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Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second...

A Note on Rising Food Prices

Mitchell, Donald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
The rapid rise in food prices has been a burden on the poor in developing countries, who spend roughly half of their household incomes on food. This paper examines the factors behind the rapid increase in internationally traded food prices since 2002 and estimates the contribution of various factors such as the increased production of biofuels from food grains and oilseeds, the weak dollar, and the increase in food production costs due to higher energy prices. It concludes that the most important factor was the large increase in biofuels production in the U.S. and the EU. Without these increases, global wheat and maize stocks would not have declined appreciably, oilseed prices would not have tripled, and price increases due to other factors, such as droughts, would have been more moderate. Recent export bans and speculative activities would probably not have occurred because they were largely responses to rising prices. While it is difficult to compare the results of this study with those of other studies due to differences in methodologies...

Protecting Electricity Retailers Against Price Volatility : The Electricity Tariff Equalization Fund in New South Wales

Kerf, Michel; Groom, Eric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Most commentators agree that the benefits of competitive electricity markets will materialize only if wholesale prices are allowed to fluctuate more or less freely so as to provide adequate pricing signals to generators. Most also agree, however, that small electricity users need to be protected against wholesale price volatility through stable, predictable retail rates. That raises a difficult question about whether the retailers or distributors, caught in the middle, also need some protection, especially early in the development of competitive markets. The Australian state of New South Wales has used a transitional mechanism to provide such protection. Lessons learned from this experience can be of interest for other countries.

Oil Price Risks and Pump Price Adjustments

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Between 1999 and 2008, world oil prices more than quadrupled in real terms. For oil importers, vulnerability to oil price increases, defined as the share of gross domestic product spent on net oil imports, rose considerably. Considering medians, low-income countries had the highest vulnerability in 2008 and the highest increase in vulnerability between 1999 and 2008. When changes in vulnerability were decomposed into several contributing factors, more than two-thirds of 170 countries studied were found to have offset the increase in the value of oil consumption by reducing the oil intensity of gross domestic product. Oil intensity fell in more than half the countries in every income group and in every region of the world, driven by falling energy intensity and, to a lesser extent, the oil share of energy. This study also examines the degree of pass-through to consumers of increases in world prices of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas between January 2009 and January 2012, when oil prices in nominal U.S. dollars more than doubled. Retail fuel prices varied by two orders of magnitude in 2012...

Changes in End-User Petroleum Product Prices : A Comparison of 48 Countries

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.85%
This paper presents retail prices of the petroleum products in August 2008 in up to 56 countries, and examines the degree of pass through to consumers of increases in world gasoline and diesel prices since January 2004 in 48 countries. This is the second paper in a series summarizing work undertaken to assess the implications of higher oil prices on fuel use, the downstream petroleum sector, and household fuel consumption in the developing world. It follows a recent publication on a decomposition analysis of vulnerability to oil price increases, where vulnerability is defined as the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on net imports of crude oil and petroleum products (Bacon and Kojima 2008). This paper focuses on the extent to which international petroleum product price increases have been passed on to consumers.

Coping with Higher Oil Prices

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
The rise in oil prices and the associated increase in the prices of petroleum products that has occurred since the beginning of 2004 are having adverse effects on the users of petroleum products in all countries. In many developing countries, price increases have generated considerable pressure for government response to lessen the burden of higher world oil prices, and policies to minimize budgetary support have met with fierce opposition. The individual characteristics of petroleum products strongly influence the way consumers react to various policies that might be tried. Some policy measures that are effective for other items for the purpose of protecting consumers, and especially the poor, from price increases are not necessarily suitable or effective for petroleum products.

Policies, Prices, and Poverty

Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly; Golub, Stephen S.; English, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Senegal has struggled to develop its industrial sector in the face of import competition. For basic food products, there is an implicit trade-off between the objectives of maintaining employment and lowering the cost of living, both of which figure prominently in current government policy. Conflicting pressures have led to a rather inconsistent policy mix of high levels of protection with price ceilings. The products of the three industries examined here—sugar, vegetable oil, and flour—account for roughly 14 percent of the consumption basket of the poor, so distortions in their prices can have a significant effect on poverty reduction. This paper compares domestic prices in Senegal with world prices since 2000, and then explains the difference by examining the protection enjoyed by these industries, along with their market structure. The analysis finds that high protection and market power have resulted in domestic prices which were often two or three times the equivalent world price. Tightening of price ceilings and some liberalization have taken place recently...

Food Security and Wheat Prices in Afghanistan : A Distribution-sensitive Analysis of Household-level Impacts

D'Souza, Anna; Jolliffe, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
This paper investigates the impact of increases in wheat flour prices on household food security using unique nationally-representative data collected in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2008. It uses a new estimator, the Unconditional Quantile Regression estimator, based on influence functions, to examine the marginal effects of price increases at different locations on the distributions of several food security measures. The estimates reveal that the negative marginal effect of a price increase on food consumption is two and a half times larger for households that can afford to cut the value of food consumption (75th quantile) than for households at the bottom (25th quantile) of the food-consumption distribution. Similarly, households with diets high in calories reduce intake substantially, but those at the bottom of the calorie distribution (25th quantile) make very small changes in intake as a result of the price increases. In contrast, households at the bottom of the dietary diversity distribution make the largest adjustments in the quality of their diets...

Food Prices, Wages, and Welfare in Rural India

Jacoby, Hanan G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This paper considers the welfare and distributional consequences of higher relative food prices in rural India through the lens of a specific-factors, general equilibrium, trade model applied at the district level. The evidence shows that nominal wages for manual labor both within and outside agriculture respond elastically to increases in producer prices; that is, wages rose faster in rural districts growing more of those crops with large price run-ups over 2004-09. Accounting for such wage gains, the analysis finds that rural households across the income spectrum benefit from higher agricultural commodity prices. Indeed, rural wage adjustment appears to play a much greater role in protecting the welfare of the poor than the Public Distribution System, India's giant food-rationing scheme. Moreover, policies, like agricultural export bans, which insulate producers (as well as consumers) from international price increases, are particularly harmful to the poor of rural India. Conventional welfare analyses that assume fixed wages and focus on households' net sales position lead to radically different conclusions.

Drawing a Roadmap for Oil Pricing Reform

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
In 2011, the median oil imports rose to 5 percent of gross domestic product for net importers. In the past several years, many governments have not passed through the world oil price increases to consumers fully. As a sign of divergent pricing policies, the retail prices of gasoline, diesel, and cooking gas in January 2013 varied by a factor of 190, 250, and 70, respectively, across developing countries. Policies to keep oil product prices low to benefit the economy and protect the poor have had a number of unintended negative consequences, including flourishing corruption in the oil sector and entrenchment of monopoly operators or inefficient firms through which subsidies are channeled, stifling competition and raising costs. The path to market-based pricing depends on the starting conditions: the gap between current and market-based price levels, the level of public awareness about the extent of departure from market prices, the degree of market concentration and competition in downstream oil, the subsidy delivery mechanism where subsidies are provided...

Rockets and Feathers : Asymmetric Petroleum Product Pricing in Developing Countries

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper aims to provide those working in developing countries with a review of the issues that can help address the four questions: 1) are petroleum product margins excessively high at certain times?; 2) Does asymmetry of price responses to cost changes exist and, if so, what are the possible reasons that could account for it?; 3) If there is asymmetry of petroleum product price responsiveness, how large is the cost to consumers compared with symmetric pricing?; And 4) what policies can combat excessive petroleum product margins? The discussion focuses mainly on liberalized markets, because, in markets subject to price control, the pattern of responses of prices to cost changes will be determined partially or largely by the Government. Chapter one describes asymmetric pricing and the structure of the oil market, focusing in particular on the links between the retail sector and the rest of the chain of supply. The chapter next briefly reviews types of legislation that exist in liberalized markets to protect consumers from monopolistic or collusive behavior in petroleum products pricing. Chapter two describes different types of firms' pricing behavior...

Action Needed : Spiraling Drug Prices Empty Russian Pockets

Marquez, Patricio; Bonch-Osmolovskiy, Mikhail
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
In large measure, this is due to the relatively low level of public health spending in the country (about 3.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008) that underlines the significant gap between the constitutional commitment to a range of medical care services and the actual funding to pay for them. While drugs are supposed to be provided to hospital patients free of charge, an estimated 80 percent of inpatients still have to pay part of the costs of their medicines and most outpatients must purchase them from pharmacies. The outpatient drug program under mandatory health insurance covers only around 16 million people (11 percent of the total population in the country), with more than half of them opting to receive cash rather than in-kind benefits under the 2005 'monetization' of prescription drug benefits. Those who continue with the in-kind benefits appear to be the ones greatest in need of drugs. The situation is further aggravated by the country's ineffective enforcement of controls on wholesale and retail mark-ups for medicines. Household expenditure on drugs accounted for about 30 percent of total health expenditure in Russia...

Boom, Bust and Up Again? Evolution, Drivers and Impact of Commodity Prices: Implications for Indonesia; Laporan pengembangan sektor perdagangan - perkembangan, pemicu dan dampak harga komoditas : implikasinya terhadap perekonomian Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Indonesia is one of the largest commodity exporters in the world, and given its mineral potential and expected commodity price trends, it could and should expand its leading position. Commodities accounted for one fourth of Indonesia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and more than one fifth of total government revenue in 2007. The potential for further commodity growth is considerable. Indonesia is the largest producer of palm oil in the world (export earnings totaled almost US$9 billion in 2007 and employment 3.8 million full-time jobs) and the sector has good growth prospects. It is also one of the countries with the largest mining potential in view of its second-largest copper reserves and third-largest coal and nickel reserves in the world. This report consists of seven chapters. The first six chapters present an examination and an analysis of the factors driving increased commodity prices, price forecasts, economic impact of commodity price increases, effective price stabilization policies, and insights from Indonesia's past growth experience. The final chapter draws on the findings of the previous chapters and suggests a development strategy for Indonesia in the context of high commodity prices. This section summarizes the contents of the chapters and their main findings.

Petroleum Prices in Bangladesh : A Need for Regular and Appropriate Adjustments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
Under-pricing of diesel and kerosene continues to cause major financial problems for Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC), which is losing over Tk 2 billion monthly. Global forecasts suggest that oil prices will continue to be over $US 50 per barrel for the next couple of years. Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey data for 2005 indicate that both diesel and kerosene form a very small part of the budget of the poor. One option, therefore, is to raise the price of diesel and kerosene from current Tk 33 to 41 per liter and make BPC breakeven on its trading costs. BPC's trading cost is roughly 70 percent of its total current costs; the latter includes an ever increasing interest bill, currently at Tk 4.7 billion. If the one step increase is considered difficult, a second option would be to phase the increase over a six-month period with each increase of Tk 4 per liter, possibly in sync with the 'boro' rice planting season. A major communication campaign should be launched to inform the public the rationale of the price increase. Future adjustments should be based on a formula that automatically adjusts prices-both upwards and downwards...

Higher Fuel and Food Prices : Impacts and Responses for Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
The dramatic increases in world food and fuel prices during 2007 and early 2008 may set back Mozambique's considerable advances in poverty reduction during the past decade. This study assesses the impact of higher fuel and food prices at both household and macroeconomic levels, and also considers policy options to mitigate some of the negative impacts of higher prices. Rising world prices certainly represents a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique, since the country imports almost all of its fuel and is a net importer of food. The report is structured in six sections. Section two presents information on the extent of international food and fuel price increases and their transmission to local markets in Mozambique. Section three presents household-level analysis focused on the first order impact of the food price increases. Section four complements previous sections by examining the impact of higher food and fuel prices within a general equilibrium framework. Section five discusses the likely impact of alternative policy options in the short and long term. Section six summarizes and concludes.

Black Hole or Black Gold? The Impact of Oil and Gas Prices on Indonesia's Public Finances

Agustina, Cut Dian R.D.; Arze del Granado, Javier; Bulman, Tim; Fengler, Wolfgang; Ikhsan, Mohamad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
Indonesia's oil revenues and fuel subsidies dominate the nation's economic policy agenda. This paper estimates the impact of higher international oil prices on the Indonesian government's fiscal position in 2008 and beyond. It analyzes the interactions between government revenues and expenditures, as well as international oil prices, energy subsidies, and inter-governmental transfers. Looking at the impact of oil prices over US$100 per barrel, the paper presents five main findings. First, despite record high oil prices, the government's oil and gas revenues have been decreasing relative to non-oil and gas revenues since 2001. Second, fuel subsides will reach record levels in 2008 while electricity subsidies have been increasing even faster. Third, the paper finds that most of the fuel subsidy that directly benefits households goes to the richest 20 percent. Fourth, even at levels above US$100 per barrel, the government receives more revenues from oil and gas than it spends on energy subsidies. However...

A revenda de combustível e os limites constitucionais para a sua regulação: uma análise aplicada aos aspectos concorrênciais e ao controle de preços; The gas retail and the constitutional boundaries on regulation: applied analysis on competition aspects e price control

Gabbay, Samuel Max
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
The gas retail represents the end of a section of the oil and natural gas derivative chain, for it is at this stage where the commercialization of those merchandises takes place towards the costumers. This process involves an enormous amount of economic agents, which reflects on an activity of great influence on the citizen's everyday. By the time of the gas retail price liberalization, in 2002, there were great expectations towards that measure, for the insertion of that segment in a competitive market was likely to create a decrease in prices. As there was not a drastic drop off in cost, the question was no longer the price itself, but, predominantly, the conduct taken by the economic agents that operate the market. Not in vain, the segment introduces a greater number of different procedures combined with the organs that compose the Brazilian System of Competition Protection. What is understood, however, is that many of these complaints are made in a lightly way, without a proper analysis of the market and its practices, that being why, in this paper, evidences the causes of these complaints and explained what, in fact, occurs in this market. Also, the organs that protect the free initiative in the sector use different methods to assess anticompetitive practices...

Higher Retail Prices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages 3 Months After Implementation of an Excise Tax in Berkeley, California

Falbe, Jennifer; Rojas, Nadia; Grummon, Anna H.; Madsen, Kristine A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Objectives. We assessed the short-term ability to increase retail prices of the first US 1-cent-per-ounce excise tax on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which was implemented in March 2015 by Berkeley, California.

Possible changes to the Retail Prices Index: what they are and why they matter

Levell, Peter
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Peter Levell of the IFS analyses changes in the way the Retail Prices Index (RPI) is calculated and discusses what they entail. Most benefit payments and tax rates have already switched to being linked to the CPI and so any change to the RPI would not affect them, but government bondholders may be adversely impacted.

Retail prices of essential drugs in Brazil: an international comparison

Nóbrega,Otávio de Tolêdo; Marques,André Ricardo; Araújo,Ana Cleire Gomes de; Karnikowski,Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Naves,Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Silver,Lynn Dee
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
OBJECTIVES: Price is a key obstacle for consumer access to essential drugs, especially in developing countries. This study sought to compare the retail prices of essential drugs on the private market in Brazil with that of two international pricing standards. METHODS: The retail price of all drugs on Brazil's Essential Drugs List, July 2000 edition, were compared to the retail price of the same drugs on the Swedish market and on a referential bulk-price indicator from low-cost suppliers on the international market. Ratios of Brazil's prices to Sweden's prices and Brazil's prices to the international bulk mean price-per-unit for each drug were calculated. Using linear regression analysis, the ratios were also studied in relation to the number of manufacturers. RESULTS: For the 132 drugs that were listed on both Brazil's and Sweden's lists, unitary retail prices in Brazil were 1.9 times higher. Of the 94 drugs found on both Brazil's list and the international unit-price indicator, Brazil's national mean unit prices were 13.1 more expensive. No relationship was found between the number of manufacturers for each product and the ratios of prices. CONCLUSIONS: Average retail prices of essential drugs in Brazil are significantly higher than in Sweden. Furthermore...