Já é conhecida a relação de reciprocidade entre consciência fonológica e habilidades de leitura. Diversas pesquisas demonstraram o efeito direto do treino em habilidades de consciência fonológica sobre a aquisição da leitura e como o treino sistemático da leitura auxilia no desenvolvimento de níveis mais complexos de consciência fonológica. Dentro deste contexto, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a eficácia do CD-ROM Alfabetização Fônica Computadorizada no desenvolvimento de habilidades de consciência fonológica e de leitura em crianças do segundo ano do ensino fundamental. Participaram do estudo 81 crianças, com idades entre seis e oito anos, de ambos os sexos, matriculadas no segundo ano de uma escola municipal da periferia de um município com 30.000 habitantes. Para avaliar a consciência fonológica foi aplicada a Prova de Consciência Fonológica. Para avaliar as habilidades de leitura utilizou-se uma versão da Provinha Brasil e uma prova de leitura oral de palavras. Foi adotado um delineamento de comparação de grupos com três momentos de avaliação. No primeiro momento, todas as crianças foram avaliadas. Depois da primeira avaliação, foi conduzida a intervenção somente com as crianças do Grupo 1. Na intervenção...
This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Students in the intervention received 16 hours of instruction. Analyses of pre- and posttest data and growth measures suggest that short-term supplemental reading intervention had a significant effect on children’s reading skills; however, effects were not consistent across measures. Parent and teacher ratings moderated significant effects. Findings support the validity of a brief intervention for students at risk for reading failure that may inform Tier 2 interventions within a Response to Intervention framework.
Studies in children and adults with the reading disability developmental dyslexia have shown behavioral improvements after reading intervention. In another line of work, it has been shown that intensive training in a variety of cognitive and sensorimotor skills can result in changes in gray matter volume (GMV). This study examined changes in GMV following intensive reading intervention in children with dyslexia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Eleven dyslexic children underwent an eight week training focused on mental imagery, articulation and tracing of letters, groups of letters and words, which resulted in significant gains in reading skills. This was followed by an eight week null period (control) where no intervention was administered and no further significant gains in reading were observed. Structural scans were obtained before the intervention, after the intervention and after the null period. GMV increases between the first two time points were found in the left anterior fusiform gyrus/hippocampus, left precuneus, right hippocampus and right anterior cerebellum. However these areas did not change between time points two and three (control period), suggesting that the changes were specific to the intervention period. These results demonstrate for the first time that (1) training-induced changes in GMV can be observed in a pediatric sample and (2) reading improvements induced by intervention are accompanied by GMV changes.
This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 62) schedules. All at-risk readers, identified through screening followed by 8 weeks of oral reading fluency (ORF) progress monitoring, received the same Tier 2 reading intervention in groups of 2 to 4 beginning in January of Grade 1. Group means were higher in word reading and ORF at the final time point relative to pretest; however, the groups did not differ significantly on any reading outcome or on rates of adequate intervention response. Of potential covariates, site, age, free lunch status, program coverage rate, and tutor were significantly related to student outcomes; however, the addition of these variables in multivariate models did not substantially change results. Rates of adequate intervention response were lower than have been reported for some first-grade interventions of longer duration.
Two studies examined response to varying amounts of time in reading intervention for two cohorts of first-grade students demonstrating low levels of reading after previous intervention. Students were assigned to one of three groups that received (a) a single dose of intervention, (b) a double dose of intervention, or (c) no intervention. Examination of individual student response to intervention indicated that more students in the treatment groups demonstrated accelerated learning over time than students in the comparison condition. Students’ responses to the single-dose and double-dose interventions were similar over time. Students in all conditions demonstrated particular difficulties with gains in reading fluency. Implications for future research and practice within response to intervention models are provided.
This experimental study reports findings on the effects from a year-long reading intervention providing daily 50-min sessions to middle school students with identified learning disabilities (n = 65) compared with similar students who did not receive the reading intervention (n = 55). All students continued to receive their special education services as provided by the school. Statistically significant results favored the treatment group for sight word reading fluency following intervention. Small effects were found for phonemic decoding fluency and passage comprehension. No other statistically significant differences were noted between groups. The findings suggest that although gains on word reading fluency resulted from the additional reading treatment, accelerating the reading performance of students identified with learning disabilities may be unlikely to result from a 1-year daily intervention provided in groups of 10 to 15 students.
The cognitive attributes of Grade 1 students who responded adequately and inadequately to a Tier 2 reading intervention were evaluated. The groups included inadequate responders based on decoding and fluency criteria (n = 29), only fluency criteria (n = 75), adequate responders (n = 85), and typically achieving students (n = 69). The cognitive measures included assessments of phonological awareness, rapid letter naming, oral language skills, processing speed, vocabulary, and nonverbal problem solving. Comparisons of all four groups identified phonological awareness as the most significant contributor to group differentiation. Measures of rapid letter naming, syntactic comprehension/working memory, and vocabulary also contributed uniquely to some comparisons of adequate and inadequate responders. In a series of regression analyses designed to evaluate the contributions of responder status to cognitive skills independently of variability in reading skills, only the model for rapid letter naming achieved statistical significance, accounting for a small (1%) increment in explained variance beyond that explained by models based only on reading levels. Altogether, these results do not suggest qualitative differences among the groups, but are consistent with a continuum of severity associated with the level of reading skills across the four groups.
The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to treatment or comparison conditions. Treatment group students received researcher-provided reading intervention in Grade 6, which continued in Grade 7 for those with low response to intervention; comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention. Participants in the Grade 8 study were members of the original treatment (N = 28) and comparison (N = 13) conditions who had failed to pass a state-mandated reading comprehension test in both Grades 6 and 7. In Grade 8, treatment group students received a 50-minute, daily, individualized, intensive reading intervention in groups of two to four students per teacher. The results showed that students in the treatment condition demonstrated significantly higher scores than comparison students on standardized measures of comprehension (effect size = 1.20) and word identification (effect size = 0.49), although most continued to lack grade-level proficiency in reading despite 3 years of intervention. Findings from this study provide a rationale for intensive intervention for middle school students with severe reading difficulties.
A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus...
The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.
Three visual event-related potential components to the second of two sequentially presented words that rhymed or not discriminated children who improved (AR) from those who failed following (IR) reading intervention. Right hemisphere P100 amplitudes discriminated Typically Developing (TD) children from AR children but IR from AR children over left hemisphere sites. N200 amplitudes across hemispheres discriminated TD from IR children and AR from IR children. P300 hemisphere differences differentiated TD from AR and IR children. P300 amplitudes discriminated rhyming from non-rhyming words across children. Results extend prior work asserting that normalization and compensatory mechanisms are active during successful interventions.
The authors’ purpose was to explore the effects of a supplementary, guided, silent reading intervention with 80 struggling third-grade readers who were retained at grade level as a result of poor performance on the reading portion of a criterion referenced state assessment. The students were distributed in 11 elementary schools in a large, urban school district in the state of Florida. A matched, quasi-experimental design was constructed using propensity scores for this study. Students in the guided, silent reading intervention, Reading Plus, evidenced higher, statistically significant mean scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test criterion assessment measure of reading at posttest. The effect size, favoring the guided, silent reading intervention group was large, 1 full standard deviation, when comparing the 2 comparison groups’ mean posttest scores. As such, the results indicate a large advantage for providing struggling third-grade readers guided silent reading fluency practice in a computer-based practice environment. No significant difference was found between the treatment and control group on the Stanford Achievement Test–10 (SAT-10) posttest scores, although posttest scores for the treatment group trended higher than the control. After conducting a power analysis...
The current study examined the impact of an early summer literacy program and the mediating effects of the home literacy environment on the language and literacy outcomes of a group of children at-risk for long-term developmental and academic delays. Participating children (n=54) were exposed to an intensive book-reading intervention each summer (June through mid August) over a 3-year period.
The current study implemented an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. This nonequivalent group design involved a pretest and posttest over three time points for a non-randomized treatment group and a matched non-treatment comparison group.
Results indicated that literacy scores did improve for the children over the 3-year period; however, language scores did not experience the same rate of change over time. Receptive language was significantly impacted by attendance, and race/ethnicity. Expressive language was impacted significantly by gestational age and attendance. Results also indicated that language outcomes for young children who are exposed to a literacy program were higher than those who did not participate; however, only receptive language yielded significance at the p
This study concluded that at-risk young children do benefit from center-based literacy intervention. This literacy experience...
This was a longitudinal study that investigated the effects of an early intervention program which was implemented at the beginning of formal reading instruction and used individual clinical instruction with at-risk students. A total of 37 private school students were divided into three cognitive ability groups and evaluated over a three year period using the reading comprehension and study skills sections of the Stanford Achievement Tests (1982) administered annually. At-risk students were matched with a normal peer group for gender, cognitive ability, and time at school. Results showed there were no significant differences in the reading comprehension scores for program and non-program students. However, the at-risk group showed significantly lower scores on the study skills section at the end of grade three. These results indicate that early reading intervention for at-risk students promotes compensation and helps develop processes for adequate reading comprehension but these students continue to have weaker linguistic abilities. ^
In this mixed-methods study I report on a three-part investigation related to reading intervention at Grade 1 in one Ontario school board during the 2009-2010 school year. First, I report the results that Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) had on the reading outcomes for all Grade 1 students (n = 436) in terms of sex, aboriginal status, and at-risk status. Second, I use progress monitoring benchmark data to show how students unresponsive to instruction may have benefitted from additional instruction generated from monthly data-informed In-School Team meetings. Third, I report on educators’ perceptions of how monthly data-informed In-School Team meetings influenced their knowledge, confidence, and willingness to plan additional reading interventions for students persistently at-risk for reading failure. Findings indicate that compared to previous years, when PALS was not used, students in this study made significantly greater gains in reading scores. Boys made similar gains to girls, First Nations students made similar gains to non First Nations students, and at-risk students closed the achievement gap slightly with their typically-achieving peers. For students who did not make adequate progress in reading throughout the year a logistic regression analysis of the data indicates that the best predictor of at-risk status is not a student’s sex or First Nations status...
Previous L1 and L2 research on inferential comprehension has tended to follow a quantitative orientation. By contrast, L2 research on critical reading is qualitative and tends to ignore inferences. This paper presents a qualitative, design-based study of a critical reading intervention focused on promoting generative rhetorical inferences and investigating co-adaptation and emergence of new meaning-making capacities. Complexity theory (CT) constructs were used to research processes of co-adaptation between the participants' comprehension and the teacher-researcher's understanding of learning and instructional needs. Identification of attractor states and control parameters in classroom discourse were used to explore unpredicted factors influencing the participants' inferential comprehension and further refine the intervention. The results indicate that rhetorical genre knowledge acted as a control parameter driving the students' comprehension to attractor states characterized by implausible inferences, and that this knowledge explains the emergence of pragmatic meaning (rhetorical inferences) from semantic meaning. The paper illustrates the usefulness of CT constructs in doing design-based research qualitatively in a manner that informs both theory and practice.
Reading fluency is a skill that’s difficult for many students to acquire. However, research suggests that consistently implementing the Repeated Reading intervention can help students increase fluency and comprehension. The effect of this strategy when used to promote reading fluency in secondary students with severe intellectual disabilities has yet to be investigated. My research will examine the effect of the Repeated Reading intervention on the fluency level of students with intellectual disabilities in a public high school.
Based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm, we planned and implemented an individualized intervention for two 7- and 8 years old girls with learning disabilities. They were exposed to reading programs that included simple and complex Portuguese words. Ludic reading and spelling activities were conducted before and after the teaching program in each section. As a result, the children learned how to read the training words. Their performance on reading and spelling activities with generalization words increased with the reading intervention and the ludic activities. The gradual increase in AC uracy of verbal performance in tasks with words, phrases and brief stories, observed sporadically during the ludic activities, suggests that there was an effect of the intervention strategies not only on the repertoire that was explicitly trained but also on new modalities of writing and reading. Interventions based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm give us conditions to extend an individual’s verbal repertoire and also for teaching complex verbal units. Keywords: stimulus equivalence; reading; spelling.; O paradigma de equivalência de estímulos foi utilizado como referencial para a elaboração e implementação de estratégias de intervenção individualizada para duas crianças que apresentavam dificuldade na alfabetização. As crianças participaram de programas de ensino de leitura de palavras com sílabas simples e complexas da língua portuguesa. Atividades lúdicas que envolviam ler e escrever foram realizadas em cada sessão antes e depois dos programas de ensino. As crianças aprenderam a ler as palavras de ensino com precisão. O desempenho nas tarefas de leitura e construção de palavras de recombinação melhorou com a exposição aos programas de ensino e às atividades lúdicas. O aumento gradual na precisão do repertório verbal em tarefas com palavras...
This paper explores mindfulness as an innovation for improving literacy skills of deep reading. More specifically, this paper describes a case study of a deep reading intervention where graduate education students participated in an eight-week deep reading training. As an embodied practice, deep reading serves to awaken and evoke the reader's voice, helping the learner to make meaning as a whole person immersed in the embodied nature of language. Deep reading, as other contemplative practices, requires persons to go inside, to find meaning, to know themselves, and to connect to others (Barbezat & Bush, 2014). Unlike many other contemporary approaches in education, deep reading draws upon the involvement of the whole body and mind. Deep reading provides a conduit for stretching the human capacity for imaginative thought, shows promise for developing cognition, quiets the chaos of a distracted society, and, overall, serves to humanize the educational process.