-type strains acquired low-level resistance at a rate approximately 10 times higher than that at which they acquired high-level resistance (average mutation frequencies, 2.4 × 10−7 for low-level resistance versus 2.9 × 10−8 for high-level resistance [P < 0.0001]). In second-step experiments, the frequencies of mutations from low- to high-level resistance were over 10 times higher than the frequencies of mutations from susceptibility to high-level resistance (average mutation frequencies, 7.2 × 10−7 versus 5.0 × 10−8 [P < 0.001]). Mutants with low-level resistance were stable upon passage. Sequencing of a clinical isolate with low-level resistance (MIC...

AcrAB-TolC Directs Efflux-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

Baucheron, Sylvie; Tyler, Shaun; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael R.; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth; Cloeckaert, Axel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104) strains harbor a genomic island, called Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster conferring resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. They may be additionally resistant to quinolones. Among the antibiotic resistance genes there are two, i.e., floR and tet(G), which code for efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily with 12 transmembrane segments that confer resistance to chloramphenicol-florfenicol and the tetracyclines, respectively. In the present study we determined, by constructing acrB and tolC mutants, the role of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system in the multidrug resistance of several DT104 strains displaying additional quinolone resistance or not displaying quinolone resistance. This study shows that the quinolone resistance and the decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibilities of the strains are highly dependent on the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and that single mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA are of little relevance in mediating this resistance. Overproduction of the AcrAB efflux pump...