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Atividade física na fase da meia-idade motivos de adesão e de continuidade; Physical activity in the middle-age phase: dherence and continuity reasons

Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Duarte, Cátia Pereira; Santos, Cristiane Leite dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
A pesquisa realizada tem por objetivo identificar os motivos que conduzem pessoas de meia-idade à participarem de atividades físicas, abordando pontos variados para auxiliar na compreensão de atitudes (expectativas, motivações, resultados, impedimentos). Realiza-se uma investigação social exploratória baseada numa metodologia qualitativa com 60 pessoas ativas. Os resultados permitem a identificação dos motivos que conduzem pessoas de meia-idade (com mínima experiência) a participarem de atividades físicas, porém reafirmam a necessidade de mais investigações sobre a influência social e o comportamento ativo ou sedentário nas diferentes fases de vida.; The aim ofthis research is to identify the reasons that drive the middle-age people to the perform physical activities and to board varied points that assist in the comprehension of the attitudes (expectations, motivations, results, impediments). This study is an exploratory social investigation based in a qualitative methodology with 60 active people. The results allow the Identification of the reasons that drive people with more than four life decades (with minimum experience) practice physical activities, but more investigation is necessary about social influence and the active or sedentary behavior in different life phases.

Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. health control reasons : the impact on eating disturbance and psychological functioning

Gonçalves, Sónia; Gomes, António Rui
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise motivated by health and weight/shape reasons. In total, 301 participants (53.5% males) completed questionnaires assessing eating behaviors, affect, self-esteem and attitudes toward exercise. Almost 48% of the participants reported that their exercise is motivated by weight/shape reasons. These individuals were more likely to report eating problems and more positive affect after exercising. For both groups, gender, ideal weight, and the impact of weight gain on self-esteem significantly predict disordered eating. Body mass index, affect, and attitudes toward exercise also emerged as predictors for the health reasons group. Weight and shape control reasons for exercise participation were very common and related to eating disturbance.

The impact of type of language and number of reasons on purchase intent

Botelho, Eduardo Taborda Ferreira
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; In many industries, as competition gets more intense, differentiation becomes increasingly more important and brands need to communicate their product advantages. There are many different ways of communicating product benefits, and many firms choose to use very specific technical terms in their communication. An experiment was conducted, replicating a real decision making situation, using claims with daily versus technical language and manipulating the Number of Reasons presented to support the product’s benefit. Then, Purchase Intent was measured according to the claim used. Results indicate that, for low involvement products, the use of technical terms without explaining them, as well as presenting one versus two reasons, has no impact on Purchase Intent. Results are discussed.

Social capital and under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women: evidence from two Brazilian health surveys

Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges; Loyola Filho,Antônio Ignácio de; Lima-Costa,Maria Fernanda
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and examines the role of social and demographic factors, health conditions, health system characteristics and contextual factors of under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women. Participants in the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey (GMBH) and the eleventh phase of the Bambuí Cohort Study of the Elderly were assessed. Among elderly women in the GMBH, the prevalence of under-utilization was 11.4%, and in Bambuí, the rate was 5.4%. Self-perception of health (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.32_9.10); daily life limitations (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.31-5.78) and perception of help (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.07-5.25) had independent associations with under-utilization among GMBH residents. A poor perception of both cohesion in the neighborhood (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.56) and the physical environment (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.10-6.03) significantly increased the likelihood of under-utilization among Bambuí residents. These results provide important clues to identifying possible risk factors for under-utilization, highlighting the need to develop strategies targeting the amplification of the involvement between elderly women and their community to reduce the extent of under-utilization in later life.

Reasons, capacities and the motivational requirement.

Lowry, Rosemary
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
This thesis analyses theories of practical reason. In particular I compare desire theories of reasons with value theories of reasons. Desire theories of reasons, as I define them, claim that it is a necessary condition of A having a reason to ф that A’s reason depend on A’s antecedent desires. In contrast, I define value theories of reasons as those theories that claim that it is a necessary condition of A having a reason to ф that A’s ф-ing be valuable. In this thesis my main concern lies with those value theorists who accept the motivational requirement: the claim that if an agent is to have a reason to ф, then it must be possible for the agent to ф on the basis of this reason. In particular, I concentrate on those value theorists who claim that A has a reason to ф iff a) A’s ф-ing is valuable; b) it is possible for A to ф on the basis of this reason. I reject desire theories of reasons on the basis of several criticisms. I claim that our desires are normatively arbitrary, and that according to desire theories of reasons, some of our desires ought to be eradicated. I argue instead for a value theory of reasons that adopts a particular interpretation of the motivational requirement. I distinguish three different interpretations of the motivational requirement...

Classification of reasons for poor customer experiences in service industries: the case of public transport

Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: Gordon Breach Sci Publ Ltd Publicador: Gordon Breach Sci Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This paper examines why failures and deficiencies in customer service occur, as discussed in both general business research and in public transport research. The focus is not on individual encounters between customers and a service provider, but on the organisational context that leads to a particular quality of customer experience. Going beyond the facts about service quality, the reasons for failures in quality need to be classified and organised. Suggestions are made for this, beginning by distinguishing between reasons internal to public transport itself (which are split into four types, each being sub-classified) and those external (again of four types, each subclassified). The proposed method of organising the reasons is not specific to public transport, but could be adapted to other industries.; T.P. Hutchinson

Low adoption of pharmacogenetic testing: an exploration and explanation of the reasons in Australia

Corkindale, D.; Ward, H.; McKinnon, R.
Fonte: Future Medicine Publicador: Future Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The research reported here sought to identify and illuminate the reasons for the low adoption of pharmacogenetic tests in Australia. The research initially established possible reasons and propositions drawn from previous studies and surveys on the problem in Europe and the literature on the adoption of innovations. A small-scale exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken in one state in Australia; clinicians and other stake-holders were interviewed about their use of or support for pharmacogenetic tests. The expected, quite extensive individual factors known to influence adoption and rejection of innovations were found to be present in the situations covered. The reasons for nonadoption that were found in previous surveys were also supported. Some other, possibly critical, reasons were also identified. The implications from this initial exploration are discussed and the prospects for the increased use of the tests proposed.; David Corkindale, Helena Ward & Ross McKinnon

Building Reasons Without Authority

Husi, Stan
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 418 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
My dissertation defends a comprehensive version of meta-nonnative skepticism which holds that no standard, norm, or principle has objective authority or normative force. The view does not deny either that there are norms, standards of correctness, and principles of various kinds or that it is possible both to succeed or fail in measuring up to their prerogatives. What it does deny is that any norm has the status of commanding with objective authority, the status of giving rise to objective normative reasons to take seriously and follow its demands. Many believe objective authority is required if we are to make sense of and explain the significance of our normative practices. Without authority, they fear, any critical standpoint vis-à-vis our practices would evaporate, even when we have reached a consensus regarding critical matters, which, without correctness, appears to reflect nothing but an ultimately arbitrary choice. I disagree, and argue that while authority cannot be accommodated within the world as we know it, we don't need it either. A chief goal of my dissertation is to propose a positive interpretation of our normative practices that dispenses with authoritative facts directing us what to do. The practical question of what to make of our practices and our involvement with them...

Relating to Reasons

LANGLOIS, CHRISTOPHER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.63%
While each of us has an intuitive sense of what a reason is, when considered more carefully the concept is not so clear. There are a number of questions to which any successful account of reasons will provide some answer. For example, on some accounts reasons may appear to be metaphysically odd entities, unlike other sorts of facts in our world. From here there are very serious questions which spring up regarding the motivational efficacy of reasons: given the nature of reasons, as respective accounts describe them, how is it that reasons get a grip in an agent? Further, whatever reasons are, and in whichever relation agents stand to reasons, how is it that agents get in touch with truths about reasons? How in theory – and importantly, in practice – do agents figure out which reasons apply to them? I will be defending a view of reasons in which reasons are primitive. This is what T.M. Scanlon calls 'Reasons Fundamentalism'. In particular, I will defend this view against charges which claim that an account of reasons as primitive or fundamental fails us in the following three respects: 1) it cannot provide us with an adequate account of what sorts of facts reasons are, and how they intermingle with other sorts of facts; 2) it cannot provide us with adequate account of how a consideration can count as a reason for an agent even if that agent fails to be gripped by the consideration...

Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

Reisner, Andrew
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 266523 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
Une des façons d’approcher la question de l’existence de raisons partiales non-dérivatives d’une quelconque sorte consiste à expliquer ce que sont les raisons partiales et ensuite à chercher à savoir s’il y a des raisons de cette sorte. Si de telles raisons existent, alors il est au moins possible qu’il y ait des raisons partiales d’amitié. C’est cette approche que j’adopterai ici, et elle produit des résultats intéressants. Le premier a trait à la structure des raisons partiales. C’est au moins une condition nécessaire pour qu’une raison soit partiale qu’elle aie une composante relationnelle explicite. Cette composante, techniquement parlant, est un relatum dans la relation d’être une raison qui elle-même est une relation entre la personne à qui la raison s’applique et la personne concernée par l’action pour laquelle il y a une raison. La deuxième conclusion de ce texte est que cette composante relationnelle est aussi requise dans de nombreuses sortes de raisons admises comme impartiales. Afin d’éviter de banaliser la distinction entre raisons partiales et impartiales nous devons appliquer une condition suffisante additionnelle. Finalement, bien qu’il pourrait s’avérer possible de distinguer les raisons impartiales ayant une composante relationnelle des raisons partiales...

Clube de matemática: palco de transformação dos motivos da atividade de estudo; Mathematics club: stage of transformation of the reasons for study activity

Silva , Douglas Aires da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This research aims to understand the transformation of the reasons for the activity study of students in Math Club in search of the answer to our question: What is the movement of the reasons for the activity study of students in relation to mathematical knowledge? Become aware of this process is relevant in a space in which the organization of teaching in mathematics can be more one of the factors that contribute to the process of humanization of the subjects involved in the teaching-learning dyad. The current model of education has proved inefficient for emancipation of children maintaining the conditions of alienation developed in the historical path, due to the economic system we live. Think about a humanizing education, that is, capable of humanizing the child and overcome this alienation that exist in the capitalist education; implies thinking of a way to organize the teaching in which subjects are participants of the learning process. The Mathematics Club is a project that is an example of this mode of organization. This bias, we considered three pillars: collaborative work, the problem situation (triggering learning) and the playful character. Based on cultural-historical theory and activity theory, with foundations in the historical - dialectical materialism...

Improving Global Health: Counting Reasons Why

Selgelid, Michael
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This paper examines cumulative ethical and self-interested reasons why wealthy developed nations should be motivated to do more to improve health care in developing countries. Egalitarian and human rights reasons why wealthy nations should do more to impr

Academic book reviews in English and Spanish: Is “giving reasons for critical comments” a universal politeness strategy?

Moreno, Ana I.; Suárez, Lorena
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Capítulo de libro Formato: 12948 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Forthcoming book chapter; In academic journal book reviewing, critical comments on the book under review (henceforth critical comments) can be considered potential face-threatening acts (FTAs). Given the especial interpersonal conflict potentially caused by assessing the work written by a peer in a public context, it may be wise for reviewers to mitigate their force. In the present paper we focus on a politeness strategy, i.e. giving reasons, which commonly serves reviewers to redress the force of the FTA potentially caused. We aim to provide insight into the extent to which scholars from different but comparable writing cultures justify their critical comments with supporting reasons, thus helping them to manage the potential interpersonal conflict created. Our empirical comparison is based on two comparable corpora of academic book reviews of literature, 20 written in Anglo-American English, and 20 in Castilian Spanish. The results show that, while reviewers in the two corpora offer a substantial amount of unjustified critical comments, these are proportionally more frequent in the Spanish corpus. Also, while the Anglo-American reviewers are more inclined to justify negative critical comments than positive ones, this tendency is opposite for the Castilian Spanish reviewers. A semi-structured e-mail questionnaire is piloted to see whether responses from reviewers to an open-ended question on these issues could reveal any explanatory information. Implications for English for Academic Purposes are drawn.; Peer reviewed

Razões de desmame e de introdução da mamadeira: uma abordagem alternativa para seu estudo; Reasons for weaning and the introduction of bottle-feeding: an alternative approach

Rea, Marina Ferreira; Cukier, Rosa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1988 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
Descrevem-se as razões alegadas pelas mães para o desmame e a introdução de mamadeira em uma amostra de 875 mulheres, de um bairro de São Paulo, que deram a luz em uma maternidade pública local, em 1985. Estas mães fizeram parte de um estudo de intervenção pró-amamentação desenvolvido nos serviços públicos de saúde por elas freqüentados até o 4º mês de vida das crianças. Discutem-se formas diferentes de coleta de dados sobre o processo de desmame e apresentam-se três maneiras distintas de analisar tais dados. Conclui-se que as razões mais alegadas pelas mães para introduzir a mamadeira, quando colhidas em várias entrevistas com elas ("entrevistas múltiplas") são: trabalho fora do lar (20,5%), nervosismo (12,5%) e conveniência da mãe (11/0%). Entretanto, quando tais razões são argüidas em apenas um primeiro contacto, assim aparecem: choro do bebê (23,0%), conceitos ou suposições sobre o aleitamento (12,5%) e trabalho fora do lar (11,0%). Estas diferenças no perfil de razões conforme o tipo de coleta, não aparecem evidentes no caso de razões para o desmame completo, entretanto, acreditando-se ser o desmame um processo, onde razões de introdução da mamadeira e do desmame devem ser vistas como um todo...

Reasons And Real Selves

VARGAS,MANUEL
Fonte: Ideas y Valores Publicador: Ideas y Valores
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Most accounts of responsibility begin from either of two prominent points of departure: the idea that an agent must have some characterological or expressive connection to the action, or alternately, the idea that an agent must be in some sense responsive to reasons. Here, I will argue that the relation between these two approaches to moral responsibility is much more complicated than is ordinarily assumed. I shall argue that there are reasons to think that one of these views may ultimately collapse into the other, and if not, that there is nevertheless reason to think one of these views has misidentified the features of agency relevant to moral responsibility. The view that follows is one that we might call the primacy of reasons. In the second half of the article I consider whether recent experimental work speaks in favor of the alternative to the primacy of reasons. Its proponents argue that it does. I argue that it does not.

Reasons in Action v Triggering-Reasons: A Reply to Enoch on Reason-Giving and Legal Normativity

Rodriguez-Blanco,Veronica
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.64%
The central problem of the 'normativity of law' concerns how legal rules or directives give us reasons for actions. The core of this question is how something that is external to the agent, such as legal rules or directives, can be 'part of the agent', and how they can guide the agent in performing complex actions (such as legal rule-following) that persist over time. David Enoch has denied that the normativity of law poses any interesting challenge to theories of law. He argues that law provides reasons for actions in terms of what he calls triggering-reasons and he advances the view that because there are many circumstances in which reasons are triggered, law does not pose a special challenge. According to Enoch, once we understand the way that triggering reasons operate, we can understand how legal rules and directives provide us with reasons for actions. In §II of this paper, I set the stage for the debate and establish a set of principles that emerge from the common sense of view of reasons for actions and argue that any theory of reasons for action should provide a coherent explanation of these key principles. I focus on the idea that a satisfactory account of reasons for action should also explain reasons in actions. In §III I explain briefly the different theories of reasons for action and locate Enoch's conception of reasons for action as triggering-reasons within this theoretical framework. In §IV I show that Enoch's conception of reasons for actions does not explain some of the key features or principles that emerge from our common sense view of reasons for action and nor does it explain reasons in actions.

Law and Reasons: Comments on Rodriguez-Blanco

Bix,Brian H.
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
In Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco's thoughtful and important article, "Reasons in Action v Triggering Reasons: A Reply to Enoch on Reason-Giving and Legal Normativity, " she explores with great care the nature of reason-giving, in connection with challenging David Enoch's influential recent work on reason-giving and the law. While Rodriguez-Blanco's article makes an important contribution to the literature on the best understanding of reason-giving and practical reasoning, it is not clear that an approach to reasons for action reformed along the lines Rodriguez-Blanco suggests would change or clarify the ultimate question on which she focuses: the way in which legal systems in general or individual legal norms do (or do not) give citizens reasons for action. The question of whether we have a general (presumptive) moral obligation to act (or refrain from acting) as legal norms direct us depends to a significant degree on whether there are good arguments against an individualistic, case by case, approach to responding to such norms.

The Dorsland Treks to Angola (1974-1928) and the reasons behind them

Stassen,Nicol
Fonte: Historia Publicador: Historia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
During the late nineteenth century a number of organised treks left the Transvaal. The first of these left the ZAR in May 1874. Seven years later, in January 1881 , after the amalgamation of the first three treks, they settled at Humpata on the Hufla highlands in the Portuguese colony of Angola. From 1892 to 1894 three further major treks followed. After the last major trek in 1907 the Portuguese government prohibited further treks. In 1928 about 2 000 Angola Boers were repatriated to South-West Africa, while 380-470 remained in Angola. These treks were complex phenomena as a result of economic, religious and political factors. Initially, resistance to the "irreligious" and "liberal" government of T.F. Burgers were the most important reasons for the trek. New labour legislation, political uncertainty, internal dissent in the Transvaal and economic factors also contributed to the dissatisfaction. Lack of sufficient farming land, population pressure, poverty, misgivings about new taxes and the search for new hunting grounds probably played a minor role. Dread of modernisation and British imperialism, the introduction of intensive farming, gold fever, drought or natural disasters and the "trekking spirit" or "trek fever" probably played no role at all.

Social capital and under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women: evidence from two Brazilian health surveys

Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges; Loyola Filho,Antônio Ignácio de; Lima-Costa,Maria Fernanda
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and examines the role of social and demographic factors, health conditions, health system characteristics and contextual factors of under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women. Participants in the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey (GMBH) and the eleventh phase of the Bambuí Cohort Study of the Elderly were assessed. Among elderly women in the GMBH, the prevalence of under-utilization was 11.4%, and in Bambuí, the rate was 5.4%. Self-perception of health (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.32_9.10); daily life limitations (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.31-5.78) and perception of help (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.07-5.25) had independent associations with under-utilization among GMBH residents. A poor perception of both cohesion in the neighborhood (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.56) and the physical environment (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.10-6.03) significantly increased the likelihood of under-utilization among Bambuí residents. These results provide important clues to identifying possible risk factors for under-utilization, highlighting the need to develop strategies targeting the amplification of the involvement between elderly women and their community to reduce the extent of under-utilization in later life.

EMPIRICAL BELIEFS, PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCES AND REASONS

Abath, André Joffily
Fonte: UNICAMP-CLE-Publicações Publicador: UNICAMP-CLE-Publicações
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
John McDowell and Bill Brewer famously defend the view that one can only have empirical beliefs if one’s perceptual experiences serve as reasons for such beliefs, where reasons are understood in terms of subject’s reasons. In this paper I show, first, that it is a consequence of the adoption of such a requirement for one to have empirical beliefs that children as old as 3 years of age have to considered as not having genuine empirical beliefs at all. But we have strong reasons to think that 3- year-old children have empirical beliefs, or so I argue. If this is the case, McDowell and Brewer’s requirement for one to have empirical beliefs faces a strong challenge. After showing this, I propose an alternative requirement for one to have empirical beliefs, and argue that it should be favoured over McDowell and Brewer’s requirement. Resumo: John McDowell e Bill Brewer famosamente defendem a visão de que um sujeito pode ter crenças empíricas apenas se as experiências perceptuais do sujeito servirem de razões para tais crenças, onde razões são entendidas em termos de razões do sujeito. Neste artigo, mostro, primeiro, que é uma consequência da adoção desse requerimento para que um sujeito possua crenças empíricas que crianças já em seus 3 anos de idade têm que ser consideradas como não possuindo crenças empíricas. Porém...