Página 1 dos resultados de 4905 itens digitais encontrados em 0.020 segundos

Demand-side Financing for Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Low and Middle-Income Countries : A Review of the Evidence

Witter, Sophie; Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Demand-side financing approaches have been introduced in a number of low and middle-income countries, with a particular emphasis on sexual and reproductive health. This paper aims to bring together the global evidence on demand-side financing mechanisms, their impact on the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services, and the conditions under which they have been effective. The paper begins with a discussion of modalities for demand-side financing. It then examines 13 existing schemes, including cash incentives, vouchers, and longer term social protection policies. Based on the available literature, it collates evidence of their impact on utilization of services, access for the poor, financial protection, quality of care, and health outcomes. Evidence on costs and cost-effectiveness are examined, along with analysis of funding and sustainability of policies. Finally, the paper discusses the preconditions for effectiveness of demand-side financing schemes and the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. It also highlights the extent to which results for sexual and reproductive health services are likely to be generalizable to other types of health care. It is clear that some of these policies can produce impressive results...

Poverty Reduction : Does Reproductive Health Matter?

Greene, Margaret E.; Merrick, Thomas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Funding for the reproductive health agenda agreed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development has fallen short of estimated requirements. In the changed funding environment, stronger evidence on the links between reproductive health and poverty reduction is needed. This paper reviews the evidence base on three reproductive health outcomes: early childbearing, maternal survival, and unintended pregnancy. Building on the "capacities" approach to poverty assessment advocated by Amartya Sen, this evidence is organized in a framework that includes health and education outcomes for mothers and children, as well as household consumption, and production effects. Generally speaking, the evidence on health effects is strongest, household well-being weakest, and education in between. Causal relationships are difficult to establish because reproductive health outcomes and other household-level explanatory variables are influenced by each other. An important finding is that relationships are context specific and that one cannot look at individual characteristics without reference to contextual variables. One reason why much existing research has not effectively addressed the effects of poor reproductive health on poverty is that studies have relied on survey data for a single point in time. Longitudinal surveys offer greater promise. Rather than propose new surveys...

Nepal : The Distributional Impact of Participatory Approaches on Reproductive Health for Disadvantaged Youth

Malhotra, Anju; Mathur, Sanyukta; Pande, Rohini; Roca, Eva
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
This paper presents findings from a community-based study testing the effectiveness of participatory approaches in improving services and outcomes for youth reproductive health in Nepal. The study was motivated by the desire to test the impact of participatory approaches in improving youth reproductive health. Nepal was chosen because it is a country where youth reproductive health needs are especially acute and little is being done to meet them. In this study, the authors test whether many of the key principles advocated by development practitioners for making services work for poor people can be effectively operationalized through small, community-based programmatic interventions. In particular, the study seeks to establish whether participatory intervention programs can increase empowerment of poor and disadvantaged populations and accountability to them.

Contracting for Reproductive Health Care : A Guide

Rosen, James E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Government contracting of private organizations is an increasingly common tool to meet the growing demand for quality reproductive health care in developing nations. This guide brings together information about such contracting experiences in a way to serve the practical needs of World Bank staff and their government counterparts in developing countries interested in trying contracting. Contracting is not a cure-all for ailing health systems, and there exists relatively little systematic evaluation of the contracting experience in developing countries. Still, many in the field recognize the potential of contracting as a powerful tool to improve reproductive health care. This guide touches on some of the reasons why governments go the contracting route. The guide is meant to be used during the development of new projects or during the supervision phase, and assumes that the reader: has identified population and reproductive health as an issue for the health sector in a particular country or region; already has decided to include a reproductive health component in the loan and wants to involve the private sector actively in the project; is considering opportunities for contracting out of reproductive health care; or is looking for ideas and models for contracting.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Nicaragua : An Analysis Using a Sexual and Reproductive Health Framework and Human Rights

Gordillo-Tobar, Amparo; Beneitez, Geraldine; Ortega, Juana; Waters, William; Bravo, Emig
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
In an effort to integrate operational and analytical work on adolescents and youth sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and Human Rights in Nicaragua, the World Bank, in coordination with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) conducted the study titled: sexual and reproductive health among youth in Latin America: adding a human rights perspective. The study was conducted within the umbrella of the ongoing Family Community Health World Bank project. To gain a better understanding of the SRH and Human Rights in the country, the study, funded by the Nordic Development Trust Fund (NTF), reviewed the national legal framework and the school curricula; consulted focus groups for adolescents from representative samples in four geographic regions; and integrated the results of the study into a national multi-sectoral strategy on adolescents sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The strategy will inform the Bank s operational plans and agreements for the next five years.

Bridging the information gap: sexual maturity and reproductive health problems among youth in Tanzania

Leshebari, M. T; Kaaya, S. F
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 59365 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
The paper presents a brief review of the available literature on exposure to premarital sexual intercourse in the youth population, then discusses youth’s current and preferred sources of reproductive health information, as well as the contexts of both acquisition of such information and exposure to coital experiences; what is known regarding consequences of unprotected premarital sexual intercourse among young people; and barriers to reproductive health information and services as well as potential approaches to solutions.; no

Improving Maternal Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health - Australia's Responsibility -

Hogan, Laura
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
The Millennium Development Goals, particularly the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, cannot be achieved if questions of population and reproductive health are not squarely addressed. And that means stronger efforts to promote women's rights, and greater investment in education and health, including reproductive health and family planning. United Nations Secretary-General, Kofi Annan (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 2002) Poor sexual and reproductive health contributes significantly to poverty and the ability to participate in socio-economic development. It is the major cause of death, disability and suffering among women globally (World Health Organisation 2009). It is the poorest and least educated women who have the highest risk of death during pregnancy or childbirth (WHO 201 0). Targeted investments in reproductive health can have dramatic benefits for the economic and social health of communities. Recognition of the importance of maternal health has gained international momentum, particularly following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the inclusion of Maternal Health and Sexual Reproductive Health (MH&SRH) in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)...

Reproductive health in PNG: is it meeting the Millennium Development Goals challenges?

Spies, Mindy
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the largest developing country in the Pacific. In 2008, PNG had a population of 6.5 million, with an estimated 5.3 million living in rural villages. Travelling to rural areas is difficult, slow and expensive as only 3 per cent of the country's roads are paved, and many villages can be accessed only on foot or by plane. This undermines the accessibility and use of health care services, including services related to reproductive health. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are used as a measure of reproductive health in PNG. The MDGs are widely accepted by governments, donors and practitioner agencies throughout the world as a framework for improving the livelihood of the world's poorest population by 2015. MDG 5, which aims to improve maternal health by reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015, is particularly relevant to reproductive health. While PNG's maternal mortality ratio has fallen over the past 15 years- from 370 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 330 in 2005, compared with other Pacific nations it has not improved dramatically. PNG's high maternal mortality can be largely attributed to insufficient antenatal care and the lack of skilled birth attendants...

Reproductive Health in the Middle East and North Africa : Well-Being for All

Aoyama, Aoyama
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This reproductive health review of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region provides an overview of the issues and establishes a base of knowledge upon which a strategy could be constructed. Despite achievements in the population and health sectors during the last decades, several reproductive health issues remain, while new challenges have emerged. Major reproductive health issues in the region include high maternal mortality, particularly in Yemen, Morocco, Egypt, and Iraq; high fertility and slowing fertility decline; early marriage and high teenage fertility; the increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS; and female genital cutting in Egypt and Yemen. There is a correlation between reproductive health issues, a country's level of social development, and the size of gaps within a country; between men and women, urban and rural, rich and poor. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and implement programs targeted to specific issues and underprivileged groups; develop effective and sustainable health systems with high-quality services; raise awareness and change behaviors of both the public and policymakers; and empower women. Strong political commitment is essential to overcoming social and cultural constraints. Possible intervention components and possible roles of the World Bank are suggested.

Argentina : Rural Reproductive Health (Misiones, Salta, and Santiago del Estero Provinces), Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This report presents the findings of an exploratory study conducted in poor areas of three provinces in northern Argentina (Misiones, Salta, and Santiago del Estero). The study comprised a random (cluster) sample of three hundred households of women in reproductive age with at least one child. Focus groups (13) and in-depth interviews with key informants (health providers, educators, religious, and community leaders) were conducted to validate quantitative data and to explore issues such as gender roles, domestic violence, abortion, and contraception. The study aimed at contributing to a better understanding of reproductive health issues, quality of life, and rural poverty--primarily as it affects women--and providing policy recommendations for addressing reproductive health issues in rural poverty alleviation strategies. The study also explored, albeit on a limited basis, men's perceptions and behavior related to reproductive health. The principal findings of this study focus on gathering reliable data for decisionmaking especially at the sub-national levels; controlling family size as it has a direct impact on women's income-generating capacity and quality of life; developing the political will to promote and implement comprehensive reproductive health programs; increasing public awareness of reproductive health; and analyzing factors in the underutilization of health services and contraceptives.

Argentina : Rural Reproductive Health (Misiones, Salta, and Santiago del Estero Provinces), Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
This report presents the findings of an exploratory study conducted in poor areas of three provinces in northern Argentina (Misiones, Salta, and Santiago del Estero). The study comprised a random (cluster) sample of three hundred households of women in reproductive age with at least one child. Focus groups (13) and in-depth interviews with key informants (health providers, educators, religious, and community leaders) were conducted to validate quantitative data and to explore issues such as gender roles, domestic violence, abortion, and contraception. The study aimed at contributing to a better understanding of reproductive health issues, quality of life, and rural poverty--primarily as it affects women--and providing policy recommendations for addressing reproductive health issues in rural poverty alleviation strategies. The study also explored, albeit on a limited basis, men's perceptions and behavior related to reproductive health. The principal findings of this study focus on gathering reliable data for decisionmaking especially at the sub-national levels; controlling family size as it has a direct impact on women's income-generating capacity and quality of life; developing the political will to promote and implement comprehensive reproductive health programs; increasing public awareness of reproductive health; and analyzing factors in the underutilization of health services and contraceptives.

Empowering Women : The Effect of Women’s Decision-Making Power on Reproductive Health Services Uptake - Evidence from Pakistan

Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
A large body of research has attempted to explore the links between women's autonomy and their uptake of reproductive health services in the South Asia region, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of reproductive health services. The analysis finds that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with reproductive health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. The findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of reproductive health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternity services must target men as well as women in Pakistan.

Sparing Lives : Better Reproductive Health for Poor Women in South Asia, Summary for Policymakers

Chatterjee, Meera; Levine, Ruth; Murthy, Nirmala; Rao-Seshadri, Shreelata
Fonte: New Delhi: Macmillan India, Ltd. Publicador: New Delhi: Macmillan India, Ltd.
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
In this context, the overall purpose of this review is to bring attention to the opportunities that five countries in the region - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - have to strengthen and expand interventions to improve the reproductive health of poor women. The specific objectives are: i) to provide an accurate picture of the current status of women's reproductive health, describe the use of reproductive health services and barriers to use, and identify the improvements required to increase their effectiveness and improve health outcomes; ii) to elucidate individual and household characteristics that affect reproductive health status and use of services so that the most important of these can be used to identify women and households with the greatest need for care to achieve better health; iii) to describe a simple and effective approach - decentralized action planning - that can be used widely in all five countries to improve reproductive health service delivery and outcomes, and point to a body of best practices in reproductive health that provides models and lessons for improvements in South Asia; and iv) to strengthen the case for investing in poor women's reproductive health by demonstrating the links between poverty...

Kenya : Reaching the Poor through the Private Sector, A Network Model for Expanding Access to Reproductive Health Services

Montagu, Dominic; Prata, Ndola; Campbell, Martha M.; Walsh, Julia; Orero, Salomon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This study, carried out in the summer of 2003, measured the effectiveness of a Kenyan program dedicated to increasing the availability of reproductive health services to the poor through training and networking of private medical providers. The Kisumu Medical and Educational Trust (KMET) program focuses on family planning services and encourages providers to add these services to the normal range of consultations, commodity sales, and clinical care they already provide. The central question addressed in this study is whether it is possible to offer reproductive health services through a network of private sector, for-profit providers without exacerbating inequity in access to these services.. The study also looked at a pool of potential clients of KMET members to evaluate which wealth group benefits from the subsidy given to private providers through KMET. And finally, an analysis of actual KMET clients was used to better understand the program's success in providing quality reproductive health care.

Sparing Lives : Better Reproductive Health for Poor Women in South Asia

Chatterjee, Meera; Levine, Ruth; Murthy, Nirmala; Rao-Seshadri, Shreelata
Fonte: New Delhi: Macmillan India, Ltd. Publicador: New Delhi: Macmillan India, Ltd.
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
In this context, the overall purpose of this review is to bring attention to the opportunities that five countries in the region - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - have to strengthen and expand interventions to improve the reproductive health of poor women. The specific objectives are: i) to provide an accurate picture of the current status of women's reproductive health, describe the use of reproductive health services and barriers to use, and identify the improvements required to increase their effectiveness and improve health outcomes; ii) to elucidate individual and household characteristics that affect reproductive health status and use of services so that the most important of these can be used to identify women and households with the greatest need for care to achieve better health; iii) to describe a simple and effective approach - decentralized action planning - that can be used widely in all five countries to improve reproductive health service delivery and outcomes, and point to a body of best practices in reproductive health that provides models and lessons for improvements in South Asia; and iv) to strengthen the case for investing in poor women's reproductive health by demonstrating the links between poverty...

Reproductive Health—The Missing Millennium Development Goal : Poverty, Health, and Development in a Changing World

Campbell White, Arlette; Merrick, Thomas W.; Yazbeck, Abdo S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
While women in developing countries continue to die in large numbers in child birth, population and reproductive health specialists and advocates around the world are struggling to keep the policy agenda focused on the rights and needs of poor women. The 1994 Cairo Conference and Program of Action changed how we do business, and opened many doors, but the agenda is not complete and has stalled in a number of ways. At the country level, governments and donors are making difficult choices about how and where to allocate scarce human and financial resources. Funding approaches have moved away from the implementation of narrowly directed health programs to a broader approach of health system development and reform. At the same time, countries are also centering their development agenda on the broad goal of poverty reduction. This volume addresses a large knowledge and capacity gap in the Reproductive Health community and provides tools for key actors to empower faster positive change. It is a synopsis of the materials developed for World Bank's Institute's learning program on Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Poverty Reduction...

Better Reproductive Health for Poor Women in South Asia

Chatterjee, Meera; Levine, Ruth; Rao-Seshadri, Shreelata; Murthy, Nirmala
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The overall purpose of this review is to bring attention to the opportunities that five countries in the region - Bangladesh, India, Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka have to strengthen and expand interventions to improve the reproductive health of poor women. The report's specific objectives are: 1) to provide an accurate picture of the current status of women's reproductive health and describe the use of reproductive health services and barriers to use; 2) to identify individual and household characteristics that affect reproductive health status and use of services; 3) to develop a simple and effective approach to decentralized health planning that can be used widely in each of the five countries to improve health service delivery and outcomes locally; and 4) to strengthen the case for investing in poor women's reproductive health by demonstrating the links between poverty, inequality and reproductive health. The review puts forth the following recommendations for reforms for reproductive health: to increase the supply of reproductive health services to poor women and adolescents by specifically targeting the poorest areas and households; to enhance demand among the poor for key services using BCC and demand-side financing; to integrate reproductive health services through a client-centered approach and strengthen weak services using specific relevant approaches; and to improve the reach...

Reproductive Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Reproductive health (RH) problems account for a significant part of the burden of disease suffered by poor people in developing countries. Poor women and men are more afflicted with RH problems and often lack access to minimal RH care even when average levels of RH in the country are good. Many RH problems are most cost-effectively managed by prevention - serious problems are costly and very difficult to solve once manifest. This article covers the types of interventions needed to sustain reproductive health including increasing girls' education, preventing and managing sexually transmitted disease, providing contraception to avoid abortion, improving pre-natal and delivery care, increasing the number of skilled providers of health care, post-abortion care, bolstering maternal health services, and reducing practices that increase reproductive health risks such as unsafe sex, female genital mutilation, and domestic violence.

Mainstreaming Gender in the Health Sector : Prevention of Gender-Based Violence and Male Involvement in Reproductive Health; Integracion de los asuntos de genero al sector salud : prevencion de la violencia por genero y participacion de los hombres en la salud reproductiva

Betron, Myra; Fort, Lucía
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
The Bank has hosted various conferences to address issues of male involvement in reproductive health and gender-based violence, yet no projects in the World Bank's portfolio have directly addressed either topic.1 Recent gender-related work in the World Bank's health projects in Latin America has made evident the limited capacity of health personnel and communities to integrate men into family planning and reproductive health programs or to respond effectively to domestic violence cases.2 Midwives at women's birthing centers in Nicaragua, for example, have been challenged with trying to convince men who oppose family planning of the economic difficulties of raising large families.3 Moreover, sheer lack of knowledge and capacity prevents health providers from screening for and providing proper treatment to gender-based violence survivors. The Integral Health Project for Men and Women, or PROSALVAR as it is commonly known, was designed to help build a response to these apparent gaps in healthcare projects in the LCR through pilot activities in three Highly Indebted Poor Countries: Bolivia...

Evidence-based reproductive health care in Cameroon: population-based study of awareness, use and barriers

Tita,Alan TN; Selwyn,Beatrice J; Waller,D Kim; Kapadia,Asha S; Dongmo,Sylvestre
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of awareness and use of evidence-based reproductive health interventions and to describe the barriers associated with the use of evidence-based interventions among health providers in north-west Cameroon. METHODS: In February 2004, a population-based descriptive study of the awareness and use of 13 evidence-based interventions targeted health workers providing reproductive health care. Their awareness and use of a composite of four vital interventions was also evaluated. These were peripartum use of antiretrovirals to prevent transmission of HIV, antenatal corticosteroid administration, magnesium sulfate prophylaxis and active management of placental delivery with uterotonics. In-depth interviews with key informants were conducted as part of a qualitative substudy to discover the barriers to the use of evidence-based interventions. FINDINGS: Overall, 91.4% (328/359) of reproductive health workers were surveyed. Their awareness of evidence-based interventions varied from 29% for the use of antenatal corticosteroids to 97% for the use of iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Their use of these interventions ranged from 10.2% for antenatal corticosteroids to 94.8% for iron and folic acid supplementation. Only 50/322 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.8-20.0) of health workers were aware of all four vital interventions...