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Characterization of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in Tectona grandis; Caracterização de genes envolvidos na biossíntese de lignina em Tectona grandis

Gómez, Esteban Galeano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/03/2015 EN
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26.33%
Teak tree (Tectona grandis L.f.) has a high value in the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities of color, density and durability. Despite the importance of this species, genetic and molecular studies available are limited. Also, the lack of molecular information about secondary xylem and tree maturation has hindered genetic exploration of teak. Therefore, gene expression studies and transcriptomic profiling are essential to explore wood formation and lignin biosynthesis through the development and aging of vascular plants. Aiming the gene expression studies, it was essential to identify and clone reference genes for teak. Eight genes were tested, commonly used in qRT-PCR, including TgRP60S, TgCAC, TgACT, TgHIS3, TgSAND, TgTUB, TgUBQ and TgEF1a. Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem). Stability validation by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs showed that TgUBQ and TgEF1a are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes in teak in the conditions tested. Due to the availability of 12- and 60-year-old teak trees, RNA-seq was performed in diferent organs (seedlings...

RNA-MATE: a recursive mapping strategy for high-throughput RNA-sequencing data

Cloonan, Nicole; Xu, Qinying; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Taylor, Darrin F.; Tang, Dave T. P.; Kolle, Gabriel; Grimmond, Sean M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Summary: Mapping of next-generation sequencing data derived from RNA samples (RNAseq) presents different genome mapping challenges than data derived from DNA. For example, tags that cross exon-junction boundaries will often not map to a reference genome, and the strand specificity of the data needs to be retained. Here we present RNA-MATE, a computational pipeline based on a recursive mapping strategy for placing strand specific RNAseq data onto a reference genome. Maximizing the mappable tags can provide significant savings in the cost of sequencing experiments. This pipeline provides an automatic and integrated way to align color-space sequencing data, collate this information and generate files for examining gene-expression data in a genomic context.

miRDeep*: an integrated application tool for miRNA identification from RNA sequencing data

An, Jiyuan; Lai, John; Lehman, Melanie L.; Nelson, Colleen C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.39%
miRDeep and its varieties are widely used to quantify known and novel micro RNA (miRNA) from small RNA sequencing (RNAseq). This article describes miRDeep*, our integrated miRNA identification tool, which is modeled off miRDeep, but the precision of detecting novel miRNAs is improved by introducing new strategies to identify precursor miRNAs. miRDeep* has a user-friendly graphic interface and accepts raw data in FastQ and Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) or the binary equivalent (BAM) format. Known and novel miRNA expression levels, as measured by the number of reads, are displayed in an interface, which shows each RNAseq read relative to the pre-miRNA hairpin. The secondary pre-miRNA structure and read locations for each predicted miRNA are shown and kept in a separate figure file. Moreover, the target genes of known and novel miRNAs are predicted using the TargetScan algorithm, and the targets are ranked according to the confidence score. miRDeep* is an integrated standalone application where sequence alignment, pre-miRNA secondary structure calculation and graphical display are purely Java coded. This application tool can be executed using a normal personal computer with 1.5 GB of memory. Further, we show that miRDeep* outperformed existing miRNA prediction tools using our LNCaP and other small RNAseq datasets. miRDeep* is freely available online at http://www.australianprostatecentre.org/research/software/mirdeep-star.

SIBER: systematic identification of bimodally expressed genes using RNAseq data

Tong, Pan; Chen, Yong; Su, Xiao; Coombes, Kevin R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Motivation: Identification of bimodally expressed genes is an important task, as genes with bimodal expression play important roles in cell differentiation, signalling and disease progression. Several useful algorithms have been developed to identify bimodal genes from microarray data. Currently, no method can deal with data from next-generation sequencing, which is emerging as a replacement technology for microarrays.

Large Scale Comparison of Gene Expression Levels by Microarrays and RNAseq Using TCGA Data

Guo, Yan; Sheng, Quanhu; Li, Jiang; Ye, Fei; Samuels, David C.; Shyr, Yu
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2013 EN
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36.74%
RNAseq and microarray methods are frequently used to measure gene expression level. While similar in purpose, there are fundamental differences between the two technologies. Here, we present the largest comparative study between microarray and RNAseq methods to date using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. We found high correlations between expression data obtained from the Affymetrix one-channel microarray and RNAseq (Spearman correlations coefficients of ∼0.8). We also observed that the low abundance genes had poorer correlations between microarray and RNAseq data than high abundance genes. As expected, due to measurement and normalization differences, Agilent two-channel microarray and RNAseq data were poorly correlated (Spearman correlations coefficients of only ∼0.2). By examining the differentially expressed genes between tumor and normal samples we observed reasonable concordance in directionality between Agilent two-channel microarray and RNAseq data, although a small group of genes were found to have expression changes reported in opposite directions using these two technologies. Overall, RNAseq produces comparable results to microarray technologies in term of expression profiling. The RNAseq normalization methods RPKM and RSEM produce similar results on the gene level and reasonably concordant results on the exon level. Longer exons tended to have better concordance between the two normalization methods than shorter exons.

Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.27%
The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together...

MultiRankSeq: Multiperspective Approach for RNAseq Differential Expression Analysis and Quality Control

Guo, Yan; Zhao, Shilin; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background. After a decade of microarray technology dominating the field of high-throughput gene expression profiling, the introduction of RNAseq has revolutionized gene expression research. While RNAseq provides more abundant information than microarray, its analysis has proved considerably more complicated. To date, no consensus has been reached on the best approach for RNAseq-based differential expression analysis. Not surprisingly, different studies have drawn different conclusions as to the best approach to identify differentially expressed genes based upon their own criteria and scenarios considered. Furthermore, the lack of effective quality control may lead to misleading results interpretation and erroneous conclusions. To solve these aforementioned problems, we propose a simple yet safe and practical rank-sum approach for RNAseq-based differential gene expression analysis named MultiRankSeq. MultiRankSeq first performs quality control assessment. For data meeting the quality control criteria, MultiRankSeq compares the study groups using several of the most commonly applied analytical methods and combines their results to generate a new rank-sum interpretation. MultiRankSeq provides a unique analysis approach to RNAseq differential expression analysis. MultiRankSeq is written in R...

Inducible Defenses Stay Up Late: Temporal Patterns of Immune Gene Expression in Tenebrio molitor

Johnston, Paul R; Makarova, Olga; Rolff, Jens
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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26.33%
The course of microbial infection in insects is shaped by a two-stage process of immune defense. Constitutive defenses, such as engulfment and melanization, act immediately and are followed by inducible defenses, archetypically the production of antimicrobial peptides, which eliminate or suppress the remaining microbes. By applying RNAseq across a 7-day time course, we sought to characterize the long-lasting immune response to bacterial challenge in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a model for the biochemistry of insect immunity and persistent bacterial infection. By annotating a hybrid de novo assembly of RNAseq data, we were able to identify putative orthologs for the majority of components of the conserved insect immune system. Compared with Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a reference genome sequence and a manually curated immune system annotation, the T. molitor immune gene count was lower, with lineage-specific expansions of genes encoding serine proteases and their countervailing inhibitors accounting for the majority of the deficit. Quantitative mapping of RNAseq reads to the reference assembly showed that expression of genes with predicted functions in cellular immunity, wound healing, melanization...

Statistical strategies for microRNAseq batch effect reduction

Guo, Yan; Zhao, Shilin; Su, Pei-Fang; Li, Chung-I; Ye, Fei; Flynn, Charles R.; Shyr, Yu
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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26.6%
RNAseq technology is replacing microarray technology as the tool of choice for gene expression profiling. While providing much richer data than microarray, analysis of RNAseq data has been much more challenging. Among the many difficulties of RNAseq analysis, correctly adjusting for batch effect is a pivotal one for large-scale RNAseq based studies. The batch effect of RNAseq data is most obvious in microRNA (miRNA) sequencing studies. Using real miRNA sequencing (miRNAseq) data, we evaluated several batch removal techniques and discussed their effectiveness. We illustrate that by adjusting for batch effect, more reliable differentially expressed genes can be identified. Our study on batch effect in miRNAseq data can serve as a guideline for future miRNAseq studies that might contain batch effect.

RNA-Seq Gene Profiling - A Systematic Empirical Comparison

Fonseca, Nuno A.; Marioni, John; Brazma, Alvis
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Accurately quantifying gene expression levels is a key goal of experiments using RNA-sequencing to assay the transcriptome. This typically requires aligning the short reads generated to the genome or transcriptome before quantifying expression of pre-defined sets of genes. Differences in the alignment/quantification tools can have a major effect upon the expression levels found with important consequences for biological interpretation. Here we address two main issues: do different analysis pipelines affect the gene expression levels inferred from RNA-seq data? And, how close are the expression levels inferred to the “true” expression levels? We evaluate fifty gene profiling pipelines in experimental and simulated data sets with different characteristics (e.g, read length and sequencing depth). In the absence of knowledge of the ‘ground truth’ in real RNAseq data sets, we used simulated data to assess the differences between the “true” expression and those reconstructed by the analysis pipelines. Even though this approach does not take into account all known biases present in RNAseq data, it still allows to estimate the accuracy of the gene expression values inferred by different analysis pipelines. The results show that i) overall there is a high correlation between the expression levels inferred by the best pipelines and the true quantification values; ii) the error in the estimated gene expression values can vary considerably across genes; and iii) a small set of genes have expression estimates with consistently high error (across data sets and methods). Finally...

Analysis of RNAseq datasets from a comparative infectious disease zebrafish model using GeneTiles bioinformatics

Veneman, Wouter J.; de Sonneville, Jan; van der Kolk, Kees-Jan; Ordas, Anita; Al-Ars, Zaid; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Spaink, Herman P.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
We present a RNA deep sequencing (RNAseq) analysis of a comparison of the transcriptome responses to infection of zebrafish larvae with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium marinum bacteria. We show how our developed GeneTiles software can improve RNAseq analysis approaches by more confidently identifying a large set of markers upon infection with these bacteria. For analysis of RNAseq data currently, software programs such as Bowtie2 and Samtools are indispensable. However, these programs that are designed for a LINUX environment require some dedicated programming skills and have no options for visualisation of the resulting mapped sequence reads. Especially with large data sets, this makes the analysis time consuming and difficult for non-expert users. We have applied the GeneTiles software to the analysis of previously published and newly obtained RNAseq datasets of our zebrafish infection model, and we have shown the applicability of this approach also to published RNAseq datasets of other organisms by comparing our data with a published mammalian infection study. In addition, we have implemented the DEXSeq module in the GeneTiles software to identify genes, such as glucagon A, that are differentially spliced under infection conditions. In the analysis of our RNAseq data...

Summarizing and exploring data of a decade of cytokinin-related transcriptomics

Brenner, Wolfram G.; Schmülling, Thomas
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2015 EN
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35.96%
The genome-wide transcriptional response of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana to cytokinin has been investigated by different research groups as soon as large-scale transcriptomic techniques became affordable. Over the last 10 years many transcriptomic datasets related to cytokinin have been generated using different technological platforms, some of which are published only in databases, culminating in an RNA sequencing experiment. Two approaches have been made to establish a core set of cytokinin-regulated transcripts by meta-analysis of these datasets using different preferences regarding their selection. Here we add another meta-analysis derived from an independent microarray platform (CATMA), combine all the meta-analyses available with RNAseq data in order to establish an advanced core set of cytokinin-regulated transcripts, and compare the results with the regulation of orthologous rice genes by cytokinin. We discuss the functions of some of the less known cytokinin-regulated genes indicating areas deserving further research to explore cytokinin function. Finally, we investigate the promoters of the core set of cytokinin-induced genes for the abundance and distribution of known cytokinin-responsive cis elements and identify a set of novel candidate motifs.

RNA-Seq Analysis of the Response of the Halophyte, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Ice Plant) to High Salinity

Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Suzuki, Takamasa; Nishikawa, Kouki; Agarie, Sakae; Ishiguro, Sumie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/02/2015 EN
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26.44%
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that convey salt tolerance in plants is a crucial issue for increasing crop yield. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a halophyte that is capable of growing under high salt conditions. For example, the roots of ice plant seedlings continue to grow in 140 mM NaCl, a salt concentration that completely inhibits Arabidopsis thaliana root growth. Identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for this high level of salt tolerance in a halophyte has the potential of revealing tolerance mechanisms that have been evolutionarily successful. In the present study, deep sequencing (RNAseq) was used to examine gene expression in ice plant roots treated with various concentrations of NaCl. Sequencing resulted in the identification of 53,516 contigs, 10,818 of which were orthologs of Arabidopsis genes. In addition to the expression analysis, a web-based ice plant database was constructed that allows broad public access to the data. The results obtained from an analysis of the RNAseq data were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Novel patterns of gene expression in response to high salinity within 24 hours were identified in the ice plant when the RNAseq data from the ice plant was compared to gene expression data obtained from Arabidopsis plants exposed to high salt. Although ABA responsive genes and a sodium transporter protein (HKT1)...

Molecular Signatures Discriminating the Male and the Female Sexual Pathways in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera

Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Huvet, Arnaud; Levy, Peva; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick; Le Moullac, Gilles
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The genomics of economically important marine bivalves is studied to provide better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying their different reproductive strategies. The recently available gonad transcriptome of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a novel and powerful resource to study these mechanisms in marine mollusks displaying hermaphroditic features. In this study, RNAseq quantification data of the P. margaritifera gonad transcriptome were analyzed to identify candidate genes in histologically-characterized gonad samples to provide molecular signatures of the female and male sexual pathway in this pearl oyster. Based on the RNAseq data set, stringent expression analysis identified 1,937 contigs that were differentially expressed between the gonad histological categories. From the hierarchical clustering analysis, a new reproduction model is proposed, based on a dual histo-molecular analytical approach. Nine candidate genes were identified as markers of the sexual pathway: 7 for the female pathway and 2 for the male one. Their mRNA levels were assayed by real-time PCR on a new set of gonadic samples. A clustering method revealed four principal expression patterns based on the relative gene expression ratio. A multivariate regression tree realized on these new samples and validated on the previously analyzed RNAseq samples showed that the sexual pathway of P. margaritifera can be predicted by a 3-gene-pair expression ratio model of 4 different genes: pmarg-43476...

COXPRESdb in 2015: coexpression database for animal species by DNA-microarray and RNAseq-based expression data with multiple quality assessment systems

Okamura, Yasunobu; Aoki, Yuichi; Obayashi, Takeshi; Tadaka, Shu; Ito, Satoshi; Narise, Takafumi; Kinoshita, Kengo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
The COXPRESdb (http://coxpresdb.jp) provides gene coexpression relationships for animal species. Here, we report the updates of the database, mainly focusing on the following two points. For the first point, we added RNAseq-based gene coexpression data for three species (human, mouse and fly), and largely increased the number of microarray experiments to nine species. The increase of the number of expression data with multiple platforms could enhance the reliability of coexpression data. For the second point, we refined the data assessment procedures, for each coexpressed gene list and for the total performance of a platform. The assessment of coexpressed gene list now uses more reasonable P-values derived from platform-specific null distribution. These developments greatly reduced pseudo-predictions for directly associated genes, thus expanding the reliability of coexpression data to design new experiments and to discuss experimental results.

Data for comparative proteomics of ovaries from five non-model, crustacean amphipods☆

Trapp, Judith; Almunia, Christine; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Pible, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2015 EN
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36.42%
Ovaries were taken from five sexually mature amphipods: Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus pulex, Gammarus roeseli, Hyallela azteca and Parhyale hawaiensis. The soluble proteome extracted from individual pair of ovaries from five biological replicates was trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The spectra were assigned with four protein sequence databases with different specificities: a RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database; a RNAseq-derived P. hawaiensis database; both originating from ovaries transcriptome; the Daphnia pulex database derived from whole-genome sequencing and the NCBInr database. The best interpretation was obtained for most animals with the specific RNA-seq protein database previously established by means of RNAseq carried out on G. fossarum. Proteins identified in the five amphipod species allow defining the core-proteome of female reproductive tissues of the Senticaudata suborder. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis Trapp et al., 2015 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002253 (G. fossarum), PXD002254 (G. pulex), PXD002255 (G. roeseli), PXD002256 (H. Azteca), and PXD002257 (P. hawaiensis).

Gene-expression data integration to squamous cell lung cancer subtypes reveals drug sensitivity

Wu, D; Pang, Y; Wilkerson, M D; Wang, D; Hammerman, P S; Liu, J S
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Squamous cell lung cancer (SqCC) is the second most common type of lung cancer in the United States. Previous studies have used gene-expression data to classify SqCC samples into four subtypes, including the primitive, classical, secretory and basal subtypes. These subtypes have different survival outcomes, although it is unknown whether these molecular subtypes predict response to therapy. Methods: Here, we analysed RNAseq data of 178 SqCC tumour samples and characterised the features of the different SqCC subtypes to define signature genes and pathway alterations specific to each subtype. Further, we compared the gene-expression features of each molecular subtype to specific time points in models of airway development. We also classified SqCC-derived cell lines and their reported therapeutic vulnerabilities. Results: We found that the primitive subtype may come from a later stage of differentiation, whereas the basal subtype may be from an early time. Most SqCC cell lines responded to one of five anticancer drugs (Panobinostat, 17-AAG, Irinotecan, Topotecan and Paclitaxel), whereas the basal-type cell line EBC-1 was sensitive to three other drugs (PF2341066, AZD6244 and PD-0325901). Conclusion: Compared with the other three subtypes of cell lines...

Transcriptional maturation of the mouse auditory forebrain

Hackett, Troy A.; Guo, Yan; Clause, Amanda; Hackett, Nicholas J.; Garbett, Krassimira; Zhang, Pan; Polley, Daniel B.; Mirnics, Karoly
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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26.39%
Background: The maturation of the brain involves the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, proteins and regulatory elements over time. In sensory pathways, gene expression profiles are modified by age and sensory experience in a manner that differs between brain regions and cell types. In the auditory system of altricial animals, neuronal activity increases markedly after the opening of the ear canals, initiating events that culminate in the maturation of auditory circuitry in the brain. This window provides a unique opportunity to study how gene expression patterns are modified by the onset of sensory experience through maturity. As a tool for capturing these features, next-generation sequencing of total RNA (RNAseq) has tremendous utility, because the entire transcriptome can be screened to index expression of any gene. To date, whole transcriptome profiles have not been generated for any central auditory structure in any species at any age. In the present study, RNAseq was used to profile two regions of the mouse auditory forebrain (A1, primary auditory cortex; MG, medial geniculate) at key stages of postnatal development (P7, P14, P21, adult) before and after the onset of hearing (~P12). Hierarchical clustering, differential expression...

A Dual Platform Approach to Transcript Discovery for the Planarian Schmidtea Mediterranea to Establish RNAseq for Stem Cell and Regeneration Biology

Blythe, Martin J.; Kao, Damian; Malla, Sunir; Rowsell, Joanna; Wilson, Ray; Evans, Deborah; Jowett, Jamie; Hall, Amy; Lemay, Virginie; Lam, Sabrina; Aboobaker, A. Aziz
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/12/2010 EN
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26.42%
The use of planarians as a model system is expanding and the mechanisms that control planarian regeneration are being elucidated. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea in particular has become a species of choice. Currently the planarian research community has access to this whole genome sequencing project and over 70,000 expressed sequence tags. However, the establishment of massively parallel sequencing technologies has provided the opportunity to define genetic content, and in particular transcriptomes, in unprecedented detail. Here we apply this approach to the planarian model system. We have sequenced, mapped and assembled 581,365 long and 507,719,814 short reads from RNA of intact and mixed stages of the first 7 days of planarian regeneration. We used an iterative mapping approach to identify and define de novo splice sites with short reads and increase confidence in our transcript predictions. We more than double the number of transcripts currently defined by publicly available ESTs, resulting in a collection of 25,053 transcripts described by combining platforms. We also demonstrate the utility of this collection for an RNAseq approach to identify potential transcripts that are enriched in neoblast stem cells and their progeny by comparing transcriptome wide expression levels between irradiated and intact planarians. Our experiments have defined an extensive planarian transcriptome that can be used as a template for RNAseq and can also help to annotate the S. mediterranea genome. We anticipate that suites of other 'omic approaches will also be facilitated by building on this comprehensive data set including RNAseq across many planarian regenerative stages...

The evolution of X chromosome inactivation in mammals: the demise of Ohno’s hypothesis?

Pessia, Eugénie; Engelstädter, Jan; Marais, Gabriel A. B.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Ohno's hypothesis states that dosage compensation in mammals evolved in two steps: a twofold hyperactivation of the X chromosome in both sexes to compensate for gene losses on the Y chromosome, and silencing of one X (X-chromosome inactivation, XCI) in females to restore optimal dosage. Recent tests of this hypothesis have returned contradictory results. In this review, we explain this ongoing controversy and argue that a novel view on dosage compensation evolution in mammals is starting to emerge. Ohno's hypothesis may be true for a few, dosage-sensitive genes only. If so few genes are compensated, then why has XCI evolved as a chromosome-wide mechanism? This and several other questions raised by the new data in mammals are discussed, and future research directions are proposed.; Agence Nationale de la Recherche grant number: (ANR-12-BSV7-0002), Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência.