Página 1 dos resultados de 10918 itens digitais encontrados em 0.106 segundos

The contribution of scientific research for integrated coastal management: the Mondego estuary as study case

Costa, Sonia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Pardal, Miguel
Fonte: APRH Publicador: APRH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
The present paper quantifies and summarizes the research performed in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) over the last decades. Online databases were used to quantitatively assess the international publications, the master dissertations and PhD theses focused in the research about that estuary, from 1989 to 2012. In general, there had been a notable growth trend in publication output. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science was the most active journal publishing on Mondego estuary. Field studies were the predominant type of research and the population/community dynamics and functioning have been one of the main research topics. Towards the time, the estuary has been used as local for several studies and the existing database has been useful to test theoretical ecological hypotheses and to support some management decisions and ecosystem restoration schemes. The efforts intended to its preservations are justified by its high ecological value, presenting large diversity of habitats and biodiversity, and its socio-economic importance, providing goods and services to population. The published research results cover several aspects of the system including the hydrology, the nutrient cycling, the communities’ structure, diversity and dynamics. Moreover...

Is the international business environment the actual context of IB research?

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Li, Dan; Guisinger, Stephen
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /08/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
The International Business Environment (IBE) is argued to be the essential context for international business (IB) studies and the distinguishing factor from other management studies, and from studies of large scale enterprises. In this paper we argue for a greater environmental focus and illustrate how and how much the IBE has been included in published IB research. While extant research has often taken a uni-dimensional view, which has been mostly anchored in the cultural environment, we suggest that: (a) there is a need to developed more uni-and multi-dimensional environmental constructs, (b) a more holistic view of the IBE provides richer insights on the actual complexity that underlies IB research. Future conceptual and empirical studies that provide more comprehensive models of the IBE that overcome the usual "everything out there" are warranted.

Scientific output trends in oral health in Brazil

DIAS, Aldo Angelim; NARVAI, Paulo Capel; REGO, Delane Maria
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
Objective. To describe dental research trends in Brazil (especially population-based oral health) in the early Twenty-first Century. Methods. The abstracts of studies presented at meetings of the Brazilian Society for Dental Medicine Research (Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontologica) from 2001-2006 were assessed in terms of methodological design (aggregate or population-based and individual-based studies, observational and intervention studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies); general type (literature review, studies with human subjects, and laboratory studies); and classification into one of the 19 specialty categories recognized by the Brazilian Federal Dentistry Council. Of the 10 406 abstracts presented in this period, 5 203 (50%) were reviewed. Results. Concerning methodological design, 87.5% of the abstracts referred to individual-based studies, whereas 12.5% were of aggregate studies. Concerning the general category, 41.7% referred to studies with human subjects. The remaining abstracts (58.3%) described in vitro (31.1%) or in vivo (23.6%) laboratory research and literature reviews (3.6%). Concerning the Council`s specialty categories, only five had a frequency higher than 10.0%: esthetic dentistry, periodontics...

Identificação dos perfis das pesquisas em argumentação no ensino de ciências no período de 1988 a 2008; Identification of the research profiles in argumentation in Science teaching in the period of 1988 to 2008

Bozzo, Marcel Valentino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as tendências de pesquisa em argumentação no ensino de Ciências (AEC) no período de 1988 a 2008 (21 anos). A argumentação é uma prática discursiva central na Ciência e, por isso, defendemos ser também central no ensino de Ciências (EC). Apesar da AEC vir ganhando importância na pesquisa em EC, são raros estudos que avaliam o histórico e as tendências dessa produção científica. Nosso estudo trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva documental, em que se analisaram 51 artigos científicos, publicados em revistas especializadas. Estes artigos foram classificados segundo (a) o tipo (empírico, de revisão ou de posição), (b) sujeito foco de análise (aluno ou professor), (c) seus perfis e supraperfis (categorias criadas a partir de dados coletados do foco, da pergunta e do objetivo de pesquisa) e (d) o tipo de uso da obra de Toulmin (1958) como referencial teórico. Os resultados mostraram que, na pesquisa em AEC: (a) apesar do predomínio de estudos empíricos, os de revisão tiveram papel de destaque no desenvolvimento da área; (b) a maioria dos estudos enfatiza o estudante como sujeito foco de análise e recentemente tem aumentado o número de artigos com foco no professor; (c) a maior parte das publicações referem-se a estudos com foco na estrutura do argumento e/ou na construção da argumentação...

Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil

CAMPOS,FELIPE S.; BRITO,DANIEL; SOLÉ,MIRCO
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
The number of papers on biology of amphibians has increased in the recent years. A detailed overview of the publications on amphibians can be very useful in assessing the status of our knowledge about this taxonomic group. Due to the large number of articles published, we aimed to assess the scientific contribution of herpetological researches carried out between the years 2001 and 2010 on Brazilian amphibians, considering the diversity patterns, the threats and the research topics that have been published most often. We applied scientometric attention indexes in the reviewed studies from seven scientific databases. To examine the relationship between the numbers of species recorded locally and regionally at different spatial scales, we used an additive partitioning of diversity in three hierarchical levels (i.e., states, geographic regions and biomes). We evaluated 892 articles and 914 species, which showed that 65 % of the total diversity of Brazilian amphibian species was represented by the beta diversity among the biomes. We identified many differences in the allocation of research efforts for taxonomic groups, threats categories, geographic regions, and research topics, highlighting the main research trends conducted and the priority themes for investigation of further papers on Brazilian amphibians.

Trends and priorities in nursing research

Castrillón Agudelo,María Consuelo
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
This document initially presents an introduction to the global scenario in which nursing research is set today. Next, the main nursing research priorities are described in accordance with the agendas of international health and nursing organizations on different continents, as well as the characteristics of nursing research in Latin America until the end of the XXth century, based on studies and publications in which the main thematic tendencies are identified. Finally, the author reflects on the priority definition process in nursing knowledge production, with a view to attending the need for foundations of the subject area as well as public health needs.

Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence and Temporal Trends in the USA (1973–2007): Race or Shifting Diagnostic Paradigm?

Holmes, Laurens; Hossain, Jobayer; Opara, Franklin
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Pediatric thyroid carcinoma is relatively uncommon. But variability in incidence rate by race, sex, age at onset/diagnosis, and geographic local had been observed in adult thyroid carcinoma in the USA. We aimed to examine the patterns, rates, and temporal trends of thyroid carcinoma among pediatric patients (0–19 years) between 1973 and 2007. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data of the National Cancer Institute were utilized. Data were available on sex, age at diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and geographic locale (9 SEER registries) and were used for rates and trends computation. The frequency and percentage, percent changes (PCs) were calculated by using 1 year of each endpoint. Similarly, the annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated as well, with APCs estimated using weighted least square methods. Between 1973 and 2007, 1,360 thyroid cancer cases were ascertained in the 9 SEER areas (n = 247,638,734) in the USA. The percent change was 47.9, while the APC was significantly different from 0, 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5–1.6, P < 0.0001). The rate ratio (RR) was significantly lower in 1975 (RR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.38–0.98, P = 0.03) relative to the rate between 1973 and 2007 (RR: 1.60, per 100,000, 95% CI: 1.50–1.70)...

Digital Reconstructions of Neuronal Morphology: Three Decades of Research Trends

Halavi, Maryam; Hamilton, Kelly A.; Parekh, Ruchi; Ascoli, Giorgio A.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
The importance of neuronal morphology has been recognized from the early days of neuroscience. Elucidating the functional roles of axonal and dendritic arbors in synaptic integration, signal transmission, network connectivity, and circuit dynamics requires quantitative analyses of digital three-dimensional reconstructions. We extensively searched the scientific literature for all original reports describing reconstructions of neuronal morphology since the advent of this technique three decades ago. From almost 50,000 titles, 30,000 abstracts, and more than 10,000 full-text articles, we identified 902 publications describing ∼44,000 digital reconstructions. Reviewing the growth of this field exposed general research trends on specific animal species, brain regions, neuron types, and experimental approaches. The entire bibliography, annotated with relevant metadata and (wherever available) direct links to the underlying digital data, is accessible at NeuroMorpho.Org.

Functional abdominal pain in childhood: Background studies and recent research trends

Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda AL
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors’ research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors’ group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research.

Trends and breaks in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions, 1870-2028

Lanne, Markku; Liski, Matti
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 33 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
We consider per-capita carbon dioxide emission trends in 16 early developed countries over the period 1870-2028. Using a multiple-break time series method we find more evidence for very early downturns in per-capita trends than for late downturns, during the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Only for two countries do downturns in trends imply downward sloping stable trends. We also consider trends in emission composition and find little evidence for in-sample peaks for emissions from liquid and gaseous fuel uses. These results lead us to reject the oil price shocks as events causing permanent breaks in the structure and level of emissions, a conclusion often made in analyses using shorter postwar data.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

A review of research trends in mathematics teacher education

S??nchez, Mario
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
This article presents a literature review in the field of mathematics teacher education research. The review focuses on identifying the main research trends in this field, that is, the main research topics that the mathematics teacher educators??? community is currently addressing, and the main theoretical concepts used to study these topics. One of the contributions of the review is that it identifies new research trends that have not been previously reported. Some of these trends are online mathematics teacher education, and the design and role of tasks in mathematics teacher education.; Este art??culo presenta una revisi??n de la literatura en el campo de la investigaci??n en formaci??n de profesores de matem??ticas. La revisi??n se centra en identificar las principales tendencias de investigaci??n en este campo, es decir, los principales temas de investigaci??n que la comunidad de formadores de profesores est?? abordando actualmente, as?? como los principales conceptos te??ricos usados para estudiar esos temas. Una de las contribuciones de esta revisi??n es que se identifican tendencias de investigaci??n que no han sido reportadas previamente. Algunas de estas tendencias son la formaci??n online de profesores de matem??ticas y el dise??o y rol de las tareas en la formaci??n de profesores de matem??ticas.

Trends and development of research on diabetes mellitus and osseointegration through its literature

Pérez Heredia, Mercedes; González Pérez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Priego, María Esther
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
Publicado em 23/10/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
The purpose of the present study is to analyse and map trends in research on diabetes mellitus and osseointegration by applying bibliometric methods to the scientific literature published until to 2014. Data were obtained from SCOPUS database. The aim is to determine the volume of scientific output, the countries involved and the trends in the subject matters addressed. Significant growth is observed in scientific production since 2007 and particularly in the period 2007–2014. The countries found to have the highest output are United States, United Kingdom, China, Switzerland and Germany. Authors collaboration networks show that research groups are forming around this subject matter. The bibliometric maps showed an increase in the publishing activity in the last periods and subjects like tooth-implantation, dental-implants and diabetes mellitus were the most productive.; Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Tendências da produção científica em odontologia no Brasil; Scientific output trends in oral health in Brazil

DIAS, Aldo Angelim; NARVAI, Paulo Capel; RÊGO, Delane Maria
Fonte: Washington Publicador: Washington
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
Objetivo. Descrever a tendência da produção científica odontológica no Brasil, destacando-se a área de saúde bucal coletiva, nos primeiros anos do século XXI. Métodos. Os resumos de trabalhos apresentados nas reuniões da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica (SBPqO) de 2001 a 2006 foram avaliados em termos do seu desenho metodológico (estudo agregado ou individuado; estudo observacional ou de intervenção ; estudo transversal ou longitudinal), natureza geral (revisões bibliográficas, estudos com seres humanos ou pesquisas laboratoriais) e enquadramento em uma das 19 especialidades reconhecidas pelo Conselho Federal de Odontologia (CFO). Dos 10406 trabalhos apresentados nesse período, foram lidos 5203 (50,0% do total). Resultados. Quanto ao desenho metodológico, 87,5% dos resumos eram do tipo operativo individuado e 12,5% do tipo agregado. Na classificação da natureza geral da pesquisa, 41,7% dos resumos tratavam de estudos com seres humanos. Os resumos restantes ( 58,3%) tratavam de pesquisas laboratorais in vitro (31,1%), pesquisas laboratoriais in vivo (23,6%) e revisões bibliográficas (3,6%). Com relação às áreas de conhecimento do CFO, apenas cinco atingiram percentuais de ocorrência superiores a 10...

Field research in information and communication technologies: Governance strategy at Universidad de medellín [Campo de investigación en tecnologías de información y comunicación: Estrategia de gobernanza en la Universidad de Medellín]

Liliana Gonzalez P.; Arango S.; Vasquez C.; Ospina J.
Fonte: Universidad de Tarapaca Publicador: Universidad de Tarapaca
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
As a part of its development plans and educational Project, Universidad de Medellín, Colombia, intends to focus its research efforts on information and communications technology –ICT–. There is still a lack of information about the strengths that need to be enhanced, which makes focalization of capabilities a difficult task. The University needs to create a niche in which it would be recognized and distinguished from other institutions. To achieve this aim, a strategy in order to guide the ICT research activities within the University is proposed. This article reflects on a number of research trends to be taken into account as organizational directives that allow an optimal use of resources and infrastructure. For this purpose a qualitative perspective and a hermeneutic methodological approach are used. Former research findings reveal that Universidad de Medellín should research on topics related to education, technology infrastructure, policy and regulatory environment, software development, digital content, management and administration of organizations. In order to show a clearer view, every topic is divided into subgroups. With this mapping of the trends it would be possible for the University to optimize its efforts on IT research and to be recognized for its achievements in that field. This initiative should be completed by an effective communication strategy that informs the community on all the levels of the topics. © 2015...

Tracing scientist's research trends realtimely

Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Shenmeng
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
In this research, we propose a method to trace scientists' research trends realtimely. By monitoring the downloads of scientific articles in the journal of Scientometrics for 744 hours, namely one month, we investigate the download statistics. Then we aggregate the keywords in these downloaded research papers, and analyze the trends of article downloading and keyword downloading. Furthermore, taking both the download of keywords and articles into consideration, we design a method to detect the emerging research trends. We find that in scientometrics field, social media, new indices to quantify scientific productivity (g-index), webometrics, semantic, text mining, open access are emerging fields that scientometrics researchers are focusing on.; Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures

Some New Research Trends in Wirelessly Powered Communications

Huang, Kaibin; Zhong, Caijun; Zhu, Guangxu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The vision of seamlessly integrating information transfer (IT) and microwave based power transfer (PT) in the same system has led to the emergence of a new research area, called wirelessly power communications (WPC). Extensive research has been conducted on developing WPC theory and techniques, building on the extremely rich wireless communications litera- ture covering diversified topics such as transmissions, resource allocations, medium access control and network protocols and architectures. Despite these research efforts, transforming WPC from theory to practice still faces many unsolved prob- lems concerning issues such as mobile complexity, power transfer efficiency, and safety. Furthermore, the fundamental limits of WPC remain largely unknown. Recent attempts to address these open issues has resulted in the emergence of numerous new research trends in the WPC area. A few promising trends are introduced in this article. From the practical perspective, the use of backscatter antennas can support WPC for low-complexity passive devices, the design of spiky waveforms can improve the PT efficiency, and analog spatial decoupling is proposed for solving the PT-IT near-far problem in WPC. From the theoretic perspective, the fundamental limits of WPC can be quantified by leveraging recent results on super-directivity and the limit can be improved by the deployment of large-scale distributed antenna arrays. Specific research problems along these trends are discussed...

Tendencias en la investigación y modelos de publicación en el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas: agronomía frente a Biotecnología Vegetal

García-Carpintero, Esther; Plaza, Luis M.; Granadino, Begoña
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 260698 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
[ES] El objetivo de este estudio es identificar los cambios en las tendencias de investigación y los modelos de publicación de los científicos españoles en el área de Ciencias Agrarias del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) en respuesta a los nuevos desafíos y oportunidades producidos por el desarrollo de la Biotecnología Vegetal. Para alcanzar este objetivo, se analizó la producción científica del CSIC en las áreas de Agronomía y Biotecnología Vegetal, en las revistas recogidas por la base de datos «Science Citation Index» (SCI) e Índice de Ciencia y Tecnología (ICYT), durante el período 1996-2005. Los resultados muestran al CSIC como un importante generador de conocimiento en el área de agronomí, contribuyendo con un 40% del total de publicaciones españolas recogidas en SCI durante el período analizado. El porcentaje de publicaciones del área de Biotecnología Vegetal, que apenas llega a alcanzar un 20% en el año 2005.; [EN] The aim of this study was to identify changes in the research trends and publishing patterns of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) scientists in the area of Agronomy, in response to the new challenges and opportunities arising from the continuing advances made in Plant Biotechnology. CSIC research output in the areas of Agronomy and Plant Biotechnology...

Delaware Economic Trends: Equity Implications

Dr. Stapleford, John E.; McDuffie, Mary Joan
Fonte: Center for Applied Demography & Survey Research Publicador: Center for Applied Demography & Survey Research
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
The purpose of this technical report is to provide a Delaware socio-economic profile which will assist United Way of Delaware in their assessment of critical future community needs. The report consists of two sections. In section I an overview of the major past and future trends in Delaware's economy is presented. Section II profiles the economic condition of various types of Delaware households.

Trends and priorities in nursing research; Tendencias y prioridades de investigación en enfermería; Tendências e prioridades em investigação em enfermagem

Castrillón Agudelo, María Consuelo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
This document initially presents an introduction to the global scenario in which nursing research is set today. Next, the main nursing research priorities are described in accordance with the agendas of international health and nursing organizations on different continents, as well as the characteristics of nursing research in Latin America until the end of the XXth century, based on studies and publications in which the main thematic tendencies are identified. Finally, the author reflects on the priority definition process in nursing knowledge production, with a view to attending the need for foundations of the subject area as well as public health needs.; Se expone el contexto general donde se desarrolla hoy la investigación. Se describen las prioridades de investigación que se han propuesto desde las agendas de organismos internacionales de salud y de enfermería en diferentes continentes, las características de la investigación de enfermería en América Latina hasta finales del Siglo XX fundamentada en estudios y publicaciones donde se identifican las tendencias temáticas y, finalmente, se presentan algunas reflexiones acerca del proceso de definición de prioridades en la producción de conocimientos de enfermería, de tal forma que respondan tanto a la necesidad de fundamentar la disciplina...

Trends in operations strategy research; Trends in operations strategy research; Tendências da área de pesquisa em estratégia de produção

Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa; UFSCar; Alves Filhos, Alceu Gomes; UFSCar
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This article aims to identify research approaches in operations strategy research, with regards its content. From a systematic literature review we highlight the main definitions of operations strategy and discussions on competitive priorities and then, present the main focuses of the articles published in reputable journals nationally and internationally. It was identified that studies on the operations strategy followed in general the direction of relating the influence and the alignment of competitive priorities for structural and infrastructure decisions. And there are initiatives of studies, which derive from that, to relate the operations strategy in the context of supply chain, which in future may be an important trend. The results of this article bring insights on research trends in a subject with constant interest from researchers in the field of operations management.; This article aims to identify research approaches in operations strategy research, with regards its content. From a systematic literature review we highlight the main definitions of operations strategy and discussions on competitive priorities and then, present the main focuses of the articles published in reputable journals nationally and internationally. It was identified that studies on the operations strategy followed in general the direction of relating the influence and the alignment of competitive priorities for structural and infrastructure decisions. And there are initiatives of studies...