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Os conceitos de regulação em saúde no Brasil; The concepts of health regulation in Brazil

Oliveira, Robson Rocha de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/04/2010 PT
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Neste trabalho foram identificados os conceitos de regulação em saúde empregados na literatura científica nacional sobre gestão em saúde. Foi elaborada uma tipologia para o conceito de regulação utilizando os conceitos de regulação de outras disciplinas (ciências da via, direito, economia, sociologia e ciência política). Essa tipologia baseou-se no agrupamento das ideias que fundamentam a concepção da regulação naquelas disciplinas. Das diferen-tes ideias relacionadas ao emprego dos conceitos de regulação, destaca-ram-se quatro como fundamentais, quais sejam: controle, equilíbrio, adaptação e direção. A partir dessa tipologia, os conceitos de regulação identificados nos artigos científicos nacionais foram classificados e analisados. Considera-se que a discussão do conceito de regulação em saúde está relacio-nada com a compreensão da inserção do Estado no setor saúde, ou seja, o papel que o Estado exerce nesse setor. Os conceitos de regulação em saúde apresentam uma variedade de significados, abordagens e finalidades. O tema da regulação em saúde está conexo ao da reforma política e administrativa do Estado. No entanto, o que diferencia esses conceitos de regulação é justamente a definição de diferentes formas de intervenção do Estado. Por fim...

Les protéines Staufen et leurs rôles dans la régulation posttranscriptionnelle de l’expression des gènes, la réponse aux dommages à l’ADN et le cycle cellulaire

Trépanier, Véronique
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les différents mécanismes de régulation posttranscriptionnelle de l’expression des gènes sont de plus en plus reconnus comme des processus essentiels dans divers phénomènes physiologiques importants, comme la prolifération cellulaire et la réponse aux dommages à l’ADN. Deux des protéines impliquées dans ce type de régulation sont Staufen1 (Stau1) et Staufen2 (Stau2). Elles sont des protéines de liaison à l’ARN double brin qui contribuent au transport de l’ARN messager (ARNm), au contrôle de la traduction, à l’épissage alternatif et sont responsables de la dégradation de certains ARNm spécifiques. Les protéines Staufen peuvent en effet s’associer à des ARNm bien précis, d’autant plus que, majoritairement, Stau1 et Stau2 ne se retrouvent pas en complexe avec les mêmes cibles. De nombreuses évidences récentes montrent l’implication de divers mécanismes de régulation posttranscriptionnelle dans la réponse aux dommages à l’ADN, plusieurs protéines de liaison à l’ARN y participant d’ailleurs. De façon importante, cette réponse dicte un ou plusieurs destin(s) à la cellule qui doit réagir à la suite de dommages à l’intégrité de son ADN: réparation de l’ADN, arrêt de la prolifération cellulaire...

La voie de régulation de la traduction de l’ARNm ASH1 : une concertation entre Khd1, Puf6 et Loc1

Forget, Amélie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La localisation des ARNm par transport dirigé joue un rôle dans le développement, la motilité cellulaire, la plasticité synaptique et la division cellulaire asymétrique. Chez la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiæ, la localisation d’ARNm est un phénomène dont les mécanismes de régulation sont conservés auprès de nombreux autres organismes. Lors de la division de la levure, plus d’une trentaine de transcrits sont localisés par transport actif à l’extrémité du bourgeon de la cellule-fille. Parmi ceux-ci, l’ARNm ASH1 est le mieux caractérisé et constitue le modèle utilisé dans cette étude. Pour exercer sa fonction, la protéine Ash1 doit être produite uniquement après la localisation de l’ARNm ASH1. Pour ce faire, les mécanismes de régulation de la traduction de l’ARNm ASH1 empêchent son expression durant le transport. Ce projet de recherche vise à étudier les mécanismes de régulation de la traduction de l’ARNm ASH1 par les répresseurs traductionnels connus, soit Khd1, Puf6 et Loc1. Les études antérieures se sont penchées sur ces facteurs de manière individuelle. Cependant, dans cette étude, nous avons exploré la présence d’une collaboration entre ceux-ci. Ainsi, nous avons voulu déterminer si les répresseurs traductionnels peuvent être intégrés en une seule voie de régulation de la traduction de l’ARNm ASH1. De plus...

Self-Regulation in Securities Markets

Carson, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper canvasses the trends in self-regulation and the role of self-regulation in securities markets in different parts of the world. The paper also describes the conditions in which self-regulation might be an effective element of securities markets regulation, particularly in emerging markets. Use of self-regulation and self-regulatory organizations is often recommended in emerging markets as part of a broader strategy aimed at improving the effectiveness of securities regulation and market integrity. According to the International Organization of Securities Commissions, reliance on self-regulation is an optional feature of a regulatory regime. Self-regulatory organizations may support better-regulated and more efficient capital markets, but the value of self-regulation is again being questioned in many countries. Forces such as commercialization of exchanges, development of stronger statutory regulatory authorities, consolidation of financial services industry regulatory bodies, and globalization of capital markets are affecting the scope and effectiveness of self-regulation -- and in particular the traditional role of securities exchanges as self-regulatory organizations.The paper reviews different models of self-regulation...

Do Regulation and Institutional Design Matter for Infrastructure Sector Performance?

Andres, Luis; Guasch, Jose Luis; Straub, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper evaluates the impact of economic regulation on infrastructure sector outcomes. It tests the impact of regulation from three different angles: aligning costs with tariffs and firm profitability; reducing opportunistic renegotiation; and measuring the effects on productivity, quality of service, coverage, and prices. The analysis uses an extensive data set of about 1,000 infrastructure concessions granted in Latin America from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. The analysis finds that as the theory indicates, regulation matters. The empirical work here reported shows that in three relevant economic aspects-aligning costs and tariffs; dissuading renegotiations; and improving productivity, quality of service, coverage, and tariffs-the structure, institutions, and procedures of regulation matter. Thus, significant efforts should continue to be made to improve the structure, quality, and institutionality of regulation. Regulation matters for protecting both consumers and investors, for aligning closely financial returns and the costs of capital...

Explanatory Notes on Key Topics in the Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services

Groom, Eric; Halpern, Jonathan; Ehrhardt, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Explanatory Notes on Key Topics in the Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services provide a consistent set of principles and practices that respond to these questions. Such information will be of interest to service providers, policy makers, and development practitioners interested in improving the performance of WSS services in urban areas. The notes draw upon current regulatory thinking and research, but are intended to be accessible to those who are not regulatory experts. These are the first outputs of a program of work on regulation in the water supply and sanitation sector funded by the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), the Bank-Netherlands Water Partnership (BNWP), and the World Bank. We will add additional notes as that work progresses. Each of the notes can be read separately, and together the notes provide an integrated framework for the development of practical approaches to the regulation of WSS. The seven notes address the following topics: 1. defining economic regulation for water supply services; 2. designing economic regulation for water supply services: a framework; 3. choosing organizations and instruments for economic regulation of water supply services; 4. regulation and private participation contracts; 5. cost of service and tariffs for water utilities; 6. regulating government-owned water utilities; and 7. regulating wastewater services in developing countries.

Best practice rail safety regulation

Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 350449 bytes; 367 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Regulating rail safety, and in particular, achieving regulatory best practice, is no easy task. The disaggregation and privatisation of the rail system, and the broader industry restructuring that took place in the 1990s have produced an industry that is structurally diverse, characterised by technological and corporate complexity and subject to competitive pressures as never before. Moreover, the multiplicity of different rail organisations that has emerged from this process – ranging from large, sophisticated commercial operators through to small heritage railways - has resulted in considerable variation in available resources, skills, experience and understanding, and in safety performance itself. There is much evidence to suggest that there are serious deficiencies both in the rail industry’s approach to safety and in the regulatory response to it, although the nature of these deficiencies varies considerably from State to State. In New South Wales, the Glenbrook and Waterfall accidents highlighted a series of major problems that (according to Hopkins analysis of the Glenbrook enquiry) include: a rule focussed culture [which] tended to deaden awareness of risks; the organisational and occupationally fragmentation of the railway system; a powerful culture of punctuality - of ‘on time running’ - whose side effect was to undermine safety; a railway culture that was profoundly risk blind...

Safety Regulation and the Mining Inspectorate – Lessons From Western Australia

Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 195591 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper examines the role of mining regulation and its enforcement, principally in Western Australia. It begins by describing the activities of the Mines Inspectorate and then raising a series of concerns relating to the limitations of the regulatory status quo. In particular it examines the extent to which the Department of Industry and Resources (DoIR) inspectors rely on detailed prescriptive requirements to the detriment of performance and systems based approaches; the extent to which the DoIR audit process fails to monitor adequately the effectiveness of OHS management systems; the extent to which DoIR inspectors failed to consult adequately with worker representatives; the limitations of the inspectorate’s current approach to enforcement action; and whether the inspectorate was sufficiently independent of the companies it regulated. It concludes with some broader reflections in response to the DoIR’s vision of best regulatory practice, and by raising some practical issues concerning the lack of adequate regulatory resources. 1; no

The relationship between ‘reasonably practicable’ and risk management regulation

Bluff, Liz; Johnstone, Richard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 510078 bytes; 365 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper examines two concepts which are central to contemporary standard setting in occupational health and safety (OHS) regulation, and explores the differences and similarities between these concepts – the notion of ‘reasonably practicable’ which qualifies the ‘general duties’ and some other provisions in the Australian OHS standards, and the risk management requirements typically found in OHS regulations and approved codes of practice (advisory standards in Queensland).; no

OHS Implications of Agvet Chemical Regulation

Healy, Patricia; Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 694772 bytes; 384 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This research critically examines current OHS policy/regulation as it relates to use of agricultural chemicals. We argue that the current regulatory system is inappropriate and that the problem must be viewed in a community, public health and environmental, rather than merely a workplace, context. This involves taking account of powerful market drivers such as supply chain pressures, technological developments, and the ongoing restructuring of agriculture and rural society. From a normative perspective, we consider how these forces might be shaped by government policy and civil society, and we identify points of policy leverage. Our empirical focus is on Australia, a country with a substantial agricultural sector, and (in many other respects) one which is quite advanced in how it deals with OHS issues. However we argue that Australia, in common with many other countries, has failed to deal effectively with important dimensions of the agricultural chemicals challenge. In particular, a number of policy strategies it shares with other developed industrial nations, while achieving positive results in other areas of OHS, are ill-suited to address agricultural chemical safety in the economic and structural circumstances confronting agriculture globally. Many of the challenges encountered by Australian policymakers...

Regulation der Exzitatorischen Aminosäure Transporter EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 und EAAT5 durch die Serum- und Glukokortikoid-abhängige Kinase SGK und die Ubiquitinligase Nedd4-2; Regulation of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 and EAAT5 by the Serum and Glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2

Schniepp, Roman
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Glutamat ist der häufigste Neurotransmitter des menschlichen Gehirns und an zahlreichen exzitatorischen Verschaltungen beteiligt. Gleichzeitig jedoch induziert Glutamat in hohen Konzentrationen neurotoxische Vorgänge in präsynaptischen und postsynaptischen Neuronen. Die Konstanthaltung gleich bleibend niedriger extrazellulärer Glutamatkonzentrationen im Gehirn ist die Hauptaufgabe der Familie der Exzitatorischen Aminosäure Transporter EAAT. Die EAAT sind überwiegend glial, neuronal und retinal exprimiert. Dysregulation und –funktion dieser EAAT wurden in der Pathophysiologie zahlreicher neurodegenerativer Erkrankungen beschrieben, z.B. bei der ALS, der Parkinson-Erkrankung und der Alzheimer-Erkrankung. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht nun anhand vorwiegend elektrophysiologischer Methoden die posttranskriptionelle Regulation der EAAT durch die Serum- und Glukokortikoid- abhängige Kinase (SGK), die Proteinkinase B (PKB) und die Ubiquitinligase Nedd4-2. Es konnten dabei weitergehende Aufschlüsse über die Rolle der Serum und Glukokortikoid-induzierten Kinase SGK auf die Regulation grundlegender Zellfunktionen gewonnen werden: 1. SGK1 stimuliert die Glutamattransporter EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 und EAAT5 2. SGK2 stimuliert EAAT2 3. SGK3 stimuliert die Glutamattransporter EAAT1...

Computational Approaches for Analyzing the Role of Protein-DNA Interactions in Gene Regulation; Theoretische Ansätze zur Analyse der Rolle von Protein-DNA-Wechselwirkungen in der Genregulation

Höglund, Annette
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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Gene regulation plays a pivotal role at all stages of organism development, in cell differentiation, and for maintaining homeostasis. Controlled spatial and temporal gene expression is achieved by means of complex and robust regulatory networks. A key event in maintaining such networks is the sequence specific protein-DNA recognition, which enables transcription factors to identify their respective binding sites. Computational and structural biologists face intriguing challenges at three different levels when investigating gene regulation. First, the involvement of gene regulation in disease can be addressed by studying global effects of gene regulatory networks, which are visible at the level of systems. Furthermore, detecting the often short and variable transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in genomic DNA is not a trivial task, since the prediction of TFBSs and delineation of functional regulatory modules are conducted at the level of sequences. Finally, there is a challenge in understanding the factors governing transcription factor-DNA recognition, as the information needs to be collected at the molecular level. Structure-based methods provide detailed information about protein-DNA interactions at atomic resolution. In this work...

Regulation of platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase activity in platelets with special consideration of gender effects; Regulation der Aktivität der platelet-type 12-Lipoxygenase in Thrombozyten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung geschlechtsspezifischer Einflüsse

Bühring, Ulrike
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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The first mammalian lipoxygenase to be discovered in 1974 was platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (p12-LO) which was named for the site of its discovery. It belongs to a large family of non-heme dioxygenases including 5-lipoxygenase responsible for leukotriene biosynthesis. Although p12-LO was the first lipoxygenase in mammals to be discovered and research has been going on since the discovery, only very little is known about regulation of activity. Involvement in cancer, angiogenesis, hypertension and platelet activation could be attributed to p12-LO activity and its metabolite 12-HETE and suggests the necessity of intensified research. For this study a focus was put on probable regulation in a sex dependent manner, as androgens had recently been found to be involved in regulation of 5-LO and leukotriene biosynthesis. Additionally, in particular for cardiovascular diseases a gender bias with higher incidence in male has been a long established fact, so a possible sex dependent regulation of p12-LO was proposed. To explore p12-LO regulation in general and to elucidate possible sex dependent regulation in particular, a characterisation of p12-LO regulation in platelets was attempted in this work with two different approaches. One, gender differences in regulation of p12-LO and possible influences of sex hormones were investigated. Two...

National Regulation in a Globalised World an analysis of labour and environmental regulation in Australia and Argentina.

Thomson, Robert
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report analyses labour and environmental regulation in Australia and Argentina. The two countries are economically more similar than one would initially expect. Argentina and Australia are both important agricultural and mineral exporters, stemming from their mineral wealth and extensive arable land. These products are now in demand by the emerging markets of Asia, particularly China. The report focuses on Australia and Argentina's shared export products: wheat, beef and gold. The report analyses labour and environmental regulation of these industries because This report analyses labour and environmental regulation in Australia and Argentina. The two countries are economically more similar than one would initially expect. Argentina and Australia are both important agricultural and mineral exporters, stemming from their mineral wealth and extensive arable land. These products are now in demand by the emerging markets of Asia, particularly China. The report focuses on Australia and Argentina's shared export products: wheat, beef and gold. The report analyses labour and environmental regulation of these industries because these areas differ most between the two countries. The scope of the report does not allow it to undertake a global analysis of the regulation...

Cotton, health and environment: a case study of self-regulation

Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 413181 bytes; 374 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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The Australian cotton industry confronts a range of serious occupational health and environmental challenges, many of which relate to the use and misuse of agricultural chemicals. This article asks which policy instruments are likely to be most effective and efficient in addressing those challenges? Is government regulation a credible option or would industry self-regulation achieve better results? Is there a role for safety. Health and environmental management systems or is some other option, or combination of options, likely to achieve better economic and health and environmental outcomes? More broadly, given the substantial threats to the cotton industry's legitimacy (and indirectly to its economic viability) resulting from its tarnished environmental image, how might the industry best preserve its 'social license' and rebuild trust and credibility with key stakeholders? The answers to these questions will have broader resonance than to the cotton industry alone. The industry provides a classic example of the health and environmental challenges that confront high input, intensively irrigated agriculture and other industries that have aroused a high degree of public concern concerning their health and environmental impact. The ways it has reacted to the pressures it faced and sought through voluntary environmental management arrangements (VEMAs)...

India : Role of Self-Regulatory Organizations in Securities Market Regulation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Note identifies four main theoretical options for securities markets self-regulation in India, based on precedents from international markets. There is no single 'right' approach - the note outlines three options that employ Self Regulatory Organizations (SROs), which could be viable solutions for Indian capital markets. These are: (1) Restructure the existing Exchange SRO system to create a joint SRO subsidiary of the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The new entity would be responsible for both market and member regulation. The Exchanges provide an existing platform for SRO functions that works reasonably well. This platform includes a governance structure, professional management, experienced staff, documented programs and procedures, and IT tools. But this option raises all of the issues on conflicts of interest at Exchange SROs. (2) Hybrid structure: NSE and BSE retain responsibility for market regulation, and create a new independent SRO for member regulation. This option is very similar to Association of National Stock Exchange Members of India's (ANMI's) proposal to create a member-based SRO (but the SRO should not be based on a trade association because of the significant conflicts of interest). It is based on the idea that supervising members is best done by a central regulator...

Economic Regulation of Urban Water and Sanitation Services : Some Practical Lessons

Ehrhardt, David; Groom, Eric; Halpern, Jonathan; O'Connor, Seini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper discusses the regulation of water and sanitation services in urban areas. Specifically, it explores ways of thinking about regulatory design as part of a wider, country-specific program to reform the way in which water supply and sanitation services are provided and paid for. In the past, regulatory advisers often focused on the need to introduce international best practice- generally in the form of an independent regulatory organization-to solve a wide range of performance problems. However, this approach was seldom straightforward, nor was it always successful. There is no one-size-fits-all regulatory design that can be reliably applied to resolve performance problems. Rather, regulation is best developed on a country-by-country basis through answering questions such as the following: a) What are the real sector problems, and which of these can regulation solve? b) What specific objectives is regulation aiming to achieve? c) What combination of organizations and instruments is most suitable and would work best for achieving these regulatory objectives? This paper is not intended to be a detailed guide for regulatory design. Rather...

Développement d’une approche de régulation des essais cliniques dans un contexte de pays en développement : le cas du Mali

Maïga, Diadié
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Le Mali est devenu un milieu attractif pour les essais cliniques. Cependant, le cadre de réglementation pour leur surveillance y est très limité. Le pays manque de l’expertise, de l’infrastructure et des ressources nécessaires pour mettre en œuvre pleinement la régulation. Ceci représente un risque pour la sécurité des sujets de recherche et l’intégrité des résultats scientifiques. Il ne permet pas non plus de s’aligner sur les normes internationales en vigueur, telles que la déclaration d’Helsinki, les directives éthiques internationales du Conseil des organisations internationales des sciences médicales (CIOMS) ou les réglementations de pays industrialisés comme les États-Unis, le Canada ou l’Union Européenne. Pour améliorer la situation, la présente étude vise à comprendre les enjeux de la régulation des essais cliniques au Mali afin de suggérer des pistes de solutions et des recommandations. L’étude a été réalisée à l’aide de méthodes qualitatives, soit l’examen de documents officiels et des entrevues semi-dirigées avec les principaux acteurs impliqués dans les essais cliniques. La théorie néo-institutionnelle a servi de toile de fond à l’analyse des données. L’approche néo-institutionnelle consiste à expliquer l’influence de l’environnement sur les organisations. Selon cette approche...

Prédiction de boucles de régulation associant microARN et gènes régulés par le récepteur de l'acide rétinoïque dans le cancer du sein

Boufaden, Asma
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.13%
Le récepteur de l'acide rétinoïque RAR est une protéine de la superfamille des récepteurs nucléaires liant le ligand acide rétinoïque (AR). En présence de son ligand, RAR induit la transcription de ses gènes cibles alors qu'en son absence la transcription est inhibée. Le mécanisme de régulation de RAR est altéré dans les lignées cellulaires humaines de carcinome mammaire dû à une baisse de capacité de synthèse de l'AR. Aussi, l'expression des microARN (miR) est perturbée dans le cancer du sein et un grand nombre de gènes ont été identifiés, après une analyse in-silico, comme des cibles prédites des miRs. Ces derniers peuvent être régulés pas des facteurs de transcription et ils sont capables d'inhiber la prolifération cellulaire et d'induire l'apoptose via la régulation de leurs cibles. Ainsi, les miRs peuvent jouer un rôle dans le mécanisme de régulation de RAR et être impliqués dans des boucles de régulation avec ce récepteur. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous décrivons une approche développée pour prédire et caractériser des circuits de régulation au niveau transcriptionnel et post-transcriptionnel dans le cancer du sein. Nous nous sommes intéressés aux boucles de régulation de type feed-forward où RAR régule un miR et en commun ils régulent un ensemble de gènes codants pour des protéines dans les cellules tumorales mammaires MCF7 et SKBR3. Ces circuits ont été construits en combinant des données de ChIP-chip de RAR et des données de micro-puces d'ADN tout en utilisant des outils in-silico de prédiction des gènes cibles de miRs. Afin de proposer le modèle approprié de régulation...

Étude de la régulation de la nitrogénase chez Rhodobacter capsulatus dans la noirceur

Riahi, Nesrine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
L’atmosphère terrestre est très riche en azote (N2). Mais cet azote diatomique est sous une forme très stable, inutilisable par la majorité des êtres vivants malgré qu’il soit indispensable pour la synthèse de matériels organiques. Seuls les procaryotes diazotrophiques sont capables de vivre avec le N2 comme source d’azote. La fixation d’azote est un processus qui permet de produire des substances aminées à partir de l’azote gazeux présent dans l’atmosphère (78%). Cependant, ce processus est très complexe et nécessite la biosynthèse d’une vingtaine de protéines et la consommation de beaucoup d’énergie (16 molécules d’ATP par mole de N2 fixé). C’est la raison pour laquelle ce phénomène est rigoureusement régulé. Les bactéries photosynthétiques pourpres non-sulfureuses sont connues pour leur capacité de faire la fixation de l’azote. Les études faites à la lumière, dans le mode de croissance préféré de ces bactéries (photosynthèse anaérobie), ont montré que la nitrogénase (enzyme responsable de la fixation du diazote) est sujet d’une régulation à trois niveaux: une régulation transcriptionnelle de NifA (protéine activatrice de la transcription des gènes nif)...