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Lá e aqui: estudo das práticas de transformação da paisagem em comunidades rurais da zona da mata mineira; There and Here: Study of landscape transformation in rural communities in "Zona da Mata" in Minas Gerais.

Silveira, Catarina Faria Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Essa dissertação estuda as práticas culturais que transformam a paisagem das comunidades rurais Buracada, Santa Catarina e Pedra Alta, localizadas nos municípios de Muriaé e Rosário da Limeira na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Paisagem é compreendida nesse trabalho como a expressão da interação de elementos construídos e não-construídos, e entre estes, os homens. Adotamos uma abordagem cultural da paisagem e a consideramos como em constante transformação. Buscamos na antropologia contribuições metodológicas para embasar o trabalho de campo e a interpretação da paisagem estudada. Nossa pesquisa de campo criou, através do relacionamento com um núcleo familiar, uma rede de interlocutores que nos auxiliou no processo de conhecimento dessas transformações. Para construir nossa interpretação aliamos nossas descrições aos relatos dos comunitários e a experiência de campo. Identificamos elementos na paisagem e procedemos com investigações sobre os mesmos, a fim de reunir conhecimento sobre o conjunto de práticas culturais locais que consideramos determinantes na transformação da paisagem. Compreender essas práticas culturais mais determinantes abre um caminho de continuidade para outras reconstruções.; This dissertation studies the cultural practices...

Agroecologia, campesinidade e os espaços femininos na unidade familiar de produção; Agroecology, rural communities and feminine epaces inside family production units

Biase, Laura De
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
O objetivo desta pesquisa foi refletir sobre a dimensão feminina na campesinidade e a importância de sua valorização para a incorporação dos aspectos sócio-culturais na prática agroecológica. A agroecologia pode ser definida como um campo de estudos de caráter multidisciplinar, que tem como objetivo articular o saber-fazer científico ao saber-fazer das comunidades rurais, como forma de potencializar práticas sustentáveis de agricultura. Como movimento de oposição ao processo de modernização da agricultura, busca recuperar as condições socioambientais perturbadas por este e viabilizar a construção de uma realidade sustentável. Contudo, tem-se constatado atualmente que a prática agroecológica brasileira tem sido realizada de maneira restrita, limitando-se principalmente a aspectos técnicos, insuficiente à realização da transformação pretendida teoricamente. Neste trabalho analisou-se, portanto, as possibilidades da campesinidade, e particularmente a valorização da sua dimensão feminina, contribuir para efetivar o projeto agroecológico de construção da sustentabilidade. Para tanto, realizou-se: (1) um estudo sobre as diferentes concepções teóricas da agroecologia e suas possibilidades de articulação para construção de uma proposta de agroecologia plena; (2) uma análise teórica sobre o campesinato e as características da campesinidade...

How to assess relation between local flows of agriculture and wellbeing of rural communities?

Surova, Diana; PInto-Correia, Teresa
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
One of the stated goals of the CAP post-2013 and further rural policies in Europe is improving the sustainability of European rural areas, including the wellbeing of rural communities, so that rural areas keep on being attractive as living places. The multidimensional nature of well-being is an important challenge in terms of evaluation and consequently there is a need for developing appropriate evaluation methods based on meaningful information, leading to a broader understanding of the wellbeing in rural areas. Over the past two decades, many rural places have witnessed unprecedented change and transformation of local economies, property and management drivers, including public policies. This has led to a dramatic reconstitution of rural populations, with less people engaged in agricultural production, but with new actors increasingly demanding non-production functions of agriculture, and sensibly the formation of a new set of rural social geographies. It is unambiguous that improving wellbeing in rural territories is beyond the capabilities of the agricultural sector alone. Hence, agriculture still has a vital impact on the economic, social and cultural relationships of their inhabitants, thereby determining the contribution it can make to rural wellbeing and to the sustainability of territories. Agriculture is seen as an active and dynamic component of local flows and different agricultural types can interact differently with specific flows...

The role of livestock functions in the well being and development of Timor-Leste rural communities

Bettencourt, Elisa Maria Varela; Tilman, Mário; Narciso, Vanda; Silva Carvalho, Maria Leonor da; Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa
Fonte: Livestock Research for Rural Development Publicador: Livestock Research for Rural Development
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households which include food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste. Special attention was given to the socio cultural functions. The primary data used in this study was a questionnaire survey made in 2011 in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro and as secondary source the numerous studies made about the livestock species of Timor-Leste. The results showed that livestock production and livestock species play important economic functions, as well as social and cultural roles for rural communities of Timor-Leste. Livestock species are a very important driver for the development and wellbeing of rural communities of Timor-Leste and livestock policies should incorporate not only economic but also the social and cultural roles of livestock species.

Identidade e participação da comunidade rural nos processos de desenvolvimento local:desafios e competências do regulado de Nhambita-Moçambique

Nguiraze, André Camanguira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
This thesis is defined as a reflection on the mechanisms of expression and insertion of the homo situs in the participatory governance in Mozambique. For a better understanding of this social fact, it was settled a periodization which covered the decline of colonialism at the time of the independence, which was proclaimed in June 1975, the civil war that lasted over 16 years and the period of the democratic State, further established. Therefore, we sought to understand the mechanisms and failures of the participation of the homo situs in local development projects that absorbed the needs and problems of these peasants, not mobilizing the skills and social competences of these communities. It would be essential for the homo situs a genuine democratic practice involving a political culture based on the social construction of the territories of the traditional man which was characterized by being procedural and historical, finding in participation its higher base. In this context, it would be desirable that the community development in Mozambique could contemplate and respect the choices of the homo situs. For this purpose, it would be fundamental the consistency between theory and practice, which builds and rebuilds, continually the competence of the peasants...

Senegal : The National Rural Infrastructure Project (NRIP)

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
The objectives of the project - a credit of US$ 28.5 million equivalent over the period 2001-05 - were to: (i) improve decentralized local government and capacity; (ii) establish participatory and decentralized mechanisms for selecting, funding and implementing rural community investment programs; (iii) strengthen national institutions supporting decentralization; and (iv) implement basic infrastructure in a selected number of rural communities. The project was designed as an Adaptable Program of Lending (APL) to support a three-phase program over a 12-year period. The first 4-year period would be used to test and establish mechanisms for sustainable decentralized infrastructure planning and implementation, strengthen the capacity of rural communities to operate and maintain investments and reinforce national institutions responsible for decentralization. The first phase was also to include a program to improve intra-rural community roads and to test maintenance strategies.

Rural Infrastructure in Armenia : Addressing Gap in Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
This report provides public policy makers with the information necessary to develop a rural infrastructure strategy, it was not intended to represent a strategy per se, merely to highlight the issues that need greater consideration in the definition of a strategy. It starts with an inventory of existing rural infrastructure assets and a description of current institutional arrangements. It follows with a snapshot of local preferences and priorities for rural infrastructure development. It goes on to provide a provisional estimate of the costs of rehabilitating and maintaining a basic minimum level of infrastructure in all rural communities, and the incremental costs of enhanced levels, where economically justified. It concludes with a framework to assist in the setting of investment priorities and recommendations for the development of a rural strategy and action plan.

Post-Construction Support and Sustainability in Community-Managed Rural Water Supply : Case Studies in Peru, Bolivia, and Ghana

Bakalian, Alexander; Wakeman, Wendy
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
This volume reports the main findings from a multi-country research project that was designed to develop a better understanding of how rural water supply systems are performing in developing countries. The author began the research in 2004 to investigate how the provision of support to communities after the construction of a rural water supply project affected project performance in the medium term. The author collected information from households, village water committees, focus groups of village residents, system operators, and key informants in 400 rural communities in Bolivia, Ghana, and Peru; in total, the author discussed community water supply issues with approximately 10,000 individuals in these communities. To the surprise, the author found the great majority of the village water systems were performing well. The findings on the factors influencing their sustainability will be of use to policy makers, investors, and managers in rural water supply.

Solomon Islands : Towards Better Investment in Rural Communities

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
The aim of Solomon Islands Towards Better Investment in Rural Communities is to assist policymakers, program sponsors and implementers to make informed decisions about the design, financing, governance and overall advantages and disadvantages of programs that invest in small-scale infrastructure and income-generating opportunities for rural communities in the Solomon Islands. Completed in mid-2014, the report identifies ways to strengthen the current mechanisms for investing in rural service delivery by examining the three main types of financing for small-scale infrastructure and livelihood activities constituency, province and community-oriented funds in a national and global context across four key programs between 2008 and 2012. A summary of the programs is provided in Table 1. The report explores the following key components across the four programs: analysis and consolidation of sub-project data; local development planning; efficiency and effectiveness; accountability, transparency and dispute management; and sustainability.

Rural resilience and prosperity : the relevance of government and community networks

Brooks, Kathryn Janet (Lamb)
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Dominant ‘society centred’ interpretations of social capital in Australia are inadequate to explain the economic fortunes and social prosperity of rural Australian communities. Given the continued contention over interpretations and measurement of social capital, this research sought to assess the relationship between different interpretations of social capital and rural communities’ resilience and prosperity. ¶ Utilising both quantitative and qualitative techniques to establish the relative levels of social capital in two communities of divergent growth, the primary objective was to test the association asserted between levels of social capital and prosperity and resilience in the rural Australian context. ¶ The research findings highlight three notable issues. Surveying social capital with current instruments is only effective in establishing the well being of rural communities which appears related to their resilience, not their ability to prosper. Secondly, the operational frameworks and responsibilities for social capital adopted by governments dictate the manner in, and degree to which they deem bridging and linking networks necessary and appropriate. This significantly affects the role social capital is perceived to play in communities. Lastly...

Rural communities and ethnic identities in Latin America

Lifschitz, Javier Alejandro
Fonte: CIES-IUL Publicador: CIES-IUL
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
This article has as its focus the new configurations of rural communities in Latin America. From the concept of neocommunities, we intend to show that traditional communities have been, since the last decades of the twentieth century, a privileged domain of public policies and social and cultural projects developed by NGOs, cultural tourism agents, Universities, the media and others. We observe that in maroon neocommunities in Brazil these modern agents develop actions of reconstruction, of practices and knowledges of the afrobrazilian universe which influence the dynamic of rural space.

The Livestock Roles in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste

Bettencourt,Elisa Maria Varela; Tilman,Mário; Narciso,Vanda; Carvalho,Maria Leonor da Silva; Henriques,Pedro Damião de Sousa
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the importance of animal production for the wellbeing and rural development, and relate the functions performed by livestock production with economic, social and cultural attributes of the communities. The data used in this study were collected in 2011 through a questionnaire survey in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro, namely in a mountain area, an irrigation plain and a coastal zone, and were complemented with secondary data. Livestock production in Timor-Leste is predominantly familiar being chickens, pigs, goats, cattle, horses, buffaloes and sheep the main species. Beyond the economic function, each livestock species also performs social and cultural functions.

Demographic change, differential ageing, and public policy in rural and regional Australia: a three-state case study

Smailes, P.; Griffin, T.; Argent, N.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
This paper takes a differential demographic change in six rural settlement categories within rural and regional Australia as the starting point for the measurement of differential ageing using a Relative Ageing Index which compares ageing in sub-populations with the national norm. The spatial units employed are 412 rural communities, approximated by social catchments each consisting of a country town and its surrounding dispersed population. The study covers the period from 1981 to 2006 and includes the rural areas of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, excluding major cities, peri-urban areas, and the remote rangelands. It examines demographic change and differential ageing in a selection of the rural settlement categories recommended for further analysis in the report of the ‘Demographic Change and Liveability Panel’, one of three advisory panels established in 2010 by the then Commonwealth Government seeking to develop a sustainable population strategy for Australia. Ageing profiles are produced for the whole study area, for the individual rural settlement categories, and for the urban and rural components within each category separately. Results show that differential ageing is least advanced in the ‘regional cities’...

Managing policy-driven landuse change to enhance the sustainability of rural communities

Stanley, Jeanette
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Landuse change is occurring across rural Australia with significant implications for rural communities, socially, economically and environmentally. Some of this change is the result of explicit government policy. Policy-driven landuse change has the potential to change landscapes, alter local and regional economies, and change social dynamics. In some cases, the changes that take place are unable to be absorbed by local communities, who may not have the resilience or 'stocks' of social capital to cope with and adapt to the changes. Hence, policy-driven landuse change may threaten the social and economic sustainability of surrounding communities. Alternatively, the change may be 'embraced' by the local community as a positive alteration to the existing economic, social and physical landscape, and can offer economic and social opportunities for communities under pressure from highly variable market and climatic conditions. By synthesising three bodies of literature, and exploring case study evidence, this thesis aims to make both a practical and theoretical contribution, by exploring the conditions under which policy-driven landuse change can contribute to sustainable rural communities. I argue to achieve this, it is necessary to identify and manage social and economic issues associated with landuse change. This study examines two case studies of policy-driven landuse change...

Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Northeast Brazil; Estrategias de desarrollo rural y alivio de la pobreza en el noreste de Brasil Desenvolvimento rural e alivio da pobreza no nordeste do Brasil

Coirolo, Luis; Barbosa, Tulio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The Northeast region of Brazil has long been the single largest pocket of rural poverty in Latin America. With a combined area of 1.6 million square kilometers-16 percent of Brazil's total-the Northeast is home to 45 million people, 28 percent of Brazil's total population , of whom 5.4 million people live on about $1 a day and a total of 10.7 million on $1.60 or less per day. Nearly half of all rural communities are in the interior, semi-arid zone characterized by poor soil and severe, frequent drought. The rural poor are small farmers, tenants, sharecroppers and landless laborers. They face an uncertain climate and fluctuating markets. Their access to land is skewed and there is almost no rural financial system for their needs. They rely on subsistence cropping of basic foods, smallscale animal husbandry, some cash crops (mainly cotton and cashew), casual agricultural and non-agricultural work, pensions, and remittances from family members living in the cities.

Surviving On Their Own: How Leaders In Appalachia’s Remote Rural Communities Make Economic Development Policy

Feldman, Stefanie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Formato: 1081165 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
There is growing support for metropolitan-focused economic development policy in the United States. Defenders of this metropolitan agenda push aside concerns regarding whether rural communities are left out of this framework by pointing out that over half of rural residents live within metropolitan areas. Additional rural areas that are outside of metropolitan boundaries are still interconnected with metropolitan areas through the exchange of goods and people. Hence, the argument goes, when metropolitan economies grow, benefits spill into rural communities. But arguments that rural and metropolitan areas are not so different leave the most remote rural areas out of economic development discussions. Historical disadvantages created persistent poverty in remote areas: a lack of access to urban markets, poor infrastructure and underinvestment, and policies that have pulled human capital out of the rural communities and into distant urban centers. Unfortunately, there is no clear strategy for how to help these communities thrive and there is a void in academic literature that assesses development from the perspective of remoteness. This thesis offers analysis of economic opportunities for the most remote rural communities in the United States. Given that there has been so little focus on economic development opportunities in remote rural areas...

Plantations and sustainable rural communities

Schirmer, Jacqueline; Tonts, Matthew
Fonte: Institute of Foresters of Australia Publicador: Institute of Foresters of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Tree plantations are often hailed as providing a wide range of economic, social and environmental benefits to rural regions. Yet in many of the regions where plantations have been established, members of rural communities and environmental groups have expressed various concerns about the effects of large-scale tree plantings. If plantations are bringing so many benefits to these regions, why is there social concern and sometimes active dispute over their establishment? This paper examines the nature of these concerns and disputes by reviewing some of the literature on social implications of plantations, and by drawing on four case studies from the south-west of Western Australia. During the past decade this region has experienced a rapid increase in plantation forestry. While some see the industry as a positive development, there are also widespread concerns about the negative effects of this change in land use. The paper also investigates recent measures adopted by plantation companies, local governments and State and federal government agencies to address and resolve concerns. It reveals that a number of these strategies provide opportunities to channel social concerns over plantations into productive processes that allow differing views to be expressed and acted upon.

Output-Based Aid in Mali Rural Electrification Hybrid System Project

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Electrification can be a significant driver for improving livelihoods in rural communities. In rural Mali, where more than 80 percent of the country’s population lives, the electrification rate is only 15 percent. Increasing access to electricity in rural Mali is crucial for economic development, social cohesion, and reconstruction following the country’s recent period of conflict, political instability, and food insecurity. This note discusses an innovative output-based aid (OBA) project in rural Mali, the first such project in the energy sector to support development of mini-grids on a large scale. The project complements an innovative hybrid-system model supported by the International Development Association (IDA) and climate investment funds and scaling up renewable energy in low income countries program (SREP) to expand rural access to modern energy services and increase renewable generation.

ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION OF RURAL COMMUNITIES AND ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE: SUBSIDIES FOR PRIORITY AREA FOR CONSERVATION PROPOSITION IN THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE SEMIARID, BRAZIL; ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION OF RURAL COMMUNITIES AND ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE: SUBSIDIES FOR PRIORITY AREA FOR CONSERVATION PROPOSITION IN THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE SEMIARID, BRAZIL

Lucena, Mycarla Araujo; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; Freire, Eliza Maria; UFRN - Centro de Biociências/Coordenadora do PRODEMA Coordenadora geral do Doutorado em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, associação em Rede
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 22/09/2015 ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Priority Areas for Conservation are defined in order to protect environments that are home to a richness of species, endemisms and/or endangered species. However, besides these factors, additional studies such as Environmental Perception of local communities and Landscape Analysis are relevant to assess and minimize the negative effects caused to natural environments. In this context and in this perspective, the Mountain Range Complex João do Vale was studied, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, which holds a set of landscapes with different vegetation types that are being replaced by various economic activities resulting from disordered population growth and consequent exploitation of natural resources' potential. The use of these resources, in most cases, occurs improperly, leading to a depletion of this potential. This study proposes to combine Analysis of Landscape, through a Geographic Information System (GIS), to the Environmental Perception of rural communities in order to define Priority Areas for Conservation. Perception data were obtained through direct observation, questioning, interviews and application forms (n = 240); as to the landscape, data from slope maps, Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA) and Environmental Vulnerability were used. The Content Analysis used for perception data showed that respondents have a sense of topophilia regarding where they live...

A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle of rural communities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Hesterberg,U W; Bagnall,R; Bosch,B; Perrett,K; Horner,R; Gummow,B
Fonte: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association Publicador: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle originating from rural communities of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in South Africa was carried out between March 2001 and December 2003. The survey was designed as a 2-stage survey, using the local diptank as the primary sampling point. In total, 2021 animals from 379 diptanks in 33 magisterial districts were sampled and tested with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The apparent prevalence at district level was adjusted for clustering and diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and displayed in maps. The prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle originating from communal grazing areas of KZN was found to be 19.4 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 14.8-24.1 %. At district level the prevalence of leptospirosis varied from 0 to 63 % of cattle. Bovine leptospirosis was found to occur in communal grazing areas throughout the province with the exception of 2 districts. The southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence than other areas of the province; while in some of the northern and western districts alower prevalence was noted. Several serovars were detected by the MAT and although Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona occurred most frequently, serovars tarrasovi, bratislava...