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A desconfiança em relação à palavra da vítima e o sentido da punição em processos judiciais de estupro; The distrust of the victim's moral and the meaning of punishment in rape judicial lawsuits

Coulouris, Daniella Georges
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
Essa pesquisa teve por objetivo, a partir da análise qualitativa de trinta processos judiciais de estupro, discutir e dar visibilidade à lógica do sistema de justiça criminal nos casos de situações classificadas e julgadas como crime de estupro na cidade de São Paulo (2000-2005). Deste modo, diversas questões relacionadas à atuação da justiça criminal e observadas durante a análise das diversas etapas de desenvolvimento dos processos judiciais de estupro serão apresentadas: as dificuldades de comprovação da violência sexual; as insuficiências da investigação policial; a presença de discursos que atravessam e constituem os procedimentos de investigação da verdade nos casos de estupro; os critérios e categorias de avaliação dos indivíduos e situações; a forma como os julgadores direcionam as punições e justificam suas decisões; o modo como diversas questões, que são formuladas aos envolvidos e testemunhas, parecem orientar os resultados finais dos processos e apontar para determinado sentido da punição observado a partir da análise de conjunto das decisões; e a forma como este sentido da punição parece ser um efeito inusitado de convergência dos embates discursivos, nas últimas três décadas ...

O testemunho da violencia perpetuada : estupro em crianças e adolescentes; The testimony of the perpetuated violence : rape in child and adolescents

Maria Eulalia Tomasi Albuquerque
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Esta tese tem como objetivo compreender o funcionamento discursivo das denúncias de estupro formuladas nos Termos de Informação para apontar as posições-sujeito que atravessam esses documentos. Perguntamo-nos pelas possibilidades de identificação do sujeito na relação de denúncia de seu corpo violentado, pelos modos de resistência desse sujeito nas condições de produção que determinam o estupro. A perspectiva teórico-analítica adotada foi a da Análise de Discurso materialista. Trabalhamos com o relato do estupro apresentado nesses documentos, considerando as condições de produção e o processo sócio-histórico em que os sentidos são produzidos. Foi importante compreendermos, nesta pesquisa, a relação de alteridade constitutiva do discurso relatado, marcada em diferentes vozes discursivas. Na imbricação dessas vozes analisamos, especificamente, a contradição entre o sujeito-vítima e o sujeito-denunciante, abordando o funcionamento da imputação da responsabilidade do que é dito. Em meio à voz da instituição jurídica que sustenta os Termos de Informação, se produz a ilusão de que é a vítima quem fala; This thesis aims at understanding the discursive functioning of rape charges formulated in Terms of Information to highlight the subject-positions that permeate those documents. We ask ourselves about the possibilities of identification of this subject in relation to his abused body and the ways he resists concerning the conditions of production which determine the rape. For that purpose...

Date Rape: Atitudes face ao problema: Estudo realizado com estudantes da licenciatura em ciências psicológicas do ISPA

Croca, Joana Maria Pereira
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada Publicador: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.53%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia Clínica, apresentada ao Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada; O presente estudo tem por objectivo examinar as atitudes face ao Date Rape, num grupo de jovens do ensino superior. A amostra é constituída por 159 alunos do ISPA (90 mulheres e 69 homens), com uma média de idades compreendida entre os 18 e os 30 anos. Para medir as atitudes foi utilizado o CDRAS traduzido para português, sendo que os resultados demonstraram que os jovens são tendencialmente menos tolerantes para com o Date Rape quando em comparação com outros estudos. No entanto, os homens são tendencialmente mais condescendentes com atitudes de tolerância para com o Date Rape, quando em comparação com as mulheres. Neste sentido, os resultados do estudo denunciam a prevalência de mitos de violação entre a comunidade mais jovem, denunciando a necessidade de criação de programas de prevenção e consciencialização para com o grave problema que representa hoje o Date Rape, entre as camadas mais jovens.; ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes toward Date Rape among university students in Portugal. Participants included 159 students from ISPA (90 females, 69 males), with ages between 18 and 30 years old. To measure those attitudes we used CDRAS...

O pensamento contrafactual e a atribuição de culpa a vítimas de violação em cenários de stranger e acquaintance rape

Silva , Daniela Maria Da Costa Ferreira Muro E
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; Cada vez mais a violação é perspetivada como o trauma que efectivamente constitui (Vidal & Petrak, 2007; Krahé, 1991). Ao impacto do crime per se, acresce o feedback da sociedade, que, se negativo, desencadeia um processo de vitimização secundária (Strómwall, Landstrom & Alfredsson, 2014), nomeadamente, a atribuição de culpa pelo crime à vítima. Uma das teorias que tem sido empregue na compreensão dos julgamentos de culpabilidade imputados a vítimas de violação é a teoria do pensamento contrafactual (Levy & Ben-David, 2008, pp. 7, 8) que concebe estes julgamentos como resultado do contraponto que se estabelece entre a realidade e as alternativas imaginadas (Roese, 1994; Roese, 2005, p. 17). O presente documento discute o fundamento e a viabilidade de implementação de uma investigação que enquadre a problemática dos julgamentos de culpa imputados a vítimas do crime de violação à luz do pensamento contrafactual, com uma metodologia que faz uso de vinhetas escritas e de listas de contrafactuais ascendentes focados na vítima. Adicionalmente, incorporamos a variável «tipo de relacionamento entre vítima e agente do crime» que, segundo nos constou...

The (un)receptive experiences of female rape victims who seek healthcare services

Barros,Luciana de Amorim; Albuquerque,Maria Cicera dos Santos de; Gomes,Nadirlene Pereira; Riscado,Jorge Luís de Souza; Araújo,Bárbara Régia Oliveira de; Magalhães,Júlia Renata Fernandes de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Enfermagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
OBJECTIVE To know the structure and functioning of healthcare services from the perspective of women who have suffered rape. METHOD A qualitative study conducted with 11 women who experienced rape, monitored in a maternity in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were systematically based on content analysis. RESULTS It allowed for understanding the path taken by women in search of support from health services, as well as the limitations and capabilities of these services. CONCLUSION The assistance received in healthcare services leans towards a revictimization process of women who already carry trauma from the rape. It is necessary to reflect about care practices aimed at sexually victimized women.

DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

Silva,Dayse Aparecida da; Góes,Andréa Carla de Souza; Carvalho,Jorge José de; Carvalho,Elizeu Fagundes de
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims...

Forensic Nurse Examiners versus Doctors for the Forensic Examination of Rape and Sexual Assault Complainants: A Systematic Review

Toon, Clare; Gurusamy, Kurinchi
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Within the UK, the complainants of rape and sexual assault are typically referred to regional sexual assault referral centres (SARCs) where their medical and psychological needs are addressed and, if they consent, a forensic medical examination will be conducted, usually by a forensic physician. In the USA, this service is typically nurse-led. Objectives: To compare the reliability and efficacy of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)/Forensic Nurse Examiners (FNEs) with that of non-SANE health professionals in the conduct of the forensic medical examination and the collection of forensic evidence (rape kit) from the complainants of rape and sexual assault. The following outcomes are used to quantify the efficacy of the SANEs: complainant quality of life, conviction and prosecution rates, complainant mortality within 30 days, time from complaint to examination, provision of STI, pregnancy and HIV prophylaxis, collection and documentation of rape kits and forensic examination, number of rape kits admissible as evidence, and the average cost per case.

Women, rape and war: "Gaining redress within a human rights framework"

Washington, Carolyn J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 64 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The evolution of human rights and the world women's movement have combined for the first time to place rape as an instrument of war on the agenda of international politics. Rape in war has been regarded as an incidental, accidental and individual violation of military law. It was rarely given serious scholarly consideration, not even by historians of war, except to glorify it as a form of propaganda. This thesis will examine: (1) how the historical subordination of women in peacetime is related to the wartime rape of women, (2) the manner in which the mass rapes in the Bosnian War were brought to world attention and onto the agenda of international human rights and (3) the impact of the feminist movement in the United States in redefining the way sexual assault and rape are understood in our culture.; Captain, United States Army

The Effect of Young Adult Literature on Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance

Malo-Juvera, Victor
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.49%
This quasi-experimental study (N = 139) measured the effect of a reader response based instructional unit of the novel Speak on adolescents’ rape myth acceptance. Participants were eighth grade language arts students at a Title I middle school in a major metropolitan school district. Seven classes were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 4) or control (n = 3) condition. Two teachers participated in the study and both taught both treatment and control classes. The study lasted a period of five weeks. Participants were pretested using the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Burt, 1980) and a researcher created scale, the Adolescent Date Rape Scale (ADRMS). Analysis of pretests showed the ADRMS to be a reliable and valid measure of rape myth acceptance in adolescents. Factor analysis revealed it to have two major components: “She Wanted It” and “She Lied.” Pretests supported previous studies which found girls to have significantly lower initial levels of rape myth acceptance than boys (p < .001). A 2 (group) x 2 (instructor) x 2 (sex) ANCOVA using ADRMS pretest as a covariate and ADRMS posttest as a dependent variable found that treatment was effective in reducing rape myth acceptance (p < .001, ή2 = .15). Boys with high rape myth acceptance as demonstrated by pretest scores of 1 standard deviation above the mean on ADRMS did not have a backlash to treatment. Extended analysis revealed that participants had significantly lower scores posttest on Factor 1...

An Other Woman's Rape: Abjection and Objection in Representations of War Rape Victims in the DRC

Victoor, Amanda
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.55%
The growing global awareness of sexual violence as a weapon of war has been accompanied by the strategic and pervasive inclusion of women’s personal stories of war rape. This representational strategy of Western media, academia and humanitarian policies was critically examined in order to understand how war raped women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are discursively situated as “Other.” Drawing on the theoretical concepts of abjection and objection, the study did not question the truth of women’s experience but rather examined whether the pervasive inclusion of war rape stories constituted a true feminine subjectivity. A foucaldian notion of discourse provided a method to expose meaning and dominant discourses, which make certain identities and stories of war rape more visible than others. The purpose of this study was to critically engage with dominant Western discourses of war rape and provide a more complex understanding of how diverse power structures, identities and representational practices impact the struggle of Congolese women to open self-determined pathways of empowerment. A qualitative method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to examine the textual and visual processes of representation. Samples of text were taken from three main areas: media coverage (print...

Variación de la violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra: la violación en la guerra no es inevitable; Variation in wartime sexual violence: Rape during war is not inevitable; Variação da violência sexual na época de guerra: o estupro na guerra não é inevitável

Wood, Elisabeth
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
La violencia sexual varía dramáticamente de una guerra a otra, y, en ocasiones, de un grupo armado a otro dentro de una misma guerra. Sin embargo, en algunos conflictos la violencia sexual perpetrada por determinados grupos armados es especialmente limitada, pese aque estos cometen otro tipo de violencia contra civiles. Ciertos grupos cometen actos de violencia sexual solo contra mujeres, mientras que otros también lo hacen contra hombres. Los científicos sociales están documentando y analizando con una frecuencia cada vez mayor esta variación en los patrones de violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra, particularmente en cuanto a las distintas dimensiones de violencia (su forma, frecuencia, blancos ypropósitos), así como en lo referente a los cambios en estos cuatro patrones a través del tiempo. Por tal razón, en este texto, en primer lugar, introduzco conceptos clave, incluyendo estas cuatro dimensiones y el concepto de violencia sexual como práctica (un patrón que no es ordenado pero sí tolerado por los comandantes, y que ocurretanto en casos en los que hay beneficios estratégicos como en los que no los hay). Después, resumo brevemente las investigaciones recientes que documentan patronesde violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra. Tras mostrar que muchos abordajes presentes en la literatura publicada no dan cuenta de la variación observada –dehecho...

As alterações legislativas trazidas pela lei 12.015/2009 ao crime de estupro; The legislative changes introduced by Law 12.015/2009 the crime of rape

Silva, Cínthia Braga da
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
Trata-se das inovações legislativas, principalmente da fusão do tipo penal do estupro e do atentado violento ao pudor, após a edição da lei 12.015, de 07 de agosto de 2009, que trouxe ao ordenamento jurídico alguns destaques. O trabalho abordará a evolução histórica do estupro até os dias atuais, dispondo acerca de sua conceituação atual e as consequências jurídicas decorrentes da nova redação do tipo. Aborda os elementos constituidores do tipo penal. Além de demonstrar as circunstâncias que a lei retroagirá para beneficiar o réu, as hipóteses em que não ocorreram abolitio criminis, após a junção dos artigos penais, a criação de um tipo penal autônomo para a maior proteção das pessoas vulneráveis, o caráter hediondo e suas consequências dado ao estupro, a inconstitucionalidade da espécie de ação penal (condicionada a representação) estabelecida nos casos de estupro qualificado. Por fim, alguns os prós e contras que a lei 12.015/2009 trouxe ao mundo contemporâneo.; It is the legislative innovations, especially the merger of rape and indecent assault after the enactment of Law 12,015 of 07 August 2009, which brought the legal system some highlights. The work will address the historical evolution of the rape to the present day...

Vivência de acolhimento por mulheres vítimas de estupro que buscam os serviços de saúde; Host experience by female rape victims in search of healthcare services

Barros, Luciana de Amorim
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.47%
The following study has as its object the refuge to women victims of rape in the health services. Violence against women is a complex phenomenon with roots in inequality of gender, showing repercussion on the lives of those who has experienced it, making it a health problem with substantial prevalence and incidence. Sexual violence is one of the expressions of violence against women, and it involves rape, sexual violation by fraud and sexual harassment. This is a descriptive, exploratory study with a qualitative approach that aims to understand the experience of female rape victims in search for health care in the network that assists women in situation of sexual violence. 11 women, aged over 18 years were interviewed, with rape report, assisted in the clinic of a maternity-hospital, reference to support women in situation of sexual violence in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Ethical aspects were respected, based on Resolution 196/96 and 466 /2012 of the Brazilian Health Council approved by the Research Ethics Committee from Federal University of Alagoas under No. 16313413.9.0000.5013, the data collection was held between the months of July and November in 2013. The data were organized with support of Minayo’s content analysis, based on the following categories: (De) Access to health care...

Reporting rape by victims and third parties: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2012)

Pugh, Brandie
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
Bachman, Ronet; Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in our society with evidence from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) revealing that one out of six women are survivors of rape. Despite increased efforts in rape reform legislation to increase reporting, rape remains the most underreported crime in America. However, reporting sexual assault may be the only way for the criminal justice system to address it. Thus the factors that influence reporting behavior are important to identify in order to adequately inform policy directed at improving reporting rates. The current research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data from 1992-2012, focusing solely on adult women (18 years or older) that experienced a completed or attempted rape. Most previous research has not distinguished between third party and victim reporting of sexual assault. This study seeks to address this gap in the literature, while also determining the factors that appear to be most important in reporting decisions. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions will be utilized to determine which factors were prominent in predicting reporting in general, as well as third party reporting and victim reporting. Policy implications and directions for future research will be discussed.; University of Delaware...

Padrões do estupro no fluxo do sistema de justiça criminal em Campinas, São Paulo; Standard Rape Cases in the Criminal Justice System in Campinas, São Paulo

Vargas, Joana Domingues; UFMG - Belo Horizonte - MG
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802008000200003Esta pesquisa apresenta a análise longitudinal dos registros, produzidos na Delegacia de Defesa da Mulher, no Ministério Público e nas Varas Criminais, do município de Campinas, estado de São Paulo, que permite identificar tanto as características do estupro (acusados, vítimas e relação existente entre eles), quanto os processos de seleção e de filtragem a que estes são submetidos no decorrer de seu processamento. Os resultados encontrados para Campinas inserem-se nos padrões das queixas de estupro encontrados nos estudos internacionais. Estes indicam que estupro é uma categoria heterogênea, embora os agressores sejam invariavelmente homens e as vítimas jovens. Por outro lado, quando se analisa o processo de seleção criminal, observa-se a filtragem das tipologias encontradas na fase de queixa em três padrões para o crime de estupro: intrafamiliar, cometido por agressor desconhecido e entre jovens que se conhecem.;   This study presents a longitudinal analysis of the records found in the Women’s Defense Division of the Public Ministry and in the Criminal Courts of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State. The study identified both the characteristics of rape (the accused...

Realisation or oversight of a constitutional mandate? Corrective rape of black African lesbians in South Africa

Mwambene,Lea; Wheal,Maudri
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Corrective rape is a form of sexual punishment by men towards lesbians in order to cure them of their sexual orientation. Black African lesbians are victims of corrective rape, particularly those in townships who are seen to challenge patriarchal gender norms. Therefore, discrimination on the basis of gender, race, sex and sexual orientation is called into play. The impact of discrimination is rendered more serious and their vulnerability increased by the fact that the victims are also seen as a threat to patriarchy and hetero-normativity which demarcate women's bodies as male property. The article focuses on how South Africa balances its constitutional mandate in relation to black African lesbians affected by corrective rape. The article argues that it is necessary to define corrective rape as a hate crime and not merely a crime of rape for victims of corrective rape to be adequately protected.

The politics of rape: Traces of radical feminism in Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee

Barnard,Lianne
Fonte: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Publicador: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/20/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Disgroce can be read as a deliberation on rape in all its complexity, articulating and commenting upon many of the positions typical of the radical feminism of the seventies. Some feminists classify prostitution as a form of rape. Prostitution is the ideal form of sex for the main character, David, because it allows him to fantasize that a woman mirrors his wishes. The border between rape and consensual sex is shown to be problematic in the relationship between David and his young student, Melanie. Although some readers find that Melanie was willingly seduced, others consider that she was raped. The charge of sexual harassment is therefore unsatisfactory for both sides and, since David refuses to read the charges brought against him, he effectively silences his accuser. When his daughter, Lucy, equates heterosexual sex with killing and hating women, one can read it as evoking the radical feminist idea that men as a class subordinate women as a class through the threat of rape. Lucy's political lesbianism is a logical response to such misogyny. After being rape, Lucy accepts a subordinate position and this proves the power of rape in controlling women. Like one of the Sabine women, Lucy seems willing to sacrifice herself for peace between black and white in South Africa.

Contextualising the experiences of South African women in the immediate aftermath of rape

Womersley,Gail; Maw,Anastasia
Fonte: Psychology in Society Publicador: Psychology in Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
The psychological impact of rape is most commonly described by drawing on a medical/ psychiatric framework, which feminists have argued fails to factor in the broader contexts of patriarchy and female oppression. Internationally, and in South Africa, feminist researchers have called for more research on rape trauma which seeks to understand the impact of rape in light of the marginalised and oppressive contexts within which particular groups of women live. In response to this need, this article presents a feminist discourse analysis of conversations with nine women living in a low-income area of Cape Town interviewed within 72 hours of being raped. The analysis revealed that the women's narratives of rape were informed by patriarchal discourses which operated to reinforce gendered relations of power. The discourses discussed in the paper are identified as discourses of damage, ostracism, resistance and survival, confessional discourses and discourses of masculinity and femininity. A multitude of cultural scripts informed the discourses drawn upon by the participants, highlighting the heterogeneous, fluid and dynamic nature of the participants' subjectivities and indicating that their relation to such discourses are far from being fixed...

Rape characterised as genocide

Vito,Daniela de; Gill,Aisha; Short,Damien
Fonte: Sur - Revista Internacional de Direitos Humanos Publicador: Sur - Revista Internacional de Direitos Humanos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.49%
This article identifies and analyses some of the theoretical implications of rape being subsumed within the international crime of genocide and argues that such an analysis is essential for creating a clearer framework to address rape. Genocide is defined as a violation committed against particular groups. In contrast, rape is conceptualised as a violation of an individual's sexual autonomy. As such, can rape understood as a violation of an individual's sexual autonomy be compatible with rape being subsumed within the category of a group violation such as genocide? A key conclusion of this article is that if conceptual space can be created within the crime of genocide to include both the individual and the group, then rape (when categorised as genocide) can operate both as a violation against the group and as a violation against the individual. However, the space allotted to each of the individual and the group can never be equal; the group will always need to occupy the majority of the space, because the central motivation for viewing genocide as a crime is the survival of human groups. When rape is subsumed within genocide, which is conceived, placed and treated as a crime against enumerated groups, its dynamic changes. Rape is no longer simply a violation of an individual. Rape becomes part of a notion developed to protect the group.

Other patients are really in need of medical attention: the quality of health services for rape survivors in South Africa

Christofides,Nicola J.; Jewkes,Rachel K.; Webster,Naomi; Penn-Kekana,Loveday; Abrahams,Naeema; Martin,Lorna J.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.53%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in the South African public health sector where the best services for rape survivors were provided, who provided them, what the providers' attitudes were towards women who had been raped and whether there were problems in delivering care for rape survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of facilities was carried out. Two district hospitals, a regional hospital and a tertiary hospital (where available) were randomly sampled in each of the nine provinces in South Africa. At each hospital, senior staff identified two doctors and two nurses who regularly provided care for women who had been raped. These doctors and nurses were interviewed using a questionnaire with both open-ended and closed questions. We interviewed 124 providers in 31 hospitals. A checklist that indicated what facilities were available for rape survivors was also completed for each hospital. FINDINGS: A total of 32.6% of health workers in hospitals did not consider rape to be a serious medical condition. The mean number of rape survivors seen in the previous six months at each hospital was 27.9 (range = 9.3-46.5). A total of 30.3% of providers had received training in caring for rape survivors. More than three-quarters of regional hospitals (76.9%) had a private exam room designated for use in caring for rape survivors. Multiple regression analysis of practitioner factors associated with better quality of clinical care found these to be a practitioner being older than 40 years (parameter estimate = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-5)...