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Uso ou omissão de preposição e artigo em orações relativas de espanhol produzidas por estudantes brasileiros; Use or omission of prepositions and articles in Spanish relative clauses produced by Brazilian students

Nogueira, Vanessa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
O objetivo desta dissertação é comparar o uso ou a omissão de preposições e artigos nas orações relativas de estudantes brasileiros de ELE e nativos de E. O estudo buscou verificar se os estudantes brasileiros de ELE utilizam o relativo acompanhado de preposição e artigo, quando o usam e como o fazem; quais contextos favorecem a elipse de preposição + artigo; se o comportamento sintático entre os estudantes brasileiros e os nativos se assemelha e quais as possibilidades para essas semelhanças / diferenças. Para tanto, analisamos um corpus recolhido de testes escritos de reformulação de orações de três grupos de estudantes brasileiros adultos de ELE e o comparamos às produções de reformulações de um grupo de nativos de E argentinos. De acordo com nossas hipóteses iniciais e bibliografia consultada, as orações cortadoras seriam as mais produzidas pelos estudantes, mas de acordo com nossos dados, essa não foi a opção mais usada, e sim a opção sem o artigo com preposição. Pensamos que isso se deve ao caráter mais formal (escrito) dos testes. Concluímos que os brasileiros, em sua língua nativa, não usariam tal estrutura, mas quando têm que lidar com o E, preferem cortar o artigo em vez de produzir uma estrutura que seja mais comum em PB como a cortadora. Em contrapartida...

Orações relativas em karitiana: um estudo experimental; Relative clauses in karitiana: an experimental study

Vivanco, Karin Camolese
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Essa dissertação pretende esclarecer o estatuto das orações relativas do karitiana (tupi- Arikém). Orações relativas podem ser classificadas como relativas de núcleo externo (RNE) e de núcleo interno (RNI), sendo o principal critério de diferenciação a posição do núcleo em relação à relativa: relativas com o núcleo adjacente à oração subordinada são classificadas como RNEs, enquanto aquelas com o núcleo interno à subordinada são RNIs (DE VRIES, 2006, CULY, 1990). Outro critério utilizado é a marcação de caso: se o núcleo estiver marcado com o caso exigido pelo verbo da matriz, a relativa será uma RNE; se for aquele exigido pelo verbo da relativa, ela será uma RNI (COLE, 1987). Dentro desse quadro, as orações do karitiana são difíceis de classificar: por um lado, o núcleo aparece sempre deslocado para a periferia esquerda (STORTO, 1999), algo característico de RNEs; por outro, a marcação de caso no núcleo segue o padrão de RNIs. À luz do trabalho de Basilico (1996), hipotetizamos que as relativas do karitiana seriam RNIs com frontalização opcional do núcleo. Se for o caso, é esperado que relativas com núcleos não frontalizados sejam permitidas. Montamos então um experimento para verificar se as relativas poderiam ter seus núcleos não frontalizados e testamos 14 falantes com uma metodologia de produção elicitada. Os resultados mostram que...

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

NEGRÃO,Esmeralda Vailati
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
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This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

Meaning Through Syntax: Language Comprehension and the Reduced Relative Clause Construction

McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 EN
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A new explanation is proposed for a long standing question in psycholinguistics: Why are some reduced relative clauses so difficult to comprehend? It is proposed that the meanings of some verbs like race are incompatible with the meaning of the reduced relative clause and that this incompatibility makes sentences like The horse raced past the barn fell unacceptable. In support of their hypotheses, the authors show that reduced relatives of The horse raced past the barn fell type occur in naturally produced sentences with a near-zero probability, whereas reduced relatives with other verbs occur with a probability of about 1 in 20. The authors also support the hypotheses with a number of psycholinguistic experiments and corpus studies.

Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

Wells, Justine B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Race, David S.; Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen (2002) pointed to variations in reading experience as a source of differences, arguing that the unique word order of object relatives makes their processing more difficult and more sensitive to the effects of previous experience than the processing of subject relatives. This hypothesis was tested in a large-scale study manipulating reading experiences of adults over several weeks. The group receiving relative clause experience increased reading speeds for object relatives more than for subject relatives, whereas a control experience group did not. The reading time data were compared to performance of a computational model given different amounts of experience. The results support claims for experience-based individual differences and an important role for statistical learning in sentence comprehension processes.

Semantic indeterminacy in object relative clauses

Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This article examined whether semantic indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing different animacy configurations to unambiguous passive controls; and Study 3 related completion data and reading data. The results showed that comprehension difficulty was modulated by animacy configuration and voice (active vs. passive). These differences were well correlated with the availability of alternative interpretations as the relative clause unfolds, as revealed by the completion data. In contrast to approaches arguing that comprehension difficulty stems from syntactic complexity, these results suggest that semantic indeterminacy is a major source of comprehension difficulty in object relative clauses. Results are consistent with constraint-based approaches to ambiguity resolution and bring new insights into previously identified sources of difficulty.

Relative Clause Gap-Filling in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Hestvik, Arild; Schwartz, Richard G.; Tornyova, Lydia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 EN
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Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have been observed to have production and perception difficulties with sentences containing long-distance dependencies, but it is unclear whether this is due to impairment in grammatical knowledge or in processing mechanisms. The current study addressed this issue by examining automatic on-line gap-filling in relative clauses, as well as off-line comprehension of the same stimulus sentences. As predicted by both knowledge impairment and processing impairment models, SLI children showed lack of immediate gap-filling after the relative clause verb, in comparison to a control group of typically developing children. However, on the off-line measure of comprehension of the same stimuli sentences, SLI children and TD children did not differ qualitatively. This finding is incompatible with knowledge impairment. We interpret the results to show that SLI children have impaired processing mechanisms (such as temporally delayed gap-filling) but are not impaired in their grammatical knowledge.

Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing

Rohde, H.; Levy, R.; Kehler, A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We show that comprehenders’ expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line sentence-completion study and an on-line self-paced reading study examined readers’ expectations for high/low relative clause attachments following implicit-causality and non-implicit-causality verbs (John detests/babysits the children of the musician who…). In the off-line study, the widely reported low-attachment preference for English is observed in the non-implicit causality condition, but this preference gives way to more high attachments in the implicit causality condition in cases in which (i) the verb’s causally implicated referent occupies the high-attachment position and (ii) the relative clause provides an explanation for the event described by the matrix clause (e.g., …who are arrogant and rude). In the on-line study, a similar preference for high attachment emerges in the implicit causality context—crucially, before the occurrence of any linguistic evidence that the RC does in fact provide an explanation—whereas the low-attachment preference is consistent elsewhere. These findings constitute the first demonstration that expectations about ensuing discourse coherence relationships can elicit full reversals in syntactic attachment preferences...

Processing Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for the Subject-Relative Advantage

Vasishth, Shravan; Chen, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Guo, Gueilan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
A general fact about language is that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Recently, several self-paced reading studies have presented surprising evidence that object relatives in Chinese are easier to process than subject relatives. We carried out three self-paced reading experiments that attempted to replicate these results. Two of our three studies found a subject-relative preference, and the third study found an object-relative advantage. Using a random effects bayesian meta-analysis of fifteen studies (including our own), we show that the overall current evidence for the subject-relative advantage is quite strong (approximate posterior probability of a subject-relative advantage given the data: 78–80%). We argue that retrieval/integration based accounts would have difficulty explaining all three experimental results. These findings are important because they narrow the theoretical space by limiting the role of an important class of explanation—retrieval/integration cost—at least for relative clause processing in Chinese.

Visual Salience Modulates Structure Choice in Relative Clause Production

Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants’ question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context.

Relative clauses in Xong (Miao-Yao)

Sposato, Adam
Fonte: Asia-Pacific Linguistics; http://pacling.anu.edu.au/; http://www.jseals.org Publicador: Asia-Pacific Linguistics; http://pacling.anu.edu.au/; http://www.jseals.org
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 18 pages
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This paper provides an overview of relative clause constructions in Xong (Miao-Yao). Xong features an unusual number of distinct relative clause types, including some that obligatorily precede their head noun, others that obligatorily follow it, and still others that occur in either position. They occur with zero, one, or two relative clause markers. These formal variations are often accompanied by varying restrictions on possible roles of the head noun. Typologically rare aspects of Xong relative clauses – including pre-head relative clauses in a VO language, and pre-head relative clauses marked with an initial relativizing particle – are also discussed; Australian National University

Die Verwendung des spanischen Subjuntivo im Relativsatz. Untersuchungen zur Pressesprache der Gegenwart; The Use of the Spanish Subjunctive in the Relative Clause.A Study of Usage in Present Day Newspapers and Magazines

Combe, Horst
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Eine umfassende, auf den Grund gehende Beschreibung der Funktionen des Subjuntivo in allen seinen Erscheinungen in der europäisch-spanischen Presse der Gegenwart sowie die Zurückführung seiner Verwendungen auf einen Grundwert (Zentralfunktion). Es werden auch Beispiele aus über hundert Titeln der Romanliteratur zur Kontrastierung mit dem in der Presse gefundenen Material wiedergegeben. Das Ergebnis der ca. 1500 in dieser Arbeit aufgeführten kontextuell ausgewerteten Beispielsätze ist eine systematische Beschreibung der Verwendungen des Subjuntivo im Relativsatz und in den anderen Satzarten wie auch des Funktionierens dieses Modus im Gegensatz zu und im Zusammenspiel mit dem Indikativ.; A comprehensive and very thorough description of the functions of the subjunctive in all its manifestations in present day European Spanish newspapers and magazines. All its uses are not only explained as such but also reduced to one central function (basic value). Examples from more than a hundred novels are given as well and contrasted with the material found in the press. 1,500 examples quoted in this paper and evaluated according to context lead to a systematic description of the uses of the subjunctive in relative clauses and in the other types of sentences as well as the functioning of this mode contrasting and interacting with the indicative.

Relative clauses in Asante Twi

McCracken, Chelsea
Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Relative clauses in Twi, a Niger-Congo language spoken in Ghana, have received little attention in the literature. I examine a corpus of naturally-occurring relative clauses, collected from a native speaker living in Houston, TX, to describe and analyze the tone, morphosyntax, and discourse characteristics of Twi relative clauses. This research also contributes to understanding of the cross-linguistic accessibility of noun phrases to the process of relativization. Based on spectrographic comparison within a set of minimal clauses, I determine that the phonemic form of the relativizer is āà. I examine the “optional” use of the relative clause enclitic no using a framework similar to Fox and Thompson’s (1990, 2007) studies on English relative clauses, concluding that the enclitic is only used in about half of cases and that the conditioning environment depends on a number of discourse factors including the topic-worthiness of the relativized argument and the distance between the head noun and the end of the relative clause. Finally, I examine noun phrase accessibility in Twi according to Keenan and Comrie (1977), finding that Twi relative clauses contradict Keenan and Comrie’s Accessibility Hierarchy Constraints in two respects: Twi resumptive pronouns are obligatory in the relativization of subjects...

Here's a structure that's not so simple: Revisiting the acquisition of relative clauses

Duffield, Cecily Jill
Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: Journal article; Text
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This study revisits the construction-based incremental account of relative clause acquisition presented in Diessel and Tomasello (2005) by reexamining the subset of presentational relative constructions (PRCs) from their data. I demonstrate that trends of incremental development within this construction rely on the assumption that "amalgams" ("That's my doggy turn around,") are precursors to standard PRC forms ("That's my doggy that turns around.") I argue that amalgams are not related to PRCs in terms of form or function, and that once amalgams are removed from this data set, no patterns of incremental development appear in children's PRC productions. The results suggest that in order to maintain a constructional view of relative clause acquisition, a wider range of forms and functions must be considered.

The Diachronic Typology of Relative Clauses

Hendery, Rachel Marion
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
This thesis investigates the diachronic behaviour of relative clauses across a broad sample of constructions from genetically and geographically diverse languages. Previous studies of change in relative clause constructions have most frequently been restricted to individual languages or language families. By comparing such studies with each other and with the historical records of languages that have less commonly been the focus of diachronic syntactic works, I examine the strength of evidence for developments that are predicted by earlier literature to be "e;natural"e; or even "e;universal"e; pathways of change (for example, various sources of relative clause markers, the development of hypotaxis out of parataxis, shift from prenominal to postnominal relative clause position). I also look for evidence of changes that synchronic typological studies of relative clause constructions might lead us to expect to find (i.e., diachronic variation in the same parameters by which relative clause types distinguish themselves synchronically). I conclude that the sources of relative clause markers and the results of the extensions of these markers into other constructions are more varied then has generally been thought to be the case, including...

Le Canada et l’article 1F de la Convention relative au statut des réfugiés : une application large en réponse aux menaces à la sécurité nationale

Saadé, Nadine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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En 1951, le droit international des réfugiés voyait le jour avec la Convention relative au statut des réfugiés. Cette convention ainsi que son Protocole stipulent la définition contemporaine de cette notion et les obligations de l'État d'accueil à l’égard des réfugiés mais y prévoit aussi une exception. En effet, les rédacteurs de la Convention de 1951, percevant que certains bourreaux tenteraient d'user de ce mécanisme pour échapper à des poursuites en trouvant refuge à l'étranger, y ont intégré une dérogation à la définition de réfugié qui a pris la forme d’une clause d'exclusion. Celle-ci permet à tout État ayant adhéré à cet instrument de refuser d'accueillir sur son territoire les individus à l'origine des plus grands crimes internationaux et nationaux. Le Canada, en ratifiant la Convention de 1951 et son Protocole en 1969, a incorporé dans sa législation nationale cette clause d'exclusion dans l'article 98 de la Loi sur l'immigration et la protection des réfugiés. Le présent mémoire porte sur l'application de cette clause d'exclusion en droit canadien. Nous proposons une analyse de l'application de cette disposition en droit interne. L’objectif général est de montrer que les cours de justice favorisent une interprétation trop large de la clause d’exclusion...

Um estudo sobre o emprego de vírgula antes de oração completiva no português europeu clássico : sintaxe, discurso e gramática normativa; A study about the use of comma before completive clause in classical portuguese : syntax, discourse and prescriptive grammar

Cynthia Tomoe Yano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
O presente trabalho tem como objetivo compreender melhor o funcionamento do sistema de pontuação do português europeu do período do século XVI ao século XIX, focalizando a análise do emprego da vírgula antes de oração completiva verbal e oração completiva nominal. A escolha desses contextos de uso da vírgula não foi fortuita e se deu por duas razões: primeiro, pela dificuldade dos gramáticos, até o início do século XVIII, em definir as diferenças entre as orações completivas e as relativas restritivas e explicativas e, portanto, o uso de vírgula nesses tipos de construções também, e segundo, pela variação no uso de vírgula que se observa em textos literários escritos e publicados na época. Para a análise foi realizada a leitura de gramáticas e tratados de ortografia publicados do século XVI ao XIX e foi selecionado um corpus composto por quatorze textos de autores portugueses nascidos no mesmo período, do século XVI ao XIX, no qual foram realizadas buscas por todas as sentenças em que ocorrem os tipos de construções citados acima, precedida e não precedida por vírgula, com o auxílio da ferramenta de busca Corpus Search. Todos os dados, posteriormente, foram classificados segundo dois critérios: o primeiro de acordo com o ano e a presença ou não de vírgula antes da oração completiva...

Experience and generalization in a connectionist model of Mandarin Chinese relative clause processing

Hsiao, Yaling; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Sentences containing relative clauses are well known to be difficult to comprehend, and they have long been an arena in which to investigate the role of working memory in language comprehension. However, recent work has suggested that relative clause processing is better described by ambiguity resolution processes than by limits on extrinsic working memory. We investigated these alternative views with a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) model of relative clause processing in Mandarin Chinese, which has a unique pattern of word order across main and relative clauses and which has yielded mixed results in human comprehension studies. To assess the model's ability to generalize from similar sentence structures, and to observe effects of ambiguity through the sentence, we trained the model on several different sentence types, based on a detailed corpus analysis of Mandarin relative clauses and simple sentences, coded to include patterns of noun animacy in the various structures. The model was evaluated on 16 different relative clause subtypes. Its performance corresponded well to human reading times, including effects previously attributed to working memory overflow. The model's performance across a wide variety of sentence types suggested that the seemingly inconsistent results in some prior empirical studies stemmed from failures to consider the full range of sentence types in empirical studies. Crucially...

The Frobenius anatomy of word meanings I: subject and object relative pronouns

Sadrzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Clark, Stephen; Coecke, Bob
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/04/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This paper develops a compositional vector-based semantics of subject and object relative pronouns within a categorical framework. Frobenius algebras are used to formalise the operations required to model the semantics of relative pronouns, including passing information between the relative clause and the modified noun phrase, as well as copying, combining, and discarding parts of the relative clause. We develop two instantiations of the abstract semantics, one based on a truth-theoretic approach and one based on corpus statistics.; Comment: 31 pages

Re-focusing of instruction on relative clauses [In Korean] (관형절 교수법의 재조명)

Kim, Hae-Young
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Conference Proceeding Formato: 219 - 230
Publicado em //2007
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This paper proposes a shift of focus in the teaching of relative clauses in Korean from a morphological approach to a processing- and function-based approach. Published instructional materials and studies of learner errors (e.g. Sung, 2002) are primarily concerned with the accuracy of the tense of adnominal markers. The first part of the paper addresses the issue of processing difficulty as a result of complex syntactic construction of relative clauses, by introducing research studies on L2 Korean guided by the Keenan and Comrie’s (1977) Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH). The studies show that a subject gap relative clause is easier to process than an object gap, which is easier in turn than an oblique gap. The second part concerns discourse/pragmatic functions of the relative clause and presents an analysis of the discourse/pragmatic functions of relatives clauses in a corpus of readers for intermediate level learners. The analysis demonstrates that a range of discourse functions are performed by the relative clause construction such as identifying of (i.e. restrictive) and elaborating on the referent (i.e. appositive) as well as establishing temporal or causal relationships between events revolving around the referent (i.e. continuative). The paper concludes with a proposal of an instructional model that addresses the processing difficulty and that raises the learner’s awareness of discourse and textual functions of the relative clause.