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Consciência fonêmica, nomeação automática rápida e velocidade de leitura em escolares do ensino fundamental; Phonemic awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading rate in students of elementray school

Soares, Aparecido José Couto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
A leitura é uma habilidade complexa composta por múltiplos processos interdependentes e envolve a integração de diferentes habilidades linguístico-cognitivas, em particular aquelas relacionadas ao processamento fonológico como a consciência fonológica e a nomeação automática rápida. Nos últimos anos, os pesquisadores brasileiros tem estudado a fluência de leitura, que possui como componentes a velocidade e acurácia, porém utilizando medidas que não consideram as características das palavras, como extensão e estrutura silábica. Nesse sentido, nota-se a importância de investigar mais profundamente qual a relação existente entre as habilidades subjacentes da leitura e seus parâmetros de fluência bem como as possíveis implicações no processo de aquisição e desenvolvimento da leitura. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da consciência fonêmica e da nomeação automática rápida na fluência de leitura de escolares do terceiro e quarto ano do ensino fundamental. Participaram desta pesquisa 29 crianças do terceiro ano (GP1) e 28 do quarto ano do ensino fundamental (GP2), num total de 57 sujeitos. As crianças foram avaliadas quanto à leitura por meio de textos adequados para sua escolaridade...

Rapid naming, phonological memory and reading fluency in Brazilian bilingual students

Fleury,Fernanda Oppenheimer; Avila,Clara Regina Brandão de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.76%
PURPOSE: To characterize the performance of Brazilian students exposed to two languages in reading fluency, phonological memory, and rapid naming, according to grade level, and to investigate correlations between these variables. METHODS: Sixty students took part in this study (50% female), enrolled in the third to the fifth grades of two elementary schools of the city of São Paulo. They constituted two groups - bilingual group: 30 Brazilian children whose mother tongue and language spoken at home was Brazilian Portuguese and who were daily exposed to English at school for a period not shorter than three years; monolingual group: 30 students, from a monolingual Brazilian elementary school, who were paired by gender, age, and grade level with the bilingual students. Foreign children, children with complaint or indication of speech and language disorder, or who had been retained were excluded. A rapid automatized naming, pseudoword repetition, and oral reading tests were administered. The bilingual children were assessed in both languages and their performances were compared among themselves and with the monolingual group, which was only assessed in Brazilian Portuguese. RESULTS: The bilingual group showed better performance in English...

A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Reading Prosody as a Dimension of Oral Reading Fluency in Early Elementary School Children

Miller, Justin; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of reading prosody and its impact on later reading skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured for 92 children at the end of grades 1 and 2 and oral reading fluency and reading comprehension assessments at the end of the third-grade school year. Tests were carried out to determine (a) the manner in which the key features of oral reading prosody unfold with development and (b) the extent to which the development of reading prosody is predictive of later oral reading fluency and comprehension outcomes beyond word reading skills alone. Path model tests found a relationship between the presence of fewer pausal intrusions during oral reading in first grade and subsequent development of an adult-like intonation contour in second grade. Outcome model tests indicated that the intonation contour was a significant predictor of later fluency once word reading skills were taken into account. Decreases in the number of pausal intrusions between the first and second grades and early acquisition of an adult-like intonation contour predicted better comprehension later. Thus, prosodic oral reading might signal that children have achieved fluency and are more capable of understanding what they read. Results of this study support the inclusion of prosody in formal definitions of oral reading fluency.

A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Motivation to Read and Reading Fluency Skill in Second Grade

Quirk, Matthew; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Webb, Mi-young
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
This short-term longitudinal study investigated the relationships between students’ reading self-concept, goals for reading, and reading fluency skill over the course of the second grade year. Second grade children (N=185) were administered the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, the second grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, and an adapted version of Motivation to Read Profile at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year. Results showed that students’ goals for reading were related to reading self-concept, but unrelated to reading fluency. In addition, reading self-concept was significantly related to reading fluency at each time point. Latent-variable path analysis was used to test four potential relationships between students’ reading self-concept and reading fluency skill: (a) an independence model; (b) a skill development model; (c) a self-enhancement model; and (d) a reciprocal effects model. Support for a reciprocal model was found between students’ reading fluency skill and reading self-concept over the second grade year. This finding also indicated that students’ reading self-concept begins to influence their reading achievement earlier than previous research had indicated. Implications for educational practice and future research will also be discussed.

Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

Kim, Y.S.; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for average readers than for skilled readers; and (4) listening comprehension predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers.

Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e....

Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47%
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency.

Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.98%
In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency.

The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting

Rasinski, Timothy; Samuels, S. Jay; Hiebert, Elfrieda; Petscher, Yaacov; Feller, Karen
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in effective literacy instruction (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instruction in reading fluency has been shown to lead to improvements in reading achievement. Reading fluency instruction is most commonly associated with guided repeated oral reading instruction. In the present retrospective study we examine the effects of a computer-based silent reading fluency instructional system called Reading Plus (Taylor Associates, Winooski, Vermont, USA) on the reading comprehension and overall reading achievement of a large corpus of students in an urban school setting. Findings indicate that the program resulted in positive, substantial, and significant improvements in reading comprehension and overall reading achievement on a criterion referenced reading test for Grades 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and on a norm-referenced test of reading achievement for Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10. Moreover, mean gains made by students in the Reading Plus intervention were greater than mean gains for all students at the state and district level. The findings were generally positive for all subpopulations studied, including special education and regular education students. Qualitative reports from teachers who participated in the study were also supportive of the program. Implications for the study are explored for particular subgroups of students and for the role of fluency instruction with struggling adolescent readers.

Beyond the Fourth Grade Glass Ceiling: Understanding Reading Comprehension Among Bilingual/Bimodal Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Scott, Jessica A.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
Research has found that, on average, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students graduate from high school reading at the fourth grade level (Allen, 1986). Additionally, DHH children of deaf parents (Charrow & Fletcher, 1974) and those with strong American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency (Strong & Prinz, 1997) tend to outperform DHH students without parents who are proficient in ASL. The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) suggests that reading comprehension is a product of decoding and language proficiency. Many DHH students have limited auditory access, and may struggle to acquire English, especially the more demanding academic English characteristics of school texts (Mayer & Wells, 1996). Academic English has been identified as a strong predictor of reading comprehension among hearing children (Uccelli et al., 2015). Guided by a modified SVR model, in this study I investigate DHH secondary school students’ reading comprehension as predicted by receptive ASL proficiency, word reading fluency/decoding, and academic English proficiency. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, I investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in ASL/English bilingual/bimodal schools for the deaf...

A Longitudinal Exploration of the Relationship Between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Achievement Among a Sample of Diverse Young Learners

Acquavita, Teri L.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.99%
Exploring the relationship between early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young learners from low-income families, attending elementary school within a large public school district in southeast Florida is the purpose of this longitudinal study. Although many studies have been conducted to address the relationship between oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement, most of the existing research failed either to disaggregate the data by demographic subgroups or secure a large enough sample of students to adequately represent the diverse subgroups. The research questions that guided this study were: (a) To what extent does early oral reading fluency ability measured in first, second, or third grade correlate with reading comprehension achievement in third grade? (b) To what extent does the relationship of early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement vary by demographic subgroup membership (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) among a diverse sample of students? A predictive research design using archived secondary data was employed in this nonexperimental quantitative methods study of 1...

A longitudinal exploration of the relationship between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension achievement among a sample of diverse young learners

Acquavita, Teri L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.97%
Exploring the relationship between early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young learners from low-income families, attending elementary school within a large public school district in southeast Florida is the purpose of this longitudinal study. Although many studies have been conducted to address the relationship between oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement, most of the existing research failed either to disaggregate the data by demographic subgroups or secure a large enough sample of students to adequately represent the diverse subgroups. ^ The research questions that guided this study were: (a) To what extent does early oral reading fluency ability measured in first, second, or third grade correlate with reading comprehension achievement in third grade? (b) To what extent does the relationship of early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement vary by demographic subgroup membership (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) among a diverse sample of students? ^ A predictive research design using archived secondary data was employed in this nonexperimental quantitative methods study of 1...

Using Music to Teach Reading Fluency with Kindergarten Students

Rodriguez, Kristen M
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Using Music to Teach Reading Fluency with Kindergarten Students

Fluidez lectora y evaluaci??n formativa

Calero, Andr??s
Fonte: Asociaci??n Espa??ola de Comprensi??n Lectora Publicador: Asociaci??n Espa??ola de Comprensi??n Lectora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.91%
Existe un consenso generalizado entre los docentes, en el sentido de que la lectura fluida es una de las destrezas m??s importantes a desarrollar en los primeros a??os de escolaridad. Sin embargo, no existe una definici??n clara del constructo fluidez lectora en el ??mbito de la investigaci??n y en el medio escolar que oriente la pr??ctica en este aprendizaje y su evaluaci??n. Mientras algunos especialistas apoyan una definici??n simple de la fluidez lectora basada en la velocidad lectora, otros plantean que la lectura pros??dica, relacion??ndola con la lectura expresiva. En este art??culo reflexionamos acerca del hecho de que una lectura veloz no siempre es sin??nimo de lectura fluida, y que el ??nfasis que tradicionalmente se ha puesto en la velocidad al leer en las escuelas ???un aspecto singular de la lectura fluida-, ha llevado a muchos docentes y alumnos a pensar que leer con fluidez es leer deprisa. Valoramos tambi??n la importancia de una evaluaci??n formativa que promueva la coevaluaci??n y la autoevaluaci??n, para que los lectores obtengan un conocimiento exacto de cu??les son las demandas que se le exigen para llevar a cabo una lectura fluida, y sean capaces de controlar su propio aprendizaje. Finalmente...

Impacto da fluência de leitura e da metacompreensão na compreensão da leitura; Impact of reading fluency and metacomprehension in reading comprehension

Collus, Jorge André Rocha Alves Soveral
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.89%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia; O objectivo deste estudo é o de analisar o efeito da fluência de leitura e de estratégias cognitivas e metacognitivas de leitura na compreensão da leitura. Constituiu-se, para o efeito, uma amostra de 171 alunos do 6.º ano de escolaridade do ensino básico. A fluência de leitura foi avaliada a partir do número de palavras lidas corretamente por minuto e as estratégias cognitivas e metacognitivas com a escala “Reading Strategy Use”. A compreensão da leitura foi avaliada a partir dos resultados obtidos pelos alunos no Exame Nacional de Português. Verificou-se que a correlação entre a fluência de leitura e a compreensão da leitura foi estatisticamente significativa. Já as estratégias cognitivas e metacognitivas apresentaram correlações baixas com a compreensão da leitura. A análise de regressão linear usando como preditor a fluência de leitura confirmou que esta variável é preditora da compreensão da leitura. São discutidos os resultados obtidos e analisadas algumas das suas implicações práticas.; The aim of this research is to study the impact of reading fluency, and cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies on reading comprehension. A sample of 171 6th grade students (basic education) was selected for that purpose. Reading fluency was assessed according to the number of correctly read words per minute...

The effects of using rap music on the fluency skills of 2nd grade African American students

Januszka, Cynthia Moredock
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
A concern for both educators and policy makers is how to increase the reading achievement of African American students. Studies have shown that rap music, which has its roots in the African American community, can be used as a tool to facilitate this increase, specifically how using rap songs in reading lessons can improve a child's reading motivation, information recall, and vocabulary development. There are also studies on how repeated reading of a text can help improve a child's reading fluency. Yet, there are no studies that combine rap music and repeated reading of a text. This study describes the effects of using a culturally responsive reading strategy on the fluency, decoding, and comprehension skills of African American students. ^ The sample consisted of 105 African American students within eight, second grade classrooms at two different elementary schools. The classes were randomly selected and assigned to the rap group or the control group. Students received eight half-hour sessions using either a rap text or a traditional text in a repeated reading lesson. All of the students were pre-tested and post-tested on the Oral Reading Fluency and the Nonsense Word Fluency portions of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills Test. Additionally...

A Qualitative Study of Ontario Teachers’ Conceptualizations of Reading Fluency

Massoud, LISA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.98%
Research has identified fluency as a central component of skilled reading and as a skill that should be a driving force in the literacy curricula (Kuhn, Schwanenflugel & Meisinger, 2010). Learning to read, teaching children how to read and researching the best way to teach children to be fluent readers is a multifaceted, elaborate process. The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which teachers conceptualize reading fluency through interviews. Exploration through a qualitative study provided insights into how seven grade four and grade five Eastern Ontario teachers understand reading fluency. All teachers were found to characterize fluency as primarily reading speed and were found to share the belief that improvement in reading fluency was attributed to the amount of time a reader spent reading a variety of texts. The most prominent finding that emerged from the data was teachers' perception that comprehension should be the instructional focus for junior readers. Discussions with teachers provided insights into reading fluency that enabled the construction of a more detailed picture of classroom reading fluency and instruction in Ontario. The complex task of teaching reading fluency has not been a central topic in pre- and in-service teacher training in Ontario. This study provides an enhanced picture of classroom reading fluency instruction that may lead to opportunities for future professional development specifically designed around reading fluency instruction and best practice.; Thesis (Master...

Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals

Stone, Adam; Kartheiser, Geo; Hauser, Peter C.; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Allen, Thomas E.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL) fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals’ English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling—in the visual-manual modality—and reading—in the visual-orthographic modality—are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling...

Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children's sentence reading fluency

Nagler, Telse; Korinth, Sebastian P.; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Lonnemann, Jan; Rump, Björn; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension). In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of 3 weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group...

Avaliação da fluência leitora : estudo exploratório de adaptação do Gray Oral Reading Tests 4, GORT 4, em crianças com e sem dificuldades na leitura do 3º ano do 1º CEB de um Agrupamento de Escolas de Leiria

Estrela, Joana Catarina Mónico
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
A presente investigação subordina-se à temática da avaliação da Fluência na Leitura, que é considerada, atualmente, como uma competência ponte entre a descodificação e a compreensão (Esteves e Cruz, 2008). O estudo foi realizado com uma amostra de 51 crianças do Agrupamento de Escolas Caranguejeira-Santa Catarina da Serra divididas em dois grupos: grupo sem dificuldades na leitura e grupo com dificuldades na leitura. Estes grupos foram organizados com base no parecer dos professores titulares de turma e na aplicação da Prova de Avaliação da Fluência na Leitura (PAFL) (Esteves, 2012). O primeiro objetivo da investigação incidiu na tradução e adaptação do Gray Oral Reading Tests 4 (GORT 4) (Wiederholt e Bryant, 2001), e no estudo da sua validade, enquanto caraterística psicométrica. O segundo objetivo foi verificar se existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre grupos (com e sem dificuldades na leitura). Para a concretização do primeiro objetivo, recorreu-se ao estabelecimento de correlações entre as diferentes provas da PAFL e do GORT 4, tendo em conta as variáveis: tempo, palavras corretamente lidas, precisão leitora, velocidade leitora, expressividade e ritmo. O segundo objetivo foi estudado com recurso ao teste não paramétrico Mann Whitney. Os resultados deste estudo apontam para a existência de correlações fortes entre as diferentes provas aplicadas...