Página 1 dos resultados de 278 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Data Mining Applied to Harmonic Current Sources Identification in Residential Consumers

FERNANDES, R. A. S.; SILVA, I. N. da; OLESKOVICZ, M.
Fonte: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC Publicador: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This work proposes a method based on both preprocessing and data mining with the objective of identify harmonic current sources in residential consumers. In addition, this methodology can also be applied to identify linear and nonlinear loads. It should be emphasized that the entire database was obtained through laboratory essays, i.e., real data were acquired from residential loads. Thus, the residential system created in laboratory was fed by a configurable power source and in its output were placed the loads and the power quality analyzers (all measurements were stored in a microcomputer). So, the data were submitted to pre-processing, which was based on attribute selection techniques in order to minimize the complexity in identifying the loads. A newer database was generated maintaining only the attributes selected, thus, Artificial Neural Networks were trained to realized the identification of loads. In order to validate the methodology proposed, the loads were fed both under ideal conditions (without harmonics), but also by harmonic voltages within limits pre-established. These limits are in accordance with IEEE Std. 519-1992 and PRODIST (procedures to delivery energy employed by Brazilian`s utilities). The results obtained seek to validate the methodology proposed and furnish a method that can serve as alternative to conventional methods.

A demanda por energia elétrica residencial no Brasil: 1999 - 2006: uma estimativa das elasticidades-preço e renda por meio de painel; The residential electric power demand in Brazil from 1999 to 2006: an estimation of price and income elasticities using panel data

Gomes, Ludmila de Sá Fonseca e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2010 PT
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36.5%
O objetivo deste trabalho é estimar as elasticidades-preço e renda da demanda residencial por energia elétrica no Brasil utilizando dados em painel. A heterogeneidade da economia brasileira faz com que existam diversos padrões de consumo residencial de energia elétrica e diferentes estruturas tarifárias entre as distribuidoras. Nesse sentido, este trabalho utiliza um banco de dados em painel formado por 63 distribuidoras de energia elétrica no Brasil, para o período 1999-2006. Isso permite controlar possíveis efeitos individuais não observáveis existentes entre as distribuidoras. Três métodos de estimação em painel foram aplicados: o Pooled OLS, o de Efeitos Fixos e o de Efeitos Aleatórios. Além disso, também foi testado se no período de racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido no Brasil em 2001/2002, ocorreu alguma alteração na sensibilidade dos consumidores com relação a variações nas tarifas de energia elétrica e na renda dos consumidores no período. Os resultados mostraram que a utilização de dados em painel produz estimativas de elasticidades preço e renda de acordo com a teoria econômica. Além disso, os resultados ficaram próximos aos da literatura nacional. Os resultados também mostraram que no período do racionamento aumentou a sensibilidade dos consumidores com relação a alterações nas tarifas de energia elétrica.; The objective of this thesis is to estimate the price and income elasticities of residential electric power demand in Brazil using panel data. The heterogeneity of the Brazilian economy leads to the existence of different patterns of residential electric power consumption and different tariffs structures among the electric power utilities companies. In this regard...

Aplicação de redes inteligentes nas instalações elétricas residenciais; Application of smart grid in residential electrical installations.

Caires, Luis Eduardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
A eletricidade como recurso energético adquiriu importância vital na sociedade moderna, pois permite atender de modo relativamente simples a demanda pelos seus serviços. Dessa forma a demanda pela eletricidade aumenta proporcionalmente a evolução das populações que dela se beneficiam. O sistema elétrico que produz esse insumo está limitado em sua capacidade aos recursos disponíveis para geração, transmissão e distribuição de energia. Grosso modo esse limite é definido pela potência máxima do sistema. Essa potência máxima pode ser alcançada em determinados períodos do dia, denominados horários de ponta e em boa parte do tempo o sistema é sub aproveitado. Havendo a possibilidade de controle da demanda, seria possível empregar essa capacidade ociosa pela transferência de cargas para horários mais favoráveis. Para isso é necessário haver a ação coordenada dos muitos consumidores para obter o resultado operacional desejado. A coordenação seria então obtida através das chamadas redes inteligentes que agregam funções e automação com vários níveis de complexidade e constituem um sistema muito amplo que une a geração ao consumo. A diferença perceptível pelo consumidor residencial está no fato deste ser incluído na operação dessa rede praticamente em tempo real...

Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

Cost Recovery, Equity, and Efficiency in Water Tariffs : Evidence from African Utilities

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Foster, Vivien; Ying, Yvonne; Skilling, Heather; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Water and sanitation utilities in Africa operate in a high-cost environment. They also have a mandate to at least partially recover their costs of operations and maintenance (O&M). As a result, water tariffs are higher than in other regions of the world. The increasing block tariff (IBT) is the most common tariff structure in Africa. Most African utilities are able to achieve O&M cost recovery at the highest block tariffs, but not at the first-block tariffs, which are designed to provide affordable water to low-volume consumers, who are often poor. At the same time, few utilities can recover even a small part of their capital costs, even in the highest tariff blocks. Unfortunately, the equity objectives of the IBT structure are not met in many countries. The subsidy to the lowest tariff-block does not benefit the poor exclusively, and the minimum consumption charge is often burdensome for the poorest customers. Many poor households cannot even afford a connection to the piped water network. This can be a significant barrier to expansion for utilities. Therefore...

The Distributional Incidence of Residential Water and Electricity Subsidies

Komives, Kristin; Halpern, Jonathan; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin; Abdullah, Roohi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Subsidies to residential utility customers are popular among policymakers, utility managers, and utility customers alike, but they are nonetheless the subject of much controversy. Utility subsidies are seen as a way to help make utility service affordable for poor households and as an alternative mechanism for income redistribution. These arguments in favor of subsidies are countered by serious concerns about their adverse effects on consumer behavior, utility operations, and the financial health of utilities. Both the affordability and redistributive arguments for subsidies are based on the presumption that poor households benefit disproportionately from water and electricity subsidies, that they are well-targeted to the poor. The authors test this assumption by examining the extent to which the poor benefit from consumption and connection subsidies for water and electricity services. Their analysis of a wide range of subsidy models from around the developing world shows that the most common form of utility subsidy-quantity-based subsidies delivered through the tariff structure-are highly regressive. Geographically targeted or means-tested subsidies do better, and in many cases have a progressive incidence, but large numbers of poor households remain excluded. Low levels of coverage and metering severely limit the effectiveness of consumption subsidy schemes to reach the poor. Simulations suggest that connection subsidies are an attractive alternative for low coverage areas...

Water Markets, Demand and Cost Recovery for Piped Water Supply Services : Evidence from Southwest Sri Lanka

Nauges, Celine; van den Berg, Caroline
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
In many countries water supply is a service that is seriously underpriced, especially for residential consumers. This has led to a call for setting cost recovery policies to ensure that the tariffs charged for water supply cover the full cost of providing for the service. Yet, the question arises on how consumers will react to such price increases. The authors illustrate the impact of price increases on consumption of piped water through a study of the demand for water of piped and non-piped households using cross-sectional data from 1,800 households in Southwest Sri Lanka. The (marginal) price elasticity is estimated at -0.74 for households exclusively relying on piped water, and at -0.69 for households using piped water but supplementing their supply with other water sources, with no significant differences between income groups. Those households that depend on non-piped water sources have a time cost elasticity (as a proxy for price elasticity) of only -0.06. The authors discuss the implications of these results in terms of pricing policy.

Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It then considers the welfare effects o f raising tariffs, with particular attention to the poor and other vulnerable groups. It concludes with potential links to agriculture, the environment, and stakeholder analysis.

Romania : Energy Sector Rapid Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The energy sector rapid assessment was conducted by the World Bank for the Government of Romania, as part of an advisory services program on climate change and low carbon green growth. The objective of this assessment is to identify climate change related investment priorities and necessary implementation support for the 2014-2020 operational programs, with a view to achieving the European Union (EU) 2020 targets and laying a foundation for continued de-carbonization of the energy sector. This rapid assessment focuses on climate change mitigation actions in power and heat generation and in energy use in manufacturing, residential, public, and commercial sectors. Energy use and efficiency in the transport sector is studied in a separate transport sector rapid assessment. It includes in-depth investigation of the main energy end-use sectors or subsectors, low-carbon energy supply optimization based on long-term energy demand patterns and trends, and the design and approaches of key energy efficiency intervention programs...

Egypt : Development of a Load Management Program and Design of Time of Use/Seasonal Pricing

Economic Consulting Associates, Ltd
Fonte: world Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: world Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.53%
The primary aim of load shifting or peak clipping is to lower the peak demand of the electricity system as a whole or for key parts of the network and thereby to reduce the need for investment in generation and transmission capacity and to lower electricity supply costs. The pricing mechanisms and contractual frameworks examined in the project include conventional Time Of Use (TOU) tariffs that vary by season, day of the week or time of the day as well as special TOU contracts (contracts with large consumers to adjust their regular maintenance activities and/or major annual maintenance), interruptible contracts, and TOU power purchase contracts (purchase of electricity from customers who have excess self-generation). This Final Report is structured as follows; Section 2 provides an overview of the process of TOU tariff setting and rate design, Sections 3 and 4 summarise the experience of TOU tariffs and load management contracts in the MENA region (Section 3) and internationally (Section 4), Section 5 summarises the methodologies used in the development of TOU pricing mechanisms and load management contracts...

Assessment of Household Energy Deprivation in Tajikistan : Policy Options for Socially Responsible Reform in the Energy Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Every year an estimated seventy percent of Tajikistan's population suffers from severe electricity shortages in winter. The energy sector was affected by dramatic changes over the last few decades - regional energy cooperation was disrupted after the break-up of the Soviet Union, gas imports were interrupted, and the state was unable to invest adequately in the maintenance of the national energy infrastructure. Tajikistan has been facing severe power shortages in winter months since the district heating system collapsed and households as a consequence started to use electricity for heating purposes. This report assesses energy deprivation in Tajikistan with an emphasis on the human dimension, paying special attention to rural areas. It takes a broad look at household energy security, affordability, and coping mechanisms, in order to inform short and medium-term policies to mitigate energy deprivation. Firstly, it analyzes energy use and spending patterns across diverse groups of consumers, low and middle-income...

Poverty and Distributional Impact of Gas Price Hike in Armenia

Ersado, Lire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Armenia meets about 75 percent of its energy needs through imports, with natural gas imports from Russia accounting for about 80 percent of total energy imports and 60 percent of total primary energy supply. Because of high dependence on imported energy, Armenia is vulnerable to external energy price shocks, which are often beyond the control of its policymakers. A most recent case in point was the 2010 Russian gas tariff increase, which led to a nearly 40 percent increase in the retail gas price for residential consumers. Coming on the heels of the global economic recession that hit Armenia's economy hard, the price hike amplified the impact on households that rely primarily on gas for heating and cooking. Using aggregate energy consumption data and a nationally representative household survey immediately before the crisis, this paper provides an overview of household energy consumption patterns, highlights Armenia's energy vulnerability, and estimates the direct poverty and distributional impacts of the increase in the cost of imported gas. The analysis shows that the gas price hike resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditures...

Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico : Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor

Komives, Kristin; Johnson, Todd M.; Halpern, Jonathan D.; Aburto, Jose Luis; Scott, John R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This report addresses a pressing issue in Mexico's electricity sector the large and growing subsidies to residential consumers and their regressive incidence across different segments of the population. It responds to requests from the Ministry of Energy to provide a preliminary assessment of alternatives to the current subsidy system, building on prior collaboration between the Government of Mexico and the World Bank on the distributional impact of public spending, the performance of conditional cash transfer programs and other poverty-targeted programs, and related work on pricing and subsidies for infrastructure services. This study was designed as the first phase of a multiphase program of collaborative analytical work. This first phase provides estimates of the distributional and fiscal performance of alternative subsidy targeting mechanisms to help inform discussion and deliberations on feasible goals and practical approaches over the medium term. A second phase will address transition paths, specific compensatory mechanisms...

Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The electricity shortages have not been addressed because investments have not been made in new electricity supply capacity and maintenance of existing assets has not improved. The financial incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their consumption is inadequate as electricity prices are among the lowest in the world. Without prompt action to remedy the causes of Tajikistan's electricity crisis and with growing demand, the shortages could increase to about 4,500 GWh by 2016 (over a third of winter electricity demand) or worse. The World Bank undertook this study to assist the Government of Tajikistan (GoT) in finding ways to overcome the current electricity shortages and establish a sound basis for meeting the growing electricity demand in Tajikistan. The study focuses on the investments and policy reforms needed between now and 2020 to strengthen the financial...

Poverty and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Price Reforms in Montenegro

Silva, Patricia; Klytchnikova, Irina; Radevic, Dragana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The Government of Montenegro is preparing an electricity tariff reform due to recent developments in the national and regional electricity markets. Electricity tariffs for residential consumers in Montenegro are likely to gradually increase by anywhere from 40 to over 100 percent. This significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex-ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, the authors show that the anticipated price increase will result in a significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures on the poor and vulnerable households in particular. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating.

The Transition from Underpricing Residential Electricity in Bangladesh : Fiscal and Distributional Impacts

Ahmed, Faizuddin; Trimble, Chris; Yoshida, Nobuo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The electricity sector in Bangladesh has been facing unprecedented challenges, with severe capacity constraints and sector subsidies that quadrupled from 0.2 percent to 0.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2010 and 2012, driving the government's fiscal deficit deeper. This policy note examines the poverty and distribution impact of one such reform-residential electricity tariff increases-along with their fiscal implications. A challenge of such adjustments is how to minimize their impact on the poor and vulnerable. Using household survey data, this report studies the distributional and fiscal implications of the residential tariff adjustments between March 2010 and March 2012 on to inform policy dialogue on the provision and targeting of electricity subsidies. Electricity subsidies are defined as the difference between the cost of supplying a unit of electricity and the tariff the end-user is charged for a given unit. Between 2010 and 2012, real cost of supply increased almost 20 percent. This policy note focuses on just one part of a much broader and complex system of connected energy policies. The policy implications of this analysis should only be considered in light of this broader context. In particular...

Lighting Rural India : Load Segregation Eexperience in Selected States

Khanna, Ashish; Mukherjee, Mohua; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Saraswat, Kavita; Khurana, Mani
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Socioeconomic development of the rural populace is critical to India achieving its stated objective of inclusive growth. It is widely accepted that access to a reliable and sufficient power supply is a key enabler of rural economic growth. Traditionally, India's rural power supply has been restricted by having feeders to villages serve both agriculture and household loads. Because agriculture power supply is rationed by the distribution utilities, residential consumers often suffer from inadequate service. The study findings reveal that segregated systems can be used to manage peak demand, identify and reduce losses previously hidden in agricultural consumption, improve power supply to rural domestic consumers, and bolster socioeconomic development. Enabling the segregated system with information technology (IT) can further improve monitoring and control and bring about transparency and efficiency: Agricultural consumption on which the subsidy is based can be exactly determined, even without consumer metering...

Financing Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Building Stock : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Kalkum, Bernd
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Within the Western Balkans region, a secure energy supply is critical to sustaining economic growth. Currently, the region relies heavily on imported hydrocarbons and maintains high energy intensity relative to Gross Domestic Product, or GDP. This places a huge burden on companies, which require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to be competitive; the public sector, which spends significant budgetary resources on energy; and households, which have to pay a high portion of their income for energy services. As energy pricing is further rationalized, a higher burden will be placed on all sectors, especially poorer households. The residential sector is a significant energy consumer. Its share of total final energy consumption ranges from 28 percent to 32 percent (compared with the EU average of 27 percent). Fairly simple renovations such as insulation, heating system upgrades, and improvements to windows and lighting could reduce consumption in this sector by some 9 percent, with payback periods generally less than 8 years. Such improvements could help ease the impact of future tariff increases while helping reduce the region's projected energy supply and demand gap.

Rethinking Electricity Tariffs and Subsidies in Pakistan

Trimble, Chris; Yoshida, Nobuo; Saqib, Mohammad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Pakistan's electricity sector is in crisis: extended periods of blackouts persisted in 2010 and circular debt is increasing. Despite investments in generation capacity, electricity demand continues to exceed supply, with blackouts as long as 8-10 hours per day in cities and sometimes double that in rural areas, and is widely recognized as a severe obstacle to growth and poverty reduction. In November 2010, the government was forced to rent the world's largest power ship to boost generation capacity. Meanwhile, the government of Pakistan's (GOP) inability to finance its commitment to fund subsidies, inefficiencies of the sector entities including low collections, delays in determination and notifications, and increased cost of fuel imports contribute to an increasingly severe circular debt problem. The analysis shows that given the current cost of electricity supply, the March 2011 tariff structure will improve the benefit incidence of electricity subsidies for residential users and reduce fiscal burden significantly in comparison to March 2008. For example...

Pricing Residential Electricity Based on Individual Consumption Behaviors

Patel, Siddharth; Sevlian, Raffi; Zhang, Baosen; Rajagopal, Ram
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
The conventional practice of retail electric utilities is to aggregate customers geographically. The utility purchases electricity for its customers via bulk transactions on the wholesale market, and it passes these costs along to its customers, the end consumers, through their rate plan. Typically, all residential consumers are offered the same per unit rate plan, which leads to cost sharing. Some consumers use their electricity at peak hours, when it is more expensive on the wholesale market, and others consume mostly at off peak hours, when it is cheaper, but they all enjoy the same per unit rate through their utility. This paper proposed a method for the utility to segment a population of consumers on the basis of their individual consumption patterns. An optimal recruitment algorithm was developed to aggregate consumers into groups with a relatively low per unit cost of electricity on the wholesale market. It was then proposed that the utility should group together enough consumers to ensure an adequately low forecast error, which is related to risks it faces in wholesale market transactions. Finally, it was shown that by repeated application of this process, the utility could segment the entire population into groups and offer them differentiated rate plans based on their actual consumption behavior. These groupings are stable in the sense that no one consumer can unilaterally improve her outcome.; Comment: Previous...