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Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

Dimitroff, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.38%
A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part...

Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

Wing, Steve
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions.

Priorities for development of research methods in occupational cancer.

Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Bayard, Steve; Blair, Aaron; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Butler, Mary Ann; Dankovic, David; Hubbs, Ann F; Jones, Carol; Karstadt, Myra; Kedderis, Gregory L; Melnick, Ronald; Redlich, Carrie A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Savage, Russell
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.38%
Occupational cancer research methods was identified in 1996 as 1 of 21 priority research areas in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). To implement NORA, teams of experts from various sectors were formed and given the charge to further define research needs and develop strategies to enhance or augment research in each priority area. This article is a product of that process. Focus on occupational cancer research methods is important both because occupational factors play a significant role in a number of cancers, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, and also because occupational cohorts (because of higher exposure levels) often provide unique opportunities to evaluate health effects of environmental toxicants and understand the carcinogenic process in humans. Despite an explosion of new methods for cancer research in general, these have not been widely applied to occupational cancer research. In this article we identify needs and gaps in occupational cancer research methods in four broad areas: identification of occupational carcinogens, design of epidemiologic studies, risk assessment, and primary and secondary prevention. Progress in occupational cancer will require interdisciplinary research involving epidemiologists...

Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition...

Hidden Data for Research Ethicists: An Introduction to the Concept and A Series of Papers

Dubois, James M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
This special section of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics (JERHRE) is based upon the assumption that much of the best empirical data relevant to research ethics is hidden from the view of Research Ethics Committee (REC) members and others who are interested in research ethics. There are at least three different senses in which ethics-relevant empirical research may be hidden: (1) it may be published in a journal that ethics committee members would not regularly read, (2) it may not use key words that would guide one to its ethics-relevant content, or (3) it may be sequestered in part of a research article that is about something else. This special section of JERHRE reviews all of these types of “hidden ethics” articles on the following issues: What is the relative frequency of hidden ethics articles in journals that focus on vulnerable populations? What does the non-ethics literature in clinical research and experimental economic decision theory teach us about ways of improving subjects’ comprehension of risk information? How satisfied are parents and children with their experience with pediatric psychotrophic medication trials? And, how can retention rates be improved in longitudinal studies of difficult regimens such as drug rehabilitation? There is a major amount of ethics-relevant literature that is hidden. Without better ways of communicating the existence of this literature through use of key words...

Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research

Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples’ lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body...

The Registry and Follow-Up of Complex Pediatric Therapies Program of Western Canada: A Mechanism for Service, Audit, and Research after Life-Saving Therapies for Young Children

Robertson, Charlene M. T.; Sauve, Reg S.; Joffe, Ari R.; Alton, Gwen Y.; Moddemann, Diane M.; Blakley, Patricia M.; Synnes, Anne R.; Dinu, Irina A.; Harder, Joyce R.; Soni, Reeni; Bodani, Jaya P.; Kakadekar, Ashok P.; Dyck, John D.; Human, Derek G.; Ross,
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.3%
Newly emerging health technologies are being developed to care for children with complex cardiac defects. Neurodevelopmental and childhood school-related outcomes are of great interest to parents of children receiving this care, care providers, and healthcare administrators. Since the 1970s, neonatal follow-up clinics have provided service, audit, and research for preterm infants as care for these at-risk children evolved. We have chosen to present for this issue the mechanism for longitudinal follow-up of survivors that we have developed for western Canada patterned after neonatal follow-up. Our program provides registration for young children receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device support, and extracorporeal life support among others. The program includes multidisciplinary assessments with appropriate neurodevelopmental intervention, active quality improvement evaluations, and outcomes research. Through this mechanism, consistently high (96%) follow-up over two years is maintained.

Additional Support for Simple Imputation of Missing Quality of Life Data in Nursing Research

Hopman, Wilma M.; Harrison, Margaret B.; Carley, Meg; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.29%
Background. Missing data are a significant problem in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research. We evaluated two imputation approaches: missing data estimation (MDE) and assignment of mean score (AMS). Methods. HRQOL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Trust SF-12. Missing data were estimated using both approaches, summary statistics were produced for both, and results were compared using intraclass correlations (ICC). Results. Missing data were imputed for 21 participants. Mean values were similar, with ICC >.99 within both the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary when comparing the two methodologies. When imputed data were added into the full study sample, mean scores were identical regardless of methodology. Conclusion. Results support the use of a practical and simple imputation strategy of replacing missing values with the mean of the sample in cross-sectional studies when less than half of the required items of the SF-12 components are missing.

The use of race, ethnicity and ancestry in human genetic research

Ali-Khan, Sarah E.; Krakowski, Tomasz; Tahir, Rabia; Daar, Abdallah S.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
Post-Human Genome Project progress has enabled a new wave of population genetic research, and intensified controversy over the use of race/ethnicity in this work. At the same time, the development of methods for inferring genetic ancestry offers more empirical means of assigning group labels. Here, we provide a systematic analysis of the use of race/ethnicity and ancestry in current genetic research. We base our analysis on key published recommendations for the use and reporting of race/ethnicity which advise that researchers: explain why the terms/categories were used and how they were measured, carefully define them, and apply them consistently. We studied 170 population genetic research articles from high impact journals, published 2008–2009. A comparative perspective was obtained by aligning study metrics with similar research from articles published 2001–2004. Our analysis indicates a marked improvement in compliance with some of the recommendations/guidelines for the use of race/ethnicity over time, while showing that important shortfalls still remain: no article using ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’ or ‘ancestry’ defined or discussed the meaning of these concepts in context; a third of articles still do not provide a rationale for their use...

Increasing the efficiency of medical research with dynamic research summaries for researchers and consumers

Payne, Perry W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.4%
Literature reviews are usually the first step in conducting medical research projects. They often lead to the creation of a useful research question. However, this initial step in medical research contains inefficiencies, which if removed, could speed up the research process and thereby enhance development of innovative health related products. In addition, existing research article databases offer information which is inaccessible to most lay consumers. This article proposes an alternative approach for allowing researchers to assess the state of research in a particular area called “dynamic research summaries.” These summaries would offer a regularly updated narrative of existing research in any given area. They could increase the speed at which researchers of all levels review literature and develop useful research questions. In addition, this article proposes translating this information into a consumer friendly form that enhances the ability of non-expert consumers to review existing research relevant to their illness or a loved one’s illness. This consumer friendly version could also be translated into other languages, such as Spanish in the US, to increase accessibility for minority groups that speak other languages more proficiently. Finally...

Making Research Data Repositories Visible: The re3data.org Registry

Pampel, Heinz; Vierkant, Paul; Scholze, Frank; Bertelmann, Roland; Kindling, Maxi; Klump, Jens; Goebelbecker, Hans-Jürgen; Gundlach, Jens; Schirmbacher, Peter; Dierolf, Uwe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.37%
Researchers require infrastructures that ensure a maximum of accessibility, stability and reliability to facilitate working with and sharing of research data. Such infrastructures are being increasingly summarized under the term Research Data Repositories (RDR). The project re3data.org–Registry of Research Data Repositories–has begun to index research data repositories in 2012 and offers researchers, funding organizations, libraries and publishers an overview of the heterogeneous research data repository landscape. In July 2013 re3data.org lists 400 research data repositories and counting. 288 of these are described in detail using the re3data.org vocabulary. Information icons help researchers to easily identify an adequate repository for the storage and reuse of their data. This article describes the heterogeneous RDR landscape and presents a typology of institutional, disciplinary, multidisciplinary and project-specific RDR. Further the article outlines the features of re3data.org, and shows how this registry helps to identify appropriate repositories for storage and search of research data.

SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 4 (May 2004)

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Maritime Defense and Security Research Program
Tipo: Periódico
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
This issue includes the article "Applied At-Sea Technology Research: Estimation of Atmosphere and Ocean Surface Influence on Radar and IR Sensor Performance for MDP". This article addresses research on the "variations on radar and IR surveillance sensor performance caused by lower atmosphere and ocean surface conditions, emphasizing low radar cross section and low thermal cross section targets." This issue also announces that the MDP Task Force is to host two symposia, one on threat and vulnerability assessment and a Mini-MDP Symposium on Maritime Domain Protection.; SITREP, a monthly e-news brief covering the spectrum of maritime domain defense and security research. SITREP is produced by the Maritime Defense and Security Research Program as part of the National Security Institute—a cooperative research institute whose members include the Naval Postgraduate School, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The purpose of the Maritime Defense and Security Research program is to conduct, coordinate and collaborate Maritime defense and security research, experimentation, and information exchange between partnership universities; federal, state, and local agencies; national laboratories; maritime industry...

Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol

Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A
Fonte: Editorial Department of Journal of Biomedical Research Publicador: Editorial Department of Journal of Biomedical Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.29%
Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic...

Population Ageing in Ghana: Research Gaps and the Way Forward

Mba, Chuks J.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/09/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.3%
This paper attempts to highlight research gaps and what should be done concerning population ageing in the Ghanaian context. The proportion of the elderly increased from 4.9 percent in 1960 to 7.2 percent in 2000, while the number rose from 0.3 million to 1.4 million over the same period (an increase of 367 percent). Projection results indicate that by 2050, the aged population will account for 14.1 percent of the total population. Very little is known about the living arrangements and health profile of Ghana's older population. With increasing urbanization and modernization, it is important to know something about intergenerational transfers from adult children to their elderly parents, and characterize the elderly persons' food security strategies. Training of researchers will be important in terms of strengthening Ghana's capacity to monitor trends, as well as to conduct research and explore new directions in population ageing research.

Reporting research in medical journals and newspapers.

Entwistle, V.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.32%
Newspapers are important sources of information about medical advances for many lay people and can influence those working in the health service. Medical journalists on newspapers routinely use general medical journals to obtain information on research. The Lancet and BMJ are both examined carefully by broadsheet journalists in Britain each week. These papers published an average of 1.25 stories from these journals every Friday. The stories focused on serious diseases, topical health problems, and new treatments rather than social problems. The newspaper stories were based on the full research article and not the journals' press releases, although the press releases were valued as early information. Journalists relied heavily on the peer review processes of the journals in ensuring accuracy.

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.3%
The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.

Species, Habitats, Society: An Evaluation of Research Supporting EU's Natura 2000 Network

Popescu, Viorel D.; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Niculae, Iulian M.; Cucu, Adina L.; Hartel, Tibor
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
The Natura 2000 network is regarded as one of the conservation success stories in the global effort to protect biodiversity. However, significant challenges remain in Natura 2000 implementation, owing to its rapid expansion, and lack of a coherent vision for its future. Scientific research is critical for identifying conservation priorities, setting management goals, and reconciling biodiversity protection and society in the complex political European landscape. Thus, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive evaluation of published Natura 2000 research to highlight prevalent research themes, disciplinary approaches, and spatial entities. We conducted a systematic review of 572 scientific articles and conference proceedings focused on Natura 2000 research, published between 1996 and 2014. We grouped these articles into ‘ecological’ and ‘social and policy’ categories. Using a novel application of network analysis of article keywords, we found that Natura 2000 research forms a cohesive small-world network, owing to the emphasis on ecological research (79% of studies, with a strong focus on spatial conservation planning), and the underrepresentation of studies addressing ‘social and policy’ issues (typically focused on environmental impact assessment...

Young People's Views on Accelerometer Use in Physical Activity Research: Findings from a User Involvement Investigation

Kirby, Joanna; Tibbins, Carly; Callens, Claire; Lang, Beckie; Thorogood, Margaret; Tigbe, William; Robertson, Wendy
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.29%
The use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity is important in understanding young people's behaviours, as physical activity plays a key part in obesity prevention and treatment. A user-involvement qualitative study with young people aged 7–18 years (n = 35) was carried out to investigate views on accelerometer use to inform an obesity treatment research study. First impressions were often negative, with issues related to size and comfort reported. Unwanted attention from wearing an accelerometer and bullying risk were also noted. Other disadvantages included feeling embarrassed and not being able to wear the device for certain activities. Positive aspects included feeling “special” and having increased attention from friends. Views on the best time to wear accelerometers were mixed. Advice was offered on how to make accelerometers more appealing, including presenting them in a positive way, using a clip rather than elastic belt to attach, personalising the device, and having feedback on activity levels. Judgements over the way in which accelerometers are used should be made at the study development stage and based on the individual population. In particular, introducing accelerometers in a clear and positive way is important. Including a trial wearing period...

Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.36%
The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized...

Leading Change and Advancing Health by Enhancing Nurses' and Midwives' Knowledge, Ability and Confidence to Conduct Research through a Clinical Scholar Program in Western Australia

Chapman, Rose; Duggan, Ravani; Combs, Shane
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.31%
This paper reports on an evaluation of a Clinical Scholar Program initiated at a hospital in Western Australia. The aim of the program was to build the capacity of nurses and midwives to conduct research and evidence-based practice within the hospital. The program was based on a previous program and consisted of six teaching days and four hours per month release for proposal preparation. At the end of the program participants were asked to complete a short anonymous questionnaire. The answers were analysed using standard processes of qualitative analysis. Themes emerging from the data included program strengths, individual gains, ability to conduct research, and areas for improvement. The findings highlighted that, while the participants considered that they were more knowledgeable and confident to conduct research, they still required support. The Clinical Scholar Program has provided a way to increase the capacity of clinicians to participate in research activities.