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Extinction,pollution, and the sustainable use of exhaustible and renewable resources

Biller, Dan
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Single ownership of natural resources is conunon in many developing countries and socialist economies. The sole owner is usually the .state or society at large, and governments are responsible for either distributing exploitation rights or engaging in exploitation through their own corporations. • Under this circumstance, the notion of externality may not fully explain pollution problems existent in these nations. This paper studies the case where a single agent owns both exhaustible and renewable resources, and attempts to maximize its welfare. The resources are either perfect or imperfect substitutes. Initially, exhaustible resource extraction does not affect the renewable resource, and sustainable growth is attainable. A lactor of pollution flowing from the extraction of the nc.nrenewable resource into the growth of the renewable resource is introduced. The continuous exploitation of the exhaustible resource leads to the " optimal " extinction of the renewable resource, and sustainable growth is no longer reached. Regulation from a supra governmental agency such as an multinational institution may prove to be of utmost importance, if sustainability is to be achieved. The paper is divided into five sections. Section two provides a brief survey of the relevant literature. Section three presents the model without pollution. This factor is introduced in section four. The final section discusses some possible approaches for attaining sustainable growth...

Desenvolvimento sustentável para a Base da Pirâmide (BOP) baseado em recursos natuais renováveis amazônicos (PFNMs) : o caso RECA

Sato, Suzenir Aguiar da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
O avanço das ações de desenvolvimento vem colocando desafios à gestão de recursos; as diferentes particularidades nos tipos de recursos disponíveis para uso pelas organizações (na área de administração de empresas), seja por localização geográfica, clima, relevo e/ou outras especificidades locais, como por exemplo, recursos naturais, fogem aos padrões impostos pelas abordagens teóricas estratégicas dominantes, atualmente, nas ciências sociais. No caso do megabioma Amazônico, devido à grandeza patrimonial e suas especificidades locais, há recursos naturais que são únicos e inimitáveis, seja de maneira individual seja pelo conjunto do megabioma, apesar do contexto de pobreza da região. Na medida em que se pressiona para o uso desses recursos, seja pelos indivíduos, seja pelas organizações, podem-se gerar diferentes tipos de conflitos, até porque o uso dos recursos naturais e os conflitos socioambientais são cenários de repercussões para a sociedade, devido às mudanças que promovem em termos ecológicos e das propostas de desenvolvimento social. Assim existem recursos naturais, principalmente, os renováveis disponíveis para uso, que exige novos conhecimentos teóricos e práticos, tanto para acadêmicos como para os gestores atuais. Nesse contexto...

Eficiência de universidades federais no uso de recursos renováveis; Efficiency of federal universities on the use of renewable resources

Curi, Maria Aparecida
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Administração e Economia Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Administração e Economia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 02/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
The present research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the level of efficiency in the use of renewable resources at the Federal Universities. Sustainability has been ever more of a challenge for the public sector. The study is characterized as a descriptive-exploratory research, with quantitative approach of the issue. The data regarding the period from 2011 to 2013 were collected in the Management Reports of 59 Federal Universities (FUs). In order to reach the proposed objective, initially, we analyzed the data by means of descriptive statistics, subsequently measuring the level of relative efficiency of the use of renewable resources, applying the Data Envelopment Analysis – DEA and the Malmquist Index. The results revealed that, regarding the use of the water renewable resource, in average, 8 FUs presented efficiency levels per analyzed year. The level of efficiency was considered satisfactory during the period, and its evolution indicates an improvement regarding expenses with water and the volume of cubic meters consumed by the FUs. In the analysis for the electric energy renewable resource, in average, per analyzed year, 9 FUs presented efficiency levels. The Malmquist Index pointed to an average reduction of 24.49% in total efficiency and was considered unsatisfactory during the period of 2012/2013. For the analysis of the paper resource...

Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India

Sargsyan, Gevorg; Bhatia, Mikul; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
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India has 150 GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This diagnostic note draws on a detailed analysis conducted by a PricewaterhouseCoopers India consulting team in 2008-09 for the World Bank. The data are based on information on about 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from and norms of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The study is intended to provoke discussions of the feasibility of renewable energy development in India. Why is renewable energy development relevant? How much development is economically feasible? What needs to be done to realize the potential? Each of these topics is addressed in a separate chapter...

Toward a Sustainable Global Energy Supply Infrastructure : Net Energy Balance and Density Considerations

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This paper complements previous work on the economics of different energy resources by examining the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (effective capability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but it carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power meet both the longevity and climate friendliness criteria. However, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net energy at a scale needed for meeting a huge global energy demand. The low density of renewable resources for electricity generation and the current intermittency of many renewables limit their ability to achieve high rates of growth. And a significant global increase in nuclear power deployment could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy...

Private Sector, Small Scale, Grid-connected Renewable Power Generation in Sri Lanka : A Review of the Experience of the Past Decade 1996 to 2006

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.69%
The objective of this report, therefore, is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the development of the renewable power generation sector in the country over a period of ten years, from 1996 to 2006, as a reference for the design of future policy and market interventions in Sri Lanka and other countries. This analysis aims to assist stakeholders to assess the potential for growth in terms of energy contribution from indigenous renewable resources, private sector investment and rural infrastructure development. The report also serves to reveal the conflicting priorities of stakeholders, which impact the development of indigenous energy resources, and thereby create a platform for constructive debate towards realizing a sustainable and optimal outcome for the country.

Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Texas

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The note is based on original work by Marcelino Madrigal and Steven Stoft, "Transmission Expansion for Renewable Energy Scale-Up: Emerging Lessons and Recommendations". Texas leads the United States with 9,528 MW of installed wind power capacity, a level exceeded by only four countries. The state needed more infrastructure to transmit electricity generated from renewable sources, but the regulator could not approve transmission expansion projects in the absence of financially committed generators. To solve the problem, Texas devised a planning process that quickly connects energy systems to the transmission system. The system is based on the designation of competitive renewable energy zones.

Renewable Energy Toolkit Needs Assessment

Cabraal, R. Anil; Wang, Xiaodong; Heffner, Grayson; Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.66%
There is now a strong foundation of good practice emerging from past and ongoing renewable energy (RE) projects, whether supported by the WBG or others, making it possible to develop and implement future projects faster, at lower costs, and with greater confidence in their overall sustainability. To further this process, the World Bank plans to develop an "Operational Guide to Design and Implement Renewable Energy," which will provide the necessary tools to assist Bank staff and member country personnel in improving the design and implementation of RE projects. This operational guide will help to significantly reduce project preparation cost and preparation time and increase project success. Developing the RE toolkit consists of two phases: phase I, a scoping study and need assessments, and phase II, developing the RE toolkit. This report summarizes the findings from phase I. It consists of the following four sections, which are the major activities undertaken under phase I : a) need assessment with the World Bank Group task managers; b) need assessment with RE industries and financial institutions; c) inventory research of previous work on toolkits related to rural energy and renewable energy; and d) development of a conceptual framework and a proposal for phase II.

The Design and Sustainability of Renewable Energy Incentives : An Economic Analysis

Meier, Peter; Vagliasindi, Maria; Imran, Mudassar; Eberhard, Anton; Siyambalapitiya, Tilak
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Rapid urbanization and economic growth, new demographic trends, and climate change are key challenges that developing countries must face as they strive to meet growing energy demand. The main objectives of this study are to offer: (a) a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable support schemes and (b) an economic modeling of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes. In an attempt to contribute to the lively debate, this study provides a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable energy (RE) support schemes. It summarizes economic models of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes, alongside operational advice on how the regulatory design may need to be modified to minimize the impact on the budget and be affordable to the poor, as well as how to identify and fill the financing gap. This analytical framework: (a) differentiates and illustrates tradeoffs among local, regional, and national impacts...

Incorporating Energy from Renewable Resources into Power System Planning

Madrigal, Marcellino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Incorporating energy from renewable resources into power system planning is an important issue. As countries generate more energy from renewable sources, that energy must become part of the power-system planning process. In 2004, investments in all forms of clean energy represented about 20 percent of total global investment in generation capacity. By 2011, that share had topped 40 percent. This paper explains the various reasons behind the push for renewable sources, chief among them being reducing climate-altering emissions. The paper answers the following questions giving a brief synopsis of each: What is the key challenge? What solutions are available? What are the key lessons learned. A few case studies are also used throughout to illustrate key points.

Integrating Climate Model Data into Power System Planning

Chattopadhyay, Debabrata; Jordan, Rhonda L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Significant multiyear and multi decade variations in intermittent renewable resources hold major implications for power system investments. They have been using extensive hydrology data for many years to represent hydrological risks in their planning. Climate model data are particularly suited for the assessment of longer-term variability. A good grasp of seasonal, multiyear, and multi decade trends is essential in assessing the economic merits of investments in renewable resources and the extent to which such resources can complement one other or may need to be backed up by further investments in nonrenewable sources. For instance, planners of hydro-dominated systems have learned to use risk-based criteria such as so-called 1-in-50-year drought coverage to deal with the risk posed by extremely dry years. That climate models can provide scenarios over several decades makes them equally applicable to wind and solar planning. Good-quality data generated by climate models - both historical and projected over decades are available for all countries at little or no cost. Such data can and should form part of power system planning...

Permitting and Licensing Regimes for Renewable Energy Projects

Merle-Beral, Elena; Gassner, Katharina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Permitting, licensing, and other authorization procedures are an integral part of investing in renewable energy. For private companies, the quality of these procedures can drastically affect transaction costs and project risk. Optimal regimes are tailored to country specifics and depend on the way in which private investors access the market in the first place—from auctions to site-specific tenders to standardized contracts on a first-come, first-served basis. Although there is no single best practice when it comes to authorizing renewable energy projects, common principles exist that signal an investor-friendly and socially and environmentally responsible regime.

THE EFFECT OF LIMITED RENEWABLE RESOURCES ON THE ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN A LOW-CARBON EUROPE

RUIZ CASTELLO PABLO; GAGO DA CAMARA SIMOES SOFIA; NIJS WOUTER; SGOBBI ALESSANDRA; THIEL CHRISTIAN
Fonte: Italian Association of Energy Economists Publicador: Italian Association of Energy Economists
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Renewable-based electricity generation technologies are recognized to be a major-prerequisite to reach a sustainable and secure energy system by 2050 [1]. From an energy-systems analysis perspective, a significant increase in the relevance of renewable electricity generation technologies is foreseen [2] both in current policies scenarios and in those targeting over 80% CO2 emission reductions in 2050. Usually the impact of current and future technology cost on their competitiveness is analysed [2], while less attention has been given to investigate the total amount of renewable resources available. Work has been already conducted to evaluate these renewable potentials [3], but still substantial uncertainties remain due to methodological challenges or due to coarse measuring resolution [4]. Moreover, technological improvements may shift the boundaries of exploitable renewable sources. It is therefore critical to understand, within an energy system perspective, how uncertainties and future changes in resource availability could influence the transition to a low-carbon system in Europe. In this paper we will assess the sensitivity of the electricity mix evolution to the available renewable energy sources potentials by analysing the response of the partial equilibrium energy model JRC-EU-TIMES [5] in the 2020-2050 time frame. Results unveil the relation between the renewable potential available for a given technology and its window of opportunity amongst its competing technologies. For instance...

R&D Policy in Economies with Endogenous Growth and Non-Renewable Resources

Agnani, Betty; Guti??rrez, Mar??a Jos??; Iza, Amaia
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The aim of this paper is to analyze how active R&D policies affect the growth rate of an economy with endogenous growth and non-renewable resources. We know from Scholz and Ziemens (1999) and Groth (2006) that in infinitely lived agents (ILA) economies, any active R&D policy increases the growth rate of the economy. To see if this result also appears in economies with finite lifetime agents, we developed an endogenous growth overlapping generations (OLG) economy ?? la Diamond which uses non-renewable resources as essential inputs in final good???s production. We show analytically that a sufficient condition guaranteeing that an active R&D policy increases the growth rate of the economy actually implies a reduction of the use of the non-renewable resources. Numerically we show that in economies with low intertemporal elasticity of substitution (IES), active R&D policies lead the economy to increase the depletion of non-renewable resources. Nevertheless, we find that active R&D policies always imply increases in the endogenous growth rate, in both scenarios. Furthermore, when the IES coefficient is lower (greater) than one, active R&D policies affect the growth rate of the economy in the ILA more (less) than in OLG economies.

Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Mexico

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Mexico's 2010 national energy strategy aims to promote sustainability and simultaneously increase energy access by increasing the share of renewable resources used to generate energy. The wind farms of La Ventosa, a windy area in the southeastern state of Oaxaca, are a key part of that strategy, which aims to raise the share of renewables in generation to 35 percent by 2024, up from 23.7 percent in 2008. The open season process was a major breakthrough that made possible several agreements to build wind power generation projects in an area that previously had been closed to development because of the lack of transmission infrastructure. The open season process gave developers of renewable energy the certainty and predictability they needed concerning the development of transmission infrastructure, while also reducing the investment costs of that infrastructure by ensuring development of an optimized and shared network. Moreover, the system is transparent for all participants. It highlights the ability of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to modernize its role as a facilitator and creative problem solver, and encourages renewable energy developers and energy consumers to collaborate and follow through on their commitments for the benefit of all involved.

Operating and Planning Electricity Grids with Variable Renewable Generation : Review of Emerging Lessons from Selected Operational Experiences and Desktop Studies

Madrigal, Marcelino; Porter, Kevin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The development of wind-and solar-generating capacity is growing rapidly around the world as policy makers pursue various energy policy objectives. This paper will describe the challenges in integrating wind and solar generation, the lessons learned, and recommended strategies from both operating experience and integration studies. Case studies on the experience with wind and solar integration in China, Germany, and Spain are also included in this paper. The paper is organized as follows. First section summarizes worldwide wind and solar development, the challenges in integrating wind and solar generation, and some of the lessons learned from studies designed to evaluate the impact of higher levels of wind and solar generation and also from the operational experience in some countries with larger amounts of renewable energy. The second section summarizes some of the solutions for incorporating higher levels of wind and solar capacity into short-term system operations. This section also explains basic methodologies to implement system operations studies to understand the impacts of variability in system operation. The third section explains the contribution of variable renewables to long-term supply adequacy-commonly called 'firm' power-and the relationship of this to long-term reserves; it also explores how these issues can be incorporated into long-term planning or adequacy assessments. Overall...

Mexico : Technical Assistance for Long-term Program of Renewable Energy Development

Antonius, Andrés; Awerburch, Shimon; Berger, Martin; Hertzmark, Donald; Huacuz V., Jorge M.; Merino, Gustavo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The four studies in this technical paper series deal with complementary themes and propose solutions to the same problems that all of them perceive in the Mexican electricity sector - yet each paper looks at the problem from a different angle, and proposes different actions that must be taken in order to bring about a significant increase in Mexico's adoption of on-grid renewable energy. These papers take us from the general overview of the policy and institutional context, down to the specific case of a hypothetical wind farm. They review the current situation, identify concrete policy and institutional changes that are badly needed to stimulate the sector, look at how new paradigms for valuation can help us to better account for the value of renewable energy capacity, and finally perform a thorough economic impact analysis of the hypothetical addition of a large wind farm to Mexico's grid.

On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

Mercure, Jean-Francois; Salas, Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an exogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work...

Improving California Investor Owned Utilities Procurement Practices: The Need to Include Integration Costs in Renewable Energy Resource Selection

Butler, Kevin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 15/08/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
By 2020, 33% of California’s electric power sales will come from renewable energy sources due to California’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). This implies a 359% increase, from 23,000 GWh to more than 80,000 GWh, in renewable energy generation since 2002. Also by 2020, 21% of the sales will be from intermittent renewable resources (IRRs) that will incur integration costs due to required flexible ramping resources to balance power supply and demand of the California grid. The key parties implementing the RPS are divided on the integration cost values of IRRs. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requires that IOUs use a zero value for integration costs. This results in an inaccurate Net Market Value, a critical component in selecting new renewable resources. IRR generators also support a zero integration cost to avoid a diminution in value. Investor-Owned Utilities (IOUs) support a non-zero cost adder to ensure all costs are accounted to deliver the most cost-effective reliable energy to customers. Firm and reliable renewable energy generators prefer a non-zero cost adder to value dependable energy delivery. Finally, the California Independent Systems Operator (CAISO) with the CPUC acknowledge that integration costs may become significant as the renewable portfolio expands as additional IRRs commence operations. Per studies...

A Stackelberg game model of trade in renewable resources with competitive sellers

Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Beladi, Hamid
Fonte: Rochester Institute of Technology Publicador: Rochester Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
We model international trade in renewable resources between a single buyer and competitive sellers as a Stackelberg differential game. The buyer uses unit and ad valorem tariffs to indirectly encourage conservation of the renewable resource under study. First, we show that the efficacy of these trade policy instruments in promoting conservation depends fundamentally on whether harvesting costs are stock dependent or independent. When harvesting costs are stock independent, the optimal open loop tariffs are dynamically consistent. In contrast, when harvesting costs are stock dependent, the optimal open loop tariffs are dynamically inconsistent. Second, we point out that whether the terminal value of the resource stock is higher with the stock independent or the stock dependent cost function cannot be resolved unambiguously. Third, we show that it does not make sense for the buyer to use both tariffs simultaneously. Finally, we discuss the implications of these and other findings for renewable resource conservation in general; Department of economics report.