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Representação, linguagem e política em Rousseau; Representation, language and politics in Rousseau

Bueno, Taynam Santos Luz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/03/2010 PT
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O objetivo principal de nossa pesquisa é o exame da questão da representação no interior da obra política de Jean-Jaques Rousseau. Isso se fará sob três pontos distintos: Em um primeiro momento, buscaremos compreender a noção de representação no desenvolvimento das paixões, da história e das instituições. Guiados pela dicotomia existente entre ser e parecer, abarcaremos as principais características desta noção sob o ponto de vista do paradoxo entre realidade e aparência, elucidando sua significação, apontando sua gênese e compreendendo sua relação com os demais processos de expansão cultural do homem. Na segunda parte de nossa pesquisa, procuraremos compreender as relações existentes entre representação e linguagem, o efeito direto da representação na constituição das línguas, as diferenças entre a língua escrita e a língua falada e sua relação com o processo de corrupção humano. Buscaremos evidenciar o papel da linguagem no desenvolvimento moral do homem, bem como sua inseparabilidade do aprofundamento das paixões humanas e do desenvolvimento de suas instituições. Finalmente, nos aprofundaremos nas relações existentes entre representação e política propriamente dita, salientando o efeito nefasto que a representação possui neste âmbito. Nossas preocupações aqui limitam-se a compreender a denúncia feita por nosso autor à teatralização do poder...

Representação de coleções de documentos textuais por meio de regras de associação; Representation of textual document collections through association rules

Rossi, Rafael Geraldeli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2011 PT
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O número de documentos textuais disponíveis em formato digital tem aumentado incessantemente. Técnicas de Mineração de Textos são cada vez mais utilizadas para organizar e extrair conhecimento de grandes coleções de documentos textuais. Para o uso dessas técnicas é necessário que os documentos textuais estejam representados em um formato apropriado. A maioria das pesquisas de Mineração de Textos utiliza a abordagem bag-of-words para representar os documentos da coleção. Essa representação usa cada palavra presente na coleção de documentos como possível atributo, ignorando a ordem das palavras, informa ções de pontuação ou estruturais, e é caracterizada pela alta dimensionalidade e por dados esparsos. Por outro lado, a maioria dos conceitos são compostos por mais de uma palavra, como Inteligência Articial, Rede Neural, e Mineração de Textos. As abordagens que geram atributos compostos por mais de uma palavra apresentam outros problemas além dos apresentados pela representação bag-of-words, como a geração de atributos com pouco signicado e uma dimensionalidade muito maior. Neste projeto de mestrado foi proposta uma abordagem para representar documentos textuais nomeada bag-of-related-words. A abordagem proposta gera atributos compostos por palavras relacionadas com o uso de regras de associação. Com as regras de associação...

Drawing and images of design: representation and meaning

Magalhães, Graça Maria Alves dos Santos; Pombo, Fátima
Fonte: European Academy of Design (EAD) Publicador: European Academy of Design (EAD)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
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This abstract is based on the research being conducted on the relationship between design and drawing, whose results have been presented at various congresses. The aim of the research is to clarify the intervention of drawing in design, by differentiating between “object” and “image” and between the “symbolic character” and the “form of representation” by demonstrating that the efficiency of the project is based on conflict generated by the act of drawing in itself. Based on the triangular classification of design as author-programme- technology and drawing as representation- classification-imagination, it can be argued that: the object’s identity arises from the confrontation between representation and the image, thus questioning its unity. In other words the way of representing the object through a technical mediation referring to an abstract concept (the act of drawing), of symbolic function, and of attributing meaning to the symbol, insofar as it refers to object. This paper intends to approach drawing as the language that makes the appearance of the images of design possible. The images of design function as double: _ object of representation whilst represented image (physical representation); _object of desire whilst promoter of a story of subjective experiences and emotional relationships. Examples will be given. We consider the specificity of drawing through two possibilities: _representation as the action of drawing in the object’s presence; _representation as the action of drawing in the object’s absence. Drawing as a instrument of the project participates in the duality of the images: as representation of the idea (concept) and as action that provokes the emergence of the object before an interested and desiring subject. However...

ARMA Representation of Integrated and Realized Variances

MEDDAHI, Nour
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1311124 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper derives the ARMA representation of integrated and realized variances when the spot variance depends linearly on two autoregressive factors, i.e., SR SARV(2) models. This class of processes includes affine, GARCH diffusion, CEV models, as well as the eigenfunction stochastic volatility and the positive Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. We also study the leverage effect case, the relationship between weak GARCH representation of returns and the ARMA representation of realized variances. Finally, various empirical implications of these ARMA representations are considered. We find that it is possible that some parameters of the ARMA representation are negative. Hence, the positiveness of the expected values of integrated or realized variances is not guaranteed. We also find that for some frequencies of observations, the continuous time model parameters may be weakly or not identified through the ARMA representation of realized variances.; Nous dérivons la représentation ARMA des variances intégrées et réalisées quand la variance instantanée est la combinaison linéaire de deux facteurs auto-régressifs, c’est-à-dire, les modèles SR-SARV(2). Cette classe de processus contient les modèles affines, de diffusion GARCH, CEV...

The senate and proportional representation: public policy justifications of minority representation

Uhr, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 139682 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper was originally prepared as an historical background paper for a conference to mark the 50 th anniversary of the introduction of proportional representation in the Australian Senate. The paper answers the historical question: why did Australia adopt proportional representation for the Senate? The bare facts are well known: in 1948 the Chifley government initiated amendments to the Electoral Act to alter the existing method of counting the Senate vote which had traditionally rewarded the majority party with a disproportionately large share of Senate seats. Labor itself had a Senate majority of 33 to 3 after the 1946 election. But why did the Chifley government introduce proportional representation? The standard answer, given by Opposition leader Menzies at the time, was that Labor knew that it would lose the 1949 election (and probably most of its contested Senate seats) and so devised this change to consolidate its parliamentary power base in the Senate to frustrate the expected Menzies government. This answer is yes as far as it goes. But a fresh review of the historical record shows that the 1948 decision was really the final stage in a frequently-deferred plan of parliamentary reform that goes back to Federation. Even before Federation...

Conditioning Descriptive Representation: Institutional Moderation of Unique Group Perspectives in Legislative Debates

Eichorst, Jason
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
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Incorporating legislators from historically underrepresented groups into the legislature should be associated with the introduction of new perspectives to the legislative process. Achieving an ideal form of political representation is not so simple. The institutional structure of the political system shapes legislative choices and defines the process of political representation. Structured legislative choices can have moderating effects on the presence of unique perspectives during the policymaking process. This means that the incorporation of historically underrepresented groups is not always sufficient for group representation. I develop a contextual theory of political representation that isolates when we should-and should not-observe unique patterns of political representation. I argue that ballot type and party affiliation are two distinct factors that shape legislative choices and define to whom legislators are accountable. The theoretical argument synthesizes previous literature on gender and ethnic descriptive representation to develop an integrated theory of political representation. It leverages the uniqueness of group identity and cross-cutting factors to isolate where descriptive representatives should express unique patterns of political representation and the extent to which the political context conditions the legislative behavior of descriptive representatives. I develop a new measure of political representation using automated content analysis of legislative debates to empirically explore patterns in speech communication across different types of descriptive representatives. This measure makes it possible to empirically determine the strength of the divide that separates types of descriptive representatives. Unique perspectives should be apparent in the way legislators frame the justification and explanation of public policy to those who hold them accountable. This helps us identify the extent to which incorporating legislators from historically underrepresented groups has an influence on a broadly-defined set of issues. Bolivia provides a unique opportunity to explore patterns of representation. Indigenous and female descriptive representatives have been historically underrepresented in Bolivia and possess interests that are relatively uncrystallized in the legislative assembly. The historical absence of these interests in the legislative assembly leaves a void in group representation. Indigenous legislators are expected to possess broadly-defined unique perspectives associated with group identity. Party affiliation...

Form and content in mental representation

Simms, Mark Roger
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 929634 bytes; 28980 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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It is orthodoxy in contemporary philosophy of cognitive science to hold that the human brain processes information, both about the body in which the brain is located and about the world more generally. The internal states of the brain that encode this information are known as mental representations. Two matters concerning mental representation are interwoven here: the role of representational content in cognition and the format of mental representation. Robert Cummins, among others, argues that content is intrinsic to mental representation, rather than involving matters external to a representation, such as the use to which the representation is put. He also holds that resemblance accounts of representation best make sense of this fact. Thus, according to Cummins, the content of a mental representation is determined by its form. This thesis argues that an account of representation requiring that representations possess resembling structure is unlikely to be correct given (a) the minimal requirements that something must meet in order to count as a mental representation, (b) the tasks required of representation in cognition, such as capturing abstract properties, combining with other representations, and tracking change, and (c) the possibility that content stands in a different relation to form and cognition from the one Cummins has in mind. In criticising Cummins...

'Living in Harmony?' Multiculturalism and its role in promoting ethnic representation in Australian politics

McCourt, Philippa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report examines the significance of ethnic representation in local, state and federal Australian governments and the role multiculturalism has played in effecting political participation. In exploring this relationship, four areas are considered: the history and policies of multiculturalism, the structural and cultural barriers to representation, the experience of local councils and the relevance of Non English Speaking Background (NESB) politicians in federal parliament. Multiculturalism was formally recognised by the Galbally Report commissioned by the Fraser government in 1978. As a concept, multiculturalism envisaged a more balanced approach to migrant integration, acknowledging Australia's presence as an immigrant nation. Since the 1980s successive Australian Labor Party (ALP) and Coalition governments have struggled to define multiculturalism's role within an Australian identity. The Coalition's transition to a more inclusive model of citizenship and values is reflective of the changing attitudes towards multiculturalism. Prime Minister Howard's characterisation of a unified Australia is a response to perceived public sentiment that frequently overlooks the relevance of non-Anglo Celtic cultures. In contrast state governments have taken a more equitable approach to people from culturally diverse backgrounds in public life as demonstrated by the ethnically diverse parliaments of New South Wales and Victoria. Unfortunately...

Methods of increasing representation of women in the national parliaments of Indonesia and Australia

Dewi, Kurniawati Hastuti
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report examines three important measures that affect efforts to increase the representation of women in the national parliaments of Indonesia and Australia: the affirmative action rule, political parties' commitment to implementing the rule, and the role of female organisations in increasing representation of women in parliament. The affirmative action rule in Indonesia is enacted in national legislation, namely, section 65 article 1 of the General Election Act No. l2/2003, together with an open proportional representation electoral system according to section 84 article 1 of the General Election Act No.12/ 2003. Unlike in Indonesia, the affirmative action rule in Australia is part of a political party platform, namely, the ALP affirmative action rule . There are three female organisations in Indonesia: Centre for Electoral Reform (CETRO) , the Indonesian Women's Political Caucus (Kaukus Perempuan Politik Indonesia, KPPI) , and the Women's Parliamentary Caucus (Kaukus Perempuan Parlemen, KPP), and two organisations in Australia: EMILY's List Australia, and Women's Electoral Lobby (WEL) that play a significant role in promoting the increasing representation of women in parliament. This report examines the effectiveness both of the affirmative action rule and the role of female organisations by asking: • How strong is the legal framework of the affirmative action rule in Indonesia? • What is the commitment of the political parties to implementing the . affirmative action rule? • What is the nature of the affirmative action rule in Australia? • What is the commitment of the political parties to implementing the affirmative action rule in Australia? • What is the role of female organisations in Indonesia and Australia? • How effective is their role? • Are there any lessons to be learned from the experiences? Even though the affirmative ·action rule is included in the national legislation of Indonesia...

La discrimination en milieu de travail et le devoir juridique de représentation syndicale : une analyse socio-juridique

Ménard, Yves Christian
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Ce mémoire est une analyse socio-juridique de la discrimination en milieu de travail et de son impact sur le devoir juridique de représentation syndicale, ou plus précisément, sur la responsabilité syndicale en contexte de diversité. Partant d’une première approche sociométrique du phénomène, suivie d’une deuxième davantage socio-juridique, le constat est à l’effet que la discrimination en milieu de travail a des répercussions jusque dans les milieux syndiqués,où les flux d’immigration semblent, à plusieurs égards, bousculer l’ordre établi. La revue de littérature permet de dégager deux grands axes de recherche : un premier concernant les forums : dans l’état actuel du droit, ce sont les Tribunaux des droits de la personne qui élaborent les normes applicables au devoir juridique de représentation syndicale dans les cas allégués de discrimination au travail, les Commissions des relations de travail s’adaptant mais lentement, sinon avec réticence, à la nouvelle donne ; le deuxième concernant spécifiquement la partie syndicale : cette dernière pondère l’effet des normes applicables en matière de discrimination au travail tant en fonction de ses propres intérêts stratégiques, que de l’attente des membres...

Sociedade, representação e a dupla face da Accountability: cidade do México e São Paulo; Civil society, representation and the double face of accountability: México city and São Paulo; La société civile, la représentation et les deux côtés de l'accountability: México et São Paulo

LAVALLE, Adrian Gurza; CASTELLO, Graziela
Fonte: Universidade Federal da Bahia - Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas - Centro de Recursos Humanos Publicador: Universidade Federal da Bahia - Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas - Centro de Recursos Humanos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Organizações civis desempenham, de modo crescente, funções de representação política. A análise das condições de legitimidade das novas práticas de representação é crucial para a inovação e teoria democráticas. A partir da accountability, assumida como componente sine qua non da representação democrática e como estratégia de pesquisa, este artigo (i) examina empiricamente (com base em resultados de surveys) as noções de representação existentes no seio das organizações civis que assumem funções de representação na Cidade do México e em São Paulo, e (ii) avalia seus mecanismos internos de accountability e suas funções de controle sobre o poder público do ponto de vista da teoria democrática.; Civil organizations carry out, increasingly, functions of political representation. The analysis of the conditions of legitimacy of the new representation practices is crucial for the democratic innovation and theory. Starting from the accountability, assumed as a sine qua non component of the democratic representation and as research strategy, this paper (i) examines empirically (based in surveys results) the existing representation notions among the civil organizations that assume representative functions in Mexico City and in São Paulo...

A representação política; La représentation politique

Gussi, Evandro Herrera Bertone
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/05/2009 PT
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A presente tese tem por objetivo a análise da representação política, a partir de seus elementos fundamentais: o representante, o representado, a substância representacional e o processo. Ela estabelece como pressuposto que a expressão representação política possui sentido analógico, o que explica a sua utilização em situações que, essencialmente, são distintas - Chefia de Estado Representativa, Parlamento Representativo e Governo Representativo. Também observa os elementos da representação, especialmente, a sua substância, a partir de bases racionalistas e a partir de fundamentos realistas. Vencidos os pressupostos, a tese busca responder qual é o modelo representativo que oferece a melhor resposta às exigências democráticas bem como as necessidades institucionais requisitadas. Desta forma, realiza uma análise dos elementos conexos à representação política: os partidos políticos, o sistema eleitoral e o controle de constitucionalidade. O tema tem profundo apelo acadêmico, já que, não obstante o número de obras a ele dedicado, muitas questões aguardam por respostas. Entre elas, o trabalho busca abordar qual é a relação dos partidos políticos e a representação política bem como as características do sistema eleitoral que oferecem as melhores condições de atender aos ditames do regime democrático. Observa...

ARLO: Another Representation Language Offer

Haase, Kenneth W., Jr.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 95 p.; 13247756 bytes; 4867930 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
EN_US
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This paper describes ARLO, a representation language loosely modelled after Greiner and Lenant's RLL-1. ARLO is a structure-based representation language for describing structure-based representation languages, including itself. A given representation language is specified in ARLO by a collection of structures describing how its descriptions are interpreted, defaulted, and verified. This high level description is compiles into lisp code and ARLO structures whose interpretation fulfills the specified semantics of the representation. In addition, ARLO itself- as a representation language for expressing and compiling partial and complete language specifications- is described and interpreted in the same manner as the language it describes and implements. This self-description can be extended of modified to expand or alter the expressive power of ARLO's initial configuration. Languages which describe themselves like ARLO- provide powerful mediums for systems which perform automatic self-modification, optimization, debugging, or documentation. AI systems implemented in such a self-descriptive language can reflect on their own capabilities and limitations, applying general learning and problem solving strategies to enlarge or alleviate them.

A paisagem como representação espacial : a paisagem vitícola como símbolo das indicações de procedência de vinhos das regiões Vale dos Vinhedos, Pinto Bandeira e Monte Belo (Brasil); Le paysage comme représentation spaciale : le paysage viticole comme symbole des indications de provenance des vins des régions Vale dos Vinhedos, Pinto Bandeira et Monte Belo (Brésil); The landscape as a spatial representation : the landscape of vineyard as spatial symbol for geographical indication of the wines régions Vale dos Vinhedos, Pinto Bandeira and Monte Belo (Brazil)

Falcade, Ivanira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O tema da tese é a paisagem em sua especificidade vitícola, analisada como representação espacial no processo de construção do espaço geográfico da vitivinicultura e no uso da imagem da paisagem vitícola como imagem espacial dos vinhos das regiões das Indicações de Procedência (IP’s) Vale dos Vinhedos, Pinto Bandeira e Monte Belo, Brasil. O objetivo foi explicar a paisagem vitícola como representação espacial das regiões e analisar a imagem da paisagem vitícola como símbolo espacial para os vinhos das IP’s, cujas bases teóricas estão na Geografia Crítica e na Geografia Cultural. A organização do espaço geográfico das regiões das IP’s insere-se no contexto da colonização italiana, da qual a vitivinicultura é elemento cultural. O desenvolvimento da vitivinicultura regional levou à implementação de IP’s e ao uso de imagens de paisagens vitícolas, pelas associações de produtores, para construir o vínculo espaço/região-topônimo-vinho. A análise das paisagens das regiões revelou seis tipo e um subtipo em duas formas de paisagens vitícolas tradicionais e cinco tipos de paisagens vitícolas modernas, incluindo elementos emblemáticos naturais e construídos, entre os quais se destaca a Araucaria angustifolia e o uso do Platanus acerifolia para sustentar os vinhedos...

Reducibility of the Cohen-Wales representation of the Artin group of type $D_n$

Levaillant, Claire I.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2011
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Using knot theory, we construct a linear representation of the CGW algebra of type $D_n$. This representation has degree $n^2-n$, the number of positive roots of a root system of type $D_n$. We show that the representation is generically irreducible, but that when the parameters of the algebra are related in a certain way, it becomes reducible. As a representation of the Artin group of type $D_n$, this representation is equivalent to the faithful linear representation of Cohen-Wales. We give a reducibility criterion for this representation as well as a conjecture on the semisimplicity of the CGW algebra of type $D_n$. Our proof is computer-assisted using Mathematica.; Comment: 55 pages, 22 figures

Parameters for which the Lawrence-Krammer representation is reducible

Levaillant, Claire I.; Wales, David B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/01/2009
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We show that the Lawrence-Krammer representation based on two parameters that was used by Bigelow and independently Krammer to show the linearity of the braid group is generically irreducible, but that when its parameters are specialized to some nonzero complex numbers, the representation is reducible. To do so, we construct a representation of the BMW algebra inside the Lawrence-Krammer space. As a representation of the braid group, this representation is equivalent to the Lawrence-Krammer representation, where the two parameters of the algebra are related to the parameters of the Lawrence-Krammer representation. We give all the complex values of the parameters for which the representation is reducible and describe the invariant subspaces in some cases. We show that for these values of the parameters and other values, the BMW algebra is not semisimple.; Comment: 32 pages, 6 figures

The Classical Limit of Representation Theory of the Quantum Plane

Ip, Ivan Chi-Ho
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We showed that there is a complete analogue of a representation of the quantum plane B_q where |q|=1, with the classical ax+b group. We showed that the Fourier Transform of the representation of B_q on H=L^2(R) has a limit (in the dual co-representation) towards the Mellin transform of the unitary representation of the ax+b group, and furthermore the intertwiners of the tensor products representation has a limit towards the intertwiners of the Mellin transform of the classical ax+b representation. We also wrote explicitly the multiplicative unitary defining the quantum ax+b semigroup and showed that it defines the co-representation that is dual to the representation of B_q above, and also correspond precisely to the classical family of unitary representation of the ax+b group.; Comment: updated references. fixing minor typos

Visualization of protein 3D structures in reduced representation with simultaneous display of intra and inter-molecular interactions

Sheth, Vrunda
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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Protein structure representation is an important tool in structural biology. There exists different methods of representing the protein 3D structures and different biologists favor different methods based on the information they require. Currently there is no available method of protein 3D structure representation which captures enough chemical information from the protein sequence and clearly shows the intra-molecular and the inter-molecular H-bonds and VDW interactions at the same time. This project aims to reduce the 3D structure of a protein and display the reduced representation along with inter-molecular and the intra-molecular H-bonds and van der Waals interactions. A reduced protein representation has a significantly lower "atomicity" (i.e., number of the coordinates) than one which is in all-atom representation. In this work, we transform the protein structure from 'all- atom representation' (AAR) to 'double-centroid reduced representation' (DCRR), which contains amino acid backbone (N, C[alpha], C', O) and side chain (C[beta] and beyond) centroid coordinates instead of atomic coordinates. Another aim of this project is to develop a visualization interface for the reduced representation. This interface is implemented in MATLAB and displays the protein in DCRR along with its inter-molecular...

Limites da representação na metapsicologia freudiana; Límites de la representación en la metapsicologia freudiana; Limits of representation in freudian metapsychology; Limites de la représentation dans la métapsychologie freudienne

Campos, Érico Bruno Viana
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 POR
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En este artículo se pretende analizar los límites de la teoría de la representación en la metapsicología freudiana. Se trata de una investigación teórica sobre el psicoanálisis, a través de una metodología de análisis histórico y epistemológico de los textos de Freud. La metapsicología freudiana se basa en una teoría de los impulsos que es tributaria a los principios de una teoría de La representación mental. Sin embargo, los cambios que requiere la introducción de los conceptos de narcisismo y la identificación, junto con el reconocimiento de la compulsión a la repetición como algo más allá del principio del placer llevó a un rediseño de la teoría pulsional, una descripción tópica nueva y a una reformulación de la teoría de la ansiedad. La hipótesis es que la teoría de la representación encuentra límites en dos direcciones diferentes: la identificación y la imposibilidad de la representación como, respectivamente, un más allá u un más acá de la metapsicología freudiana.; This article aims to analyze the limits of representation theory in Freudian metapsychology. It is a theoretical research on psychoanalysis, through a methodology of historical and epistemological analysis of Freud's texts. The Freudian metapsychology is based on a theory of drives that is tributary to the principles of a theory of the mental representation. However...

Changes of representation and general boundary conditions for Dirac operators in 1+1 dimensions

De Vincenzo,S.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
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We introduce a family of four Dirac operators in 1+1 dimensions: ĥA = -iħcˆΓA ∂/∂x (A = 1, 2, 3,4) for x ∉ Ω = [α, b]. Here, {ˆΓA} is a complete set of 2 x 2 matrices: ˆΓ1 = ˆ1, ˆΓ2 = ˆα, ˆΓ3 = ˆβ, and ˆΓ4 = iˆβˆα, where ˆα and ˆβ are the usual Dirac matrices. We show that the hermiticity of each of the operators ĥA implies that C A (x = b) = C A (x = α), where the real-valued quantities C A = cψ†ˆΓAψ, the bilinear densities, are precisely the components of a Clifford number Ĉ in the basis of the matrices ˆΓA; moreover, Ĉ/2cρ is a density matrix (ρ is the probability density). Because we know the most general family of self-adjoint boundary conditions for ĥ2 in the Weyl representation (and also for ĥ1), we can obtain similar families for ĥ3 and ĥ4 in the Weyl representation using only the aforementioned family for ĥ2 and changes of representation among the Dirac matrices. Using these results, we also determine families of general boundary conditions for all these operators in the standard representation. We also find and discuss connections between boundary conditions for the free (self-adjoint) Dirac Hamiltonian in the standard representation and boundary conditions for the free Dirac Hamiltonian in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation.