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"Raciocínio clínico: o desafio do cuidar" ; Clinical Reasoning: the challenge of caring

Corrêa, Consuelo Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/10/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Corrêa CG. Raciocínio Clínico: o desafio do cuidar. [tese] São Paulo (SP): Escola de Enfermagem da USP; 2003. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é compreender a experiência do raciocínio clínico de enfermeiros especialistas. Utiliza-se como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e como referencial metodológico a Teoria Fundamentada em Dados (Grounded Theory). Em entrevistas, 11 enfermeiros especialistas foram solicitados a relatar a experiência de identificar necessidades de cuidados em uma situação clínica que haviam vivenciado. A análise comparativa dos dados conduziu o delineamento de um modelo sobre a experiência do raciocínio clínico do enfermeiro especialista. O raciocínio diagnóstico apresentou-se indissociável do raciocínio terapêutico na maioria dos relatos. O modelo foi definido por três constructos. O constructo ENCONTRANDO-SE NO DESAFIO DO CUIDAR representa os processos pelos quais o enfermeiro vivencia o desafio do raciocínio clínico. A partir da vivência do desafio emerge o segundo constructo CUIDANDO que se refere ao processo central do raciocínio clínico. Trata-se de um processo sistematizado e dinâmico, composto de uma seqüência de pensamentos do enfermeiro no sentido de tomar decisões sobre suas ações. Esses dois constructos integrados são permeados por um terceiro...

Raciocínio diagnóstico de enfermeiros e estudantes de enfermagem; Baccalaureate nurses and undergraduate students diagnostic reasoning

Rodrigues, Adriana da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
O conhecimento sobre o raciocínio diagnóstico de enfermeiros e estudantes de enfermagem é importante para orientar decisões sobre a formação e educação permanente de enfermeiros. Os objetivos deste estudo foram adaptar o Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) para uso no Brasil, estimar as propriedades psicométricas do instrumento adaptado, e analisar o raciocínio diagnóstico de enfermeiros e estudantes de enfermagem segundo variáveis selecionadas. O DTI é um inventário de origem canadense, alicerçado na teoria da geração de hipóteses, desenvolvido para avaliar o raciocínio diagnóstico em dois domínios (grau de flexibilidade do pensamento e grau de estrutura de conhecimento na memória). O processo de adaptação do DTI resultou em uma versão brasileira que foi aplicada em uma amostra de 83 enfermeiros (28,9%); idade média de 29,7±,6,66 anos e 205 estudantes (71,1%); idade média de 24,7 ±5,61 anos. A análise fatorial confirmatória dos 41 itens do DTI mostrou ajuste moderado do modelo (2 = 1369; GFI= 0,793; AGFI= 0,771; RMSEA= 0,053; NFI= 0,458; NNFI= 0,635; CFI= 0,654 e SRMR= 0,068) e consistência interna (alfa de Crombach) boa ou aceitável para o total dos itens (0,801), para o domínio de flexibilidade (0...

Interpretação de imagens com raciocínio espacial qualitativo probabilístico.; Probabilistic qualitative spatial reasoning for image interpretation.

Pereira, Valquiria Fenelon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Um sistema artificial pode usar raciocínio espacial qualitativo para inferir informações sobre seu ambiente tridimensional a partir de imagens bidimensionais. Inferências realizadas com base em raciocínio espacial qualitativo devem ser capazes de lidar com incertezas. Neste trabalho investigamos a utilização de técnicas probabilísticas para tornar o raciocínio espacial qualitativo mais robusto a incertezas e aplicável a agentes móveis em ambientes reais. Investigamos uma formalização de raciocínio espacial com lógica de descrição probabilística em um subdomínio de tráfego. Desenvolvemos também um método que combina raciocínio espacial qualitativo com um filtro Bayesiano para desenvolver dois sistemas que foram aplicados na auto localização de um robô móvel. Executamos dois experimentos de auto localização; um utilizando a teoria de relações qualitativas percebíveis sobre sombra com filtro Bayesiano; e outro utilizando o cálculo de oclusão de regiões e o cálculo de direção com filtro Bayesiano. Ambos os sistemas obtiveram resultados positivos onde somente o raciocínio espacial qualitativo não foi capaz de inferir a localização do robô. Os experimentos com dados reais mostraram robustez aos ruídos e à informação parcial.; An artificial system can use qualitative spatial reasoning to obtain information about its tridimensional environment...

Raciocínio baseado em casos aplicado ao gerenciamento de falhas em redes de computadores; Case-based reasoning applied to fault management in computer networks

Melchiors, Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Com o crescimento do número e da heterogeneidade dos equipamentos presentes nas atuais redes de computadores, o gerenciamento eficaz destes recursos toma-se crítico. Esta atividade exige dos gerentes de redes a disponibilidade de uma grande quantidade de informações sobre os seus equipamentos, as tecnologias envolvidas e os problemas associados a elas. Sistemas de registro de problemas (trouble ticket systems) tem lido utilizados para armazenar os incidentes ocorridos, servindo como uma memória histórica da rede e acumulando o conhecimento derivado do processo de diagnose e resolução de problemas. Todavia, o crescente número de registros armazenados torna a busca manual nestes sistemas por situações similares ocorridas anteriormente muito morosa e imprecisa. Assim, uma solução apropriada para consolidar a memória histórica das redes é o desenvolvimento de um sistema especialista que utilize o conhecimento armazenado nos sistemas de registro de problemas para propor soluções para um problema corrente. Uma abordagem da Inteligência Artificial que tem atraído enorme atenção nos últimos anos e que pode ser utilizada para tal fim é o raciocínio baseado em casos (casebased reasoning). Este paradigma de raciocínio visa propor soluções para novos problemas através da recuperação de um caso similar ocorrido no passado...

Raciocínio sobre conhecimento visual : um estudo em estratigrafia sedimentar; Reasoning over visual knowledge: a study in sedimentary stratigraphy

Carbonera, Joel Luis
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Domínios imagísticos são os domínios nos quais a resolução de problemas inicia com um processo de reconhecimento dos objetos de domínio a partir da informação visual capturada, suportando interpretações mais abstratas em eventuais etapas subsequentes. A resolução de problemas, em domínio imagísticos, demanda dos especialistas a aplicação intensiva de conhecimento visual, que corresponde ao conjunto de modelos mentais que suportam o processo de raciocínio sobre a informação associada ao arranjo espacial e outros aspectos visuais das entidades do domínio. O conhecimento visual geralmente corresponde à porção tácita do conhecimento dos praticantes do domínio, de modo que ele geralmente é utilizado de modo inconsciente, resistindo à verbalização explícita. Estas características do conhecimento visual são desafiadoras do ponto de vista de Engenharia do Conhecimento. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é delinear uma abordagem integrada para aquisição, modelagem, representação e raciocínio sobre conhecimento visual, do ponto de vista da Engenharia do Conhecimento. A interpretação visual é uma tarefa comum em domínios imagísticos, cuja resolução demanda dos especialistas um raciocínio que envolve a realização de um processo cognitivo que inicia com a percepção visual direta de características dos objetos já conhecidos no domínio...

Focusing on young chindren’s additive and multiplicative reasoning

Mamede, Ema; Soutinho, Florbela
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
This paper describes a brief study to analyse how 4-6-years-old children solve different types of additive and multiplicative reasoning problems. Individual interviews were conducted on kindergarten children when solving the problems. Their performance as well as their explanations were analysed when solving additive and multiplicative reasoning problems. The additive reasoning problems comprised simple, inverse and comparative problems; the multiplicative ones comprised simples and inverse problems. Results suggested that Portuguese kindergarten children have some informal knowledge that allowed them to solve additive and multiplicative reasoning problems with understanding.; CIEC – Research Centre on Child studies, UM (FCT R&D 317)

Combining Associational and Causal Reasoning to Solve Interpretation and Planning Problems

Simmons, Reid G.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 215 p.; 20424253 bytes; 15960716 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report describes a paradigm for combining associational and causal reasoning to achieve efficient and robust problem-solving behavior. The Generate, Test and Debug (GTD) paradigm generates initial hypotheses using associational (heuristic) rules. The tester verifies hypotheses, supplying the debugger with causal explanations for bugs found if the test fails. The debugger uses domain-independent causal reasoning techniques to repair hypotheses, analyzing domain models and the causal explanations produced by the tester to determine how to replace faulty assumptions made by the generator. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of associational and causal reasoning techniques, and present a theory of debugging plans and interpretations. The GTD paradigm has been implemented and tested in the domains of geologic interpretation, the blocks world, and Tower of Hanoi problems.

Explicit Representation of Events, Actions and Plans for Assumption-Based Plan Reasoning

Ferguson, George M.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We propose a wide-ranging knowledge representation formalism designed expressly to support many different forms of reasoning about plans. We begin with an event-based language based on the interval temporal logic. The language supports reasoning about action attempts and composite actions, both of which are given axiomatic definitions. We then define a representation for plans viewed as arguments that a certain course of action under certain explicit conditions will achieve certain goals. We can represent both correct and incorrect plans, and reason about why they might or might not fail. An important aspect of this work is the formal characterization of plan reasoning as assumption-based reasoning, to make the non-deductive aspects of plan reasoning explicit. A preliminary implementation of these ideas has already been built as the plan reasoning component of the TRAINS system.

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for Mixed-Initiative Planning

Ferguson, George M. ; Allen, James F.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Technical Report; Thesis
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 1995. Simultaneously published in the Technical Report series.; This dissertation describes the formal foundations and implementation of a commonsense, mixed-initiative plan reasoning system. By ``plan reasoning' I mean the complete range of cognitive tasks that people perform with plans including, for example, plan construction (planning), plan recognition, plan evaluation and comparison, and plan repair (replanning), among other things. ``Mixed-initiative' means that several participants can each make contributions to the plan under development through some form of communication. ``Commonsense' means that the system represents plans and their constituents at a level that is ``natural' to us in the sense that they can be described and discussed in language. In addition, the reasoning that the system performs includes those conclusions that we would take to be sanctioned by common sense, including especially those conclusions that are defeasible given additional knowledge or time spent reasoning. The main theses of this dissertation are the following: (1) Any representation of plans sufficient for commonsense plan reasoning must be based on an expressive and natural representation of such underlying phenomena as time...

Clinical reasoning strategies in physical therapy

Edwards, I.; Jones, M.; Carr, J.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Jensen, G.
Fonte: Amer Physical Therapy Assoc Publicador: Amer Physical Therapy Assoc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical reasoning remains a relatively under-researched subject in physical therapy. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the clinical reasoning of expert physical therapists in 3 different fields of physical therapy: orthopedic (manual) physical therapy, neurological physical therapy, and domiciliary care (home health) physical therapy. Subjects. The subjects were 6 peer-designated expert physical therapists (2 from each field) nominated by leaders within the Australian Physiotherapy Association and 6 other interviewed experts representing each of the same 3 fields. METHODS: Guided by a grounded theory method, a multiple case study approach was used to study the clinical practice of the 6 physical therapists in the 3 fields. Results. A model of clinical reasoning in physical therapy characterized by the notion of "clinical reasoning strategies" is proposed by the authors. Within these clinical reasoning strategies, the application of different paradigms of knowledge and their interplay within reasoning is termed "dialectical reasoning." DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide a potential clinical reasoning framework for the adoption of emerging models of impairment and disability in physical therapy.; Ian Edwards...

Ethical reasoning as a clinical-reasoning strategy in physiotherapy

Edwards, I.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Jones, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd. Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
The ethics literature in physiotherapy has long recognised the need to better understand the relationship between ethical reasoning and clinical decision-making in clinical practice. This paper proposes a model of clinical reasoning which demonstrates how ethical reasoning can be considered in a wider clinical-reasoning framework without reducing the complex, moral dimensions of ethical reasoning to merely logical and rational processes of clinical decision-making.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/702542/description#description; Ian Edwards, Annette Braunack-Mayer and Mark Jones; Copyright © 2005 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Proceedings of the Conference on Hypothetical Reasoning, 23-24 August 2014, Tübingen

Piecha, Thomas; Schroeder-Heister, Peter
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Proceedings (Komplette Ausgabe einer Konferenz etc.)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Hypothetical reasoning or reasoning under assumptions is a key concept of logic, philosophy of science and mathematics. The Conference on Hypothetical Reasoning focussed on its logical aspects, such as assumption-based calculi and their proof theory, logical consequence from a proof-theoretic or model-theoretic point of view, logics of conditionals, proof systems, structure of assumption-based proofs, hypotheses in proof-theoretic semantics, notions of implication, substructural logics, hypotheses in categorial logic, logical aspects of scientific explanation, hypothetical reasoning in mathematics and reasoning from definitions and axioms. The conference took place 23–24 August, 2014 in Tübingen at the Department of Philosophy, in conjunction with ESSLLI 2014. The proceedings collect abstracts, slides and papers of the presentations given.

Rights and Moral Reasoning: An Unstated Assumption

SADURSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Both the defenders and critics of judicial review assume tacitly that there is a special moral capacity needed for a correct articulation of constitutional (explicit or implied) rights, and they only disagree about who is likely to possess this moral capacity to a higher degree. In this working paper I challenge this unstated assumption. It is not the case that the reasoning oriented towards rights articulation is more moral than many non-rights-oriented authoritative public decisions in the society. Further, I suggest that rights-related reasoning cannot be shown to be differently moral in a way which would support the idea that this relevant difference may justify why some political agents (such as judges) may be more suited to performing this particular type of moral reasoning than others (such as legislators). The best argument for such a distinction refers to the opportunity for and habit of conducting “moral thought experiments” which is what, as part of their professional duties, judges normally do, and which they can therefore instinctively do also when they engage in a “concrete” judicial review of a statute. But there is no good moral reason to believe that “moral thought experiments” triggered by specific fact-situations should be privileged as a method of moral reasoning...

Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

SARTOR, Giovanni
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

Using a model to describe students??? inductive reasoning in problem solving

Ca??adas, Mar??a C.; Castro, Encarnaci??n; Castro, Enrique
Fonte: Universidad de Almer??a, Education & Psychology I+D+i y Editorial EOS Publicador: Universidad de Almer??a, Education & Psychology I+D+i y Editorial EOS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Introduction: We present some aspects of a wider investigation (Ca??adas, 2007), which main objective is to describe and characterize inductive reasoning used by Spanish students in years 9 and 10 when they work on problems that involved linear and quadratic sequences. Method: We proposed a questionnaire constituted by six problems of different characteristics related to sequences to 359 Secondary students to work on. These problems could be solved using inductive reasoning. We used an inductive reasoning model composed by seven states (Ca??adas and Castro, 2007) to analyze students??? responses. Results: We show some results related to: (a) the frequencies of the states performed by stu-dents, (b) the relationships between the frequencies of states depending on the characteristics of the problems, and (c) the study of the (in)dependence relationships among different states of the model of inductive reasoning. Discussion: We can conclude that the model of inductive reasoning was useful to describe students??? performance. In this paper, we highlight that this model is not linear. As an example, students reach the generalization state without passing through the previous states in some problems. To describe how students reach more advanced states without the previous ones and analyze if the performance of the intermediate states could have been helpful for students are pending tasks.; Introducci??n: Presentamos algunos aspectos de una investigaci??n m??s amplia (Ca??adas...

Rights and moral reasoning: an unstated assumption - a comment on Jeremy Waldron's 'judges as moral reasoners'

SADURSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Both defenders and critics of judicial review assume that a special moral capacity is needed for a correct articulation of constitutional rights, although they disagree about who is likely to possess this moral capacity to a greater degree. In this comment I challenge such an assumption. Reasoning that is oriented toward rights articulation is not 'more moral' than non-rights-oriented authoritative public decision making. Rights-related reasoning cannot be shown to be 'differently moral' in order to justify why some political actors-such as judges-may be better suited to performing this particular type of moral reasoning than others-such as legislators. The best argument for such a distinction hinges on the opportunity an actor may have to conduct 'moral thought experiments,' which is what judges, as part of their professional duties, normally do. But there is no justification for believing that such 'experiments,' triggered by specific, factual situations, should be privileged, as a method of moral reasoning, over abstract, principle-based reasoning. If anything, a good case can be made for deliberately abstracting from specific cases and focusing on the general, along the lines of a Rawlsian 'reflective equilibrium.'

Moral reasoning and ethics in educational leadership /

O'Rourke, Paul.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
School leaders face difficult decisions regarding discipline matters. Often, such decisions play an important role in determining the moral tone of the school and the health of the school community. Many stakeholders are affected by the outcome of such decisions. Codes of conduct, board and school policies, and discipline meetings are often shrouded under secrecy, making the discipline process mysterious. .; In this study I examined the process of moral reasoning. I sought to determine the extent to which school leaders were aware that they were involved in a process of moral reasoning, and ftirthermore, what kind of moral reasoning they practiced. As well, I investigated the ethical grounds and foundations underlying moral reasoning. Thus, in this study I probed the awareness of the process of moral reasoning and sought to find the ethical grounding of decision making. This qualitative study featured short field research. The process involved individual interviews with three different participants: school leaders of a public. Catholic, and an independent school. It found that each school leader practiced moral reasoning to varying degrees through the discipline process. It also explored the possible democratization of moral reasoning by linking to concepts such as fairness...

O raciocínio prático em Aristóteles; The practical reasoning in Aristotle

D'OCA, Fernando Rodrigues Montes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Filosofia; Progama de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Filosofia; Progama de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The objective of this work is to explain how practical reasoning takes place in Aristotle. This is a delicate and controversial issue of the Aristotelian practical philosophy, since he did not dedicate any moment of his work the Stagirite to closely analyze the practical reasoning. In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle deals with deliberation, prudence, and practical syllogism, but we do not see him coordinate these themes as a concluded whole in a theory of the practical reasoning. This research aims to do so in order to precisely determine how the practical reasoning of a moral agent works, since its beginning, in the apprehension of a conception of the good, until its conclusion, in the imminence of an action. To do so this work undertakes an analysis of important conceptions about the theory of practical reasoning. Initially, two preliminary themes are dealt with: happiness and moral virtue, and right in sequence it goes deeper in the theme of practical reasoning analyzing the concepts of deliberate choice, of deliberation, and, most of all, of prudential reason, seeing that its operation covers a considerable part of the practical reasoning of the moral agent. But practical reasoning is not completely explained only by understanding such themes neither can it be limited to the operation of prudential reason. The theory of practical syllogism also appears as an important element in the explanation of how practical reasoning works. As a result of this...

Evolutionary adaptation in case - based reasoning. An application to cross-domain analogies for mediation

Gunes Baydin, Atilim; Puyol-Gruart, Josep
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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L'analogia juga un papel fonamental en la resolucio de problemes i es troba darrere de molts dels processos centrals de la capacitat cognitiva humana, fins al punt que s'ha considerat "el nucli del coneixement". El raonament analogic funciona a traves del proces de la transferencia, l'us del coneixement apres en una situacio en l'altra per a la qual no va ser destinat. El paradigma de raonament basat en casos (case-based reasoning, CBR) presenta un model molt relacionat, pero lleugerament diferent de raonament utilitzat principalment en la intel.ligencia artificial; diferent en part perque el raonament analogic se centra habitualment en la similitud estructural entre-dominis mentre que CBR te a veure amb la transferencia de solucions entre els casos semanticament similars dins d'un domini especific. En aquesta tesi, ens unim a aquests enfocaments interrelacionats de la ciència cognitiva, la psicologia i la intel.ligencia artificial, en un sistema CBR, on la recuperacio i l'adaptacio es duen a terme per l'Motor d'Associacio Estructural (SME) i son recolzats per el raonament de sentit comu integrant la informacio des de diverses bases de coneixement. Per permetre aixo, utilitzem una estructura de representacio de casos que es basa en les xarxes semantiques. Aixo ens dona un model CBR capac de recuperar i adaptar solucions de dominis que son aparentment diferents pero estructuralment molt similars...

Hume and Descartes on skepticism with regard to demonstrative reasoning

De Pierris,Graciela
Fonte: Análisis filosófico Publicador: Análisis filosófico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2005 EN
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Commentaries on Hume's Treatise 1.4.1, "Of scepticism with regard to reason," have focused on the argument that an initial lack of certainty concerning the conclusion of an inference gradually diminishes to zero. In my view, Hume offers this famous argument only after, and as corollary to, a far more interesting skeptical argument concerning demonstrative reasoning, which occurs at the very beginning of Treatise 1.4.1. I focus on this neglected argument, point to its Cartesian roots, and draw a distinction between ordinary doubts and a radical skeptical doubt about the inevitable interference of fallible faculties in our demonstrative inferences. Hume suggests that, in common life and science, solutions to ordinary doubts concerning human fallibility themselves rely on causal reasoning-that we have applied inferential rules correctly in any given instance is a "matters of fact" conclusion, thus it is supported by the only kind of evidence that such a conclusion can have. Hume's argument brilliantly reverses the force of the increased confidence normally acquired on the basis of such causal reasoning. Once we have realized, in the radically skeptical frame of mind, that in our attempts to improve and evaluate demonstrative reasoning we use merely causal reasoning...