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Identificação dos gargalos e estabelecimento de um plano de ação para o sucesso do Programa Brasileiro do Biodiesel. ; Identification of shortfalls and establishment of a workplan for the success of the Brazilian Biodiesel Program.

Penteado, Maurício Cintra do Prado de Salles
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/09/2005 PT
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A crescente pressão mundial pelo desenvolvimento de tecnologias automotivas menos poluentes de emissões de combustíveis, incluindo o de combustiveis alternativos, foi a forma de impulsionar a tecnologia do Biodiesel, de origem não fóssil, derivados de fontes renováveis, visando substituir, gradualmente, o uso do óleo diesel, na matriz energética mundial. A diretiva americana “Clean air Act amendment of 1990”, a Lei S-517 e a diretiva européia “2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003” instituíram a adição do Biodiesel no óleo diesel. Nos Estados Unidos, este teor é de 20%, e, na Europa, é obrigatória a adição de 2%, em 2005, e será de 5,75%, em 2010. Dentro deste contexto, o Biodiesel necessita ser implementado no Brasil, de maneira gradual. A Lei brasileira 11097/05 tornará obrigatória sua adição de 2% (Biodiesel B2), em 2008 (ou de cerca de 840 milhões de litros de Biodiesel, do montante estimado de demanda do óleo diesel, de 42 bilhões de litros, em 2008), e de 5% (Biodiesel B5), em 2013. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de se identificarem alguns gargalos existentes, no âmbito técnico-econômico, no Programa Brasileiro do Biodiesel, e o de se estabelecer um plano de ação para o sucesso da implementação deste programa. No plano de ação...

Strengthening Caribbean Pensions : Improving Equity and Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This report aims to provide additional insights to existing analyses of public pension and social security schemes in the Caribbean. Such analyses have been undertaken with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Economic Commission for Latin America, and the Caribbean and the International Social Security Association. By making cross-country comparisons within the region and across the world, this report will review fiscal vulnerability, sustainability, labor market efficiency, migration, financial market development, and other pension-related areas. Finally, governance and investment management should be strengthened by: (i) strengthening the governance structure, including authority and accountability of Board members; (ii) improving governance mechanisms with the assistance of external oversight and improved information disclosure; (iii) introducing codes of conduct for the governing body and management; and (iv) introducing a number of measures to strengthen the investment policies...

Integrating Land Financing into Subnational Fiscal Management

Peterson, George E.; Kaganova, Olga
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Land assets have become an important source of financing capital investments by subnational governments in developing countries. Land assets, often with billions of dollars per transaction, rival and sometimes surpass subnational borrowing or fiscal transfers for capital spending. While reducing the uncertainty surrounding future debt repayment capacity, the use of land-based revenues for financing infrastructure can entail substantial fiscal risks. Land sales often involve less transparency than borrowing. Many sales are conducted off-budget, which makes it easier to divert proceeds into operating budgets. Capital revenues from sales of land assets exert a much more volatile trend and could create an incentive to appropriate auction proceeds for financing the operating budget, particularly in times of budget shortfalls during economic downturns. Furthermore, land collateral and expected future land-value appreciation for bank loans can be linked with macroeconomic risks. It is critical to develop ex ante prudential rules comparable to those governing borrowing...

How Should Fiscal Policy Respond to the Economic Crisis in the Low Income Commonwealth of Independent States? Some pointers from Tajikistan

Brownbridge, Martin; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The paper analyses how the global economic crisis will affect the economies of the low income Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and discusses the fiscal measures which can be taken to help mitigate the adverse impact of the crisis. It focuses on Tajikistan, the poorest member of the CIS but also highlights similarities with the economies of Armenia, the Kyrgyz Republic and Moldova. The main channels through which the global economic crisis will affect the low income CIS economies is through a sharp reduction in remittances from migrant workers in Russia and lower export earnings. The adjustment to this external shock will involve a reduction in imports, private consumption, domestic output and government revenue. Fiscal policy, constrained by very limited macroeconomic and fiscal space, faces acute challenges. Maintaining budget targets for fiscal deficits and domestic borrowing in the face of revenue shortfalls will lead to a tightening of the fiscal stance, exacerbating recessionary pressures and making it very difficult to protect priority social expenditures from cuts. To avoid these outcomes...

Sudan : World Bank Review of 2008 Budget Performance and 2009 Budget Preliminary Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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As a follow-up to the first Public Expenditure Review (PER), this note reviews fiscal management by the Government of National Unity (GoNU) through 2008 budget performance, including pro-poor spending, and how do its main features compare to the fiscal management under the first phase of the post-CPA interim period (2005-07)? The note also runs through the highlights of the key features of the GoNU 2009 budget and what has been the impact of the global crisis on the budget performance through the first quarter. The main objective is to highlight fiscal lessons for the remaining period of the post-CPA interim period. The note is structured around the following six sections: review of the economic assumptions underlying the 2008 budgets, aggregate fiscal performance, revenue performance, expenditure performance, pro-poor spending, and the 2009 budget analysis followed by actual outturns through the first quarter.

Croatia : Policy Options for Further Pension System Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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In response to prolonged recession, in April 2010 the Croatian Government adopted an Economic Recovery Program to safeguard macroeconomic stability and support faster recovery of the private sector. A central element of the program is comprehensive overhaul of the pension insurance system to ensure long-term fiscal and social sustainability as the population ages. The authorities have asked the World Bank to both support the reform desig

Russia : Issues in Public Expenditure Policy

Morozov, Alexander; Sundberg, Mark W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This note briefly outlines key public expenditure policy issues facing Russia today. Dramatic changes have taken place on the public expenditure landscape since the start of transition. In the first year after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, total recorded public expenditures captured over two-thirds of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Within the next two years this was reduced to 46 percent of GDP, and by 1998 consolidated budget and extra-budgetary recorded expenditures reached an estimated 39 percent of GDP.

Infrastructure Privatization and Regulation : Promises and Perils

Kessides, Ioannis N.
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Infrastructure is crucial for generating growth, alleviating poverty, and increasing international competitiveness. For much of the twentieth century and in most countries, the network utilities that delivered infrastructure services such as electricity, natural gas, telecommunications, railroads, and water supply were vertically and horizontally integrated state monopolies. But this approach often resulted in extremely weak services, especially in developing and transition economies and especially for poor people. Common problems included low productivity, high costs, bad quality, insufficient revenue, and shortfalls in investment. Over the past two decades many countries have implemented far-reaching institutional reforms restructuring, privatizing, and establishing new approaches to regulation. This article identifies the challenges involved in this massive policy redirection within the historical, economic, and institutional context of developing and transition economies. It also reviews the outcomes of these policy changes...

India Power Sector Diagnostic Review : More Power to India - The Challenge of Distribution

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report reviews the evolution of the Indian power sector since the landmark Electricity Act of 2003 (EA 2003, or EA), with a focus on distribution as key to performance and viability of the sector. While all three segments of the power sector generation, transmission, and distribution are important, revenues originate with the customer at distribution, so subpar performance there hurts the entire value chain. Persistent operational and financial shortcomings in distribution have repeatedly led to central bailouts for the whole sector, even though power is a concurrent 1 subject under the Indian constitution and distribution is almost entirely under state control. Ominously, the recent sharp increase in private investment and market borrowing means power sector difficulties are more likely to spill over to lenders and affect the broader financial sector. Government-initiated reform efforts first focused on the generation and transmission segments, reflecting the urgent need for adding capacity and the complexity of issues to be addressed at the consumer interface. Consequently...

Governance of Indian State Power Utilities : An Ongoing Journey

Pargal, Sheoli; Mayer, Kristy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
EN_US
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By the late 1990s, the technical and financial performance of the power sector in India had deteriorated to the point where the Government of India had to step in to bail out the state utilities, almost all of which were vertically integrated state electricity boards (SEBs). Considering that the dismal performance of state utilities reflected internal and external shortfalls in governance, the new Electricity Act of 2003 (EA 2003) mandated the unbundling and corporatization of the SEBs, along with the establishment of independent regulators. This was expected to bring about a more accountable and commercial performance culture, with concomitant results in improved utility performance. The rest of this review is organized as follows. Chapter two summarizes the institutional context and relevant developments over the past two decades. Chapter three focuses on the corporate governance agenda adopted by the government and its implementation, specifically relating to the structure and functioning of utility boards of directors. Chapter four reviews SERC regulatory governance. Chapter five analyzes the correlation between key indicators of the quality of regulatory and corporate governance and utility financial performance. And chapter six concludes.

Private Participation in the Indian Power Sector : Lessons from Two Decades of Experience

Mukherjee, Mohua
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This book reviews the major developments in and the lessons learned from the 21-year (1991-2012) experience with private sector participation (PSP) in the power sector in India. It discusses the political economy context of the policy changes, looks at reform initiatives that were implemented for the generation sector, describes transmission and distribution segments at different points in the evolution of the sector, and concludes with a summary of lessons learned and a suggested way forward. The evolution of private participation in the Indian power sector can be divided into different phases. Phase one was launched with the opening of the generation sector to private investment in 1991. Phase two soon followed - early experiments with state-level unbundling and other reform initiatives, including regulatory reform, culminating in divestiture, and privatization in Orissa and Delhi respectively. Phase three, the passage of the electricity act of 2003 by the central government, followed by a large increase in private entry into generation and forays into transmission and experiments with distribution franchise models in urban and rural areas during the 11th five-year plan (2007-12) period. In phase four...

Reforms under Fiscal Stress : A Policy Note on the Priorities for Fiscal and Budget Reform in Nepal

Bajracharya, Roshan Darshan; Biletska, Nataliya; Rajaram, Anand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This note, first of the several on fiscal management and policy option notes planned, provides a concise assessment of the achievements to date of the ongoing reforms to budget management in Nepal and concludes with some guidance on the key focus areas of fiscal policy and expenditure management over the near and medium term. It is a selective assessment that looks at major aspects of the policy and budget process with a view to identifying areas for strategic focus, rather than a detailed rendering of the reforms. The note highlights the fiscal challenges that are assuming increasing prominence and which must be addressed by policy decisions and medium term reforms. While recognizing the uniqueness of Nepal's initial conditions, capacities and current security related challenges, the note takes account of international experience in implementing such reforms. The note starts with the economic and political background. The second section reviews fiscal trends and outlines issues to be considered by a fiscal strategy. The third section discusses institutional issues to strengthen the budget process.

Colombia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In recent years Colombia has made important progress in its PFM systems and improved transparency in public finance. Important initiatives include adoption of the 2002 presidential anticorruption plan, improving the administration of publicly owned banks, clarifying responsibilities for managing expenditures among different levels of government, and introducing modem accounting concepts and procedures. These initiatives were supported by the rollout of new information systems covering the budget and local government finances, as well as the monitoring of public procurement. The Government enacted an important Fiscal Transparency and Responsibility Law in 2003, and strengthened the disciplinary code for public servants. The Government also strengthened the laws regulating contingent liability management in 1998, and is building a systematic framework to track and manage contingent liabilities. Systems are being put in place to track counter-guarantees for sub-national governments, lawsuits, and arrears to providers, and two special funds have been established to manage specific contingencies. Despite this progress, there remain problems in managing other liabilities. Among them: The Government has run up significant arrears with providers...

More Power to India : The Challenge of Electricity Distribution

Pargal, Sheoli; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report assesses progress in implementing the government of India's power sector reform agenda and examines the performance of the sector along different dimensions. India has emphasized that an efficient, resilient, and financially robust power sector is essential for growth and poverty reduction. Almost all investment-climate surveys point to poor availability and quality of power as critical constraints to commercial and manufacturing activity and national competitiveness. Further, more than 300 million Indians live without electricity, and those with power must cope with unreliable supply, pointing to huge unsatisfied demand and restricted consumer welfare. This report reviews the evolution of the Indian power sector since the landmark Electricity Act of 2003, with a focus on distribution as key to the performance and viability of the sector. While all three segments of the power sector (generation, transmission, and distribution) are important, revenues originate with the customer at distribution...

Private Participation in Transport : Lessons from Recent Experience in Europe and Central Asia

Monsalve, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Facing fiscal constraints, many governments in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeastern Europe have pursued private finance for transport infrastructure more to move investments off budget than to improve efficiency and services. Results have been mixed and suggest a need to focus more on public-private partnerships (PPPs) that can achieve value for money. Today's economic environment will reduce the potential for PPP projects in the short term. Some PPP projects at an advanced stage of procurement may need additional public support, while ambitious projects may need to be phased to reduce their scale to what the market can absorb.

Islamic Republic of Pakistan : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The objective of the CFAA is to enhance knowledge of public financial management (PFM) and accountability arrangements in Bank's client countries. As a diagnostic tool, the CFAA supports the Bank's fiduciary responsibilities by identifying strengths and weaknesses of PFM so that potential risks to Bank funds can be managed. It also supports the Bank's development objectives by facilitating common understanding with the borrower and other development partners to assist in the design of PFM capacity building programs. The CFAA can also be used by the Government of Pakistan (GoP) to manage its internal finances and to strengthen accountability frameworks. This Country Financial Accountability Assessment concludes that there are substantial opportunities for consolidating current reforms and for introducing additional reforms to further strengthen public financial accountability. This will require sustained policy level commitment. The Government's will to reform is evidenced by the scale and variety of actions underway at the Federal and provincial levels. The Government of Pakistan has already embarked upon wide ranging reforms to improve budgetary and accounting systems and internal control arrangements. These reforms are now starting to show results: The risks of revenue shortfalls have been reduced with the initiation of tax policy and tax administration reforms ~ The risks of increasing excess debt have been reduced by more controlled budgeting and debt management though the use of the Medium-Term Budget Framework (MTBF) and the establishment of the Debt Office The risks of late and inaccurate federal annual accounts have been reduced by improved accounting controls introduced by the Controller General of Accounts (CGA) in compilation of accounts and the Fiscal Monitoring Committees in encouraging reconciliations. The risks of limited transparency in accounts at all levels have been reduced by the decisions to give the Auditor General responsibility for certification audit of all annual government accounts.

Bhutan Development Update, April 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
ENGLISH; EN_US
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After a policy-engineered slowdown in 2012, which saw GDP growth decline to 4.8 percent, the lowest since 2008, Bhutan's economy is expected to rebound to 6.5 percent this year, supported by hydropower construction and higher electricity and food production, following favorable rains. The tight fiscal stance introduced in 2012 has been maintained to bring spending in line with lower non-hydro revenues and a slowdown in foreign grant disbursements, but the revenue situation is expected to improve with the commissioning of cement and electricity projects. Bhutan's external debt, at 85 percent of GDP, remains high, but is likely to fall sharply as assured hydropower revenues begin to flow from projects for which the external loans were taken. However, its narrow exports base and the large rupee-reserves mismatch make the country vulnerable to shortfalls in external earnings and pose a moderate risk. Bhutan's success in reducing absolute poverty is noteworthy, with the poverty rate falling from 23 percent in 2007 to 12-13 percent in 2012...

Indonesia Economic Quarterly, March 2014 : Investment in Flux

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Indonesia's economy continues to adjust to weaker terms of trade and tighter external financing conditions, with the composition of growth tilting more towards net exports, and economic growth slowing moderately. While this shift is positive for macroeconomic stability, it has to date been based primarily on tighter monetary policy and the depreciation of the Rupiah in 2013, the effects of which are continuing to play out. To further reduce Indonesia's vulnerability to external shocks, to minimize the risks of a more marked cyclical slowdown in growth, and to convert the near-term macro adjustment into strong, sustained growth over the longer term, further progress on long-standing policy priorities is warranted. Progress in three key areas can support both near-term macro stability and Indonesia's long-term economic prospects. First, there is a need to support domestic and foreign investor confidence. Recent policy and regulatory developments, including the partial ban on mineral exports, have increased uncertainty...

Bangladesh Development Update, April 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Bangladesh moved closer to achieving the sixth five year plan target of reducing extreme poverty to 22.5 percent by 2015 as it sustained healthy gross domestic product (GDP) growth and moderate single digit inflation in FY2014. However, growth this year slowed relative to last year with declining remittances and losses due to political turmoil. Sound macroeconomic management kept inflation in check, although it increased somewhat due to the one-off effects of supply disruptions and wage increases. Official foreign exchange reserves increased to an adequate level as Bangladesh Bank intervened to keep the exchange rate stable. Weak demand for credit reduced interest rates. Monetary policy remained prudent while fiscal management challenged by shortfall in tax revenue, demand for support from sectors adversely affected by the political turmoil, and under-utilization of development budget. The fund's extended credit facility (ECF) is on track. Immediate challenges are to boost investments in power and roads; manage the transition in readymade garments; and stem the decline in remittances.

Sudan State-Level Public Expenditure Review; Meeting the Challenges of Poverty Reduction and Basic Service Delivery, Volume 2. Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Sudan has the potential to become a dynamic economy and a bread basket for the Arab world and East-Central Africa. However, resource endowment is not sufficient to bring about sustainable growth and prosperity. Sudans macroeconomic conditions remain weak since the secession of South Sudan in 2011, despite some improvements. The repercussions of the secession of South Sudan present enormous challenges for Sudan with respect to managing the macro-fiscal adjustment and promoting a structural re-orientation of the economy. The signing in March 2013 of the implementation matrix of the agreement between Sudan and South Sudan provides some fresh financial relief to Sudan and creates a great opportunity for further policy reforms to address the post-secession challenges. Sudans growth strategy should involve policies aimed at improving the investment climate and broadening private sector-led growth, and diversifying the economy toward non-oil sectors such as agriculture, industry, export, and local trade.