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Triangulation of rights, balancing of interests : exploring the tensions between freedom of conscience and freedom of religion in comparative constitutional law

Dabby, Dia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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La liberté de religion, souvent reconnue comme étant la « première liberté » dans de nombreuses traditions juridiques, reflète également les différentes conceptions de la place de l’individu et de la communauté dans la société. Notre étude analysera les modèles constitutionnels canadien, américain et européen de liberté de religion et conscience. Dans un premier chapitre, nous examinerons les conceptions théoriques de la religion dans les sciences sociales ainsi les approches juridiques afin de mieux cerner comment la religion est conçue et de plus, comprendre les diverses influences sur sa conceptualisation. Dans un second et troisième chapitre, nous tenterons d’une part, de qualifier la relation entre la liberté de conscience et la liberté de religion au Canada en nous livrant à une analyse approfondie des deux libertés et d’autre part, d’identifier les questions qui demeurent irrésolues. Dans le chapitre final, nous observerons comment la liberté de conscience a été interprétée dans les contextes américain et dans l’Union Européenne, par le biais de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’Homme. Notre hypothèse est que l’on peut arriver à une meilleure compréhension de la relation entre les libertés de conscience et religion en clarifiant les conceptions théoriques de la religion et de la conscience en droit constitutionnel comparé.; Freedom of religion...

The place of religion in public education : theoretical considerations

IBADOV, Rashad
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This PhD thesis, entitled ‘The Place of Religion in Public Education: Theoretical Considerations’, aims at answering the following question: ‘what should be the permissible room for religion in modern public education under the principle of neutrality’. The fundamental nature of this question requires a structuring and theorization of the interaction between religion and public education in two interrelated theoretical steps. The first step clarifies the general principles (or approaches) guiding the interaction of religion with public education, which are the principle of cooperation and the principle of accommodative neutrality; the latter clarifying the general degree of cooperation between religion and public education. The second step identifies and constructs the dimensions of this relationship, which are ‘freedom’, ‘interest’, ‘instruction’ and ‘support’. In this regard, while considering the permissible room for religion in public education, the primary research question of this thesis aims at setting up a theoretical platform from which one can reason and argue any religious issue or claim that emerges in the course of public education. Hence, this research examines and re-designs those important principles...

Dynamic law and religion in Europe : acknowledging change : choosing change

VENTURA, Marco
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The process through which European States and institutions have responded to the social and cultural mutation in the European religious landscape has been met with increasing criticism. Depending upon the interests and the agendas at stake, European instances have been blamed for being too weak or too strong in their policies affecting religion, for being biased either in favor or against religion and ultimately for an insufficient commitment to worldwide religious liberty. This paper aims at responding to criticism through a three-step approach. First, it will highlight the peculiarity and salience of developments in European law and religion, based on the four projects that drove the interaction of law and religion in the European integration process: the human rights project, the single market project, the secular project and the religious project. In this part, I will suggest that, prior to any discussion on the direction that Europeans should take in the future, it is necessary to acknowledge Europe as an extraordinary laboratory of equality and diversity, allowing for an extremely dynamic interaction of law and religion to develop. Second, the paper will underline the concoction of human rights and single market in the making of European dynamic law and religion...

Nature et origine évolutive de la religion : conciliation des perspectives anthropologique et psychobiologique

Deschênes, Roxanne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La religion est un phénomène culturel universel et un sujet d'étude central en anthropologie. Pourtant, on constate un manque flagrant de consensus sur sa définition et son origine dans les manuels d'introduction et les dictionnaires d'anthropologie. Des hypothèses et des modèles explorant cette question sont toutefois disponibles depuis une vingtaine d'années du côté de la psychobiologie. Le présent projet cherche à déterminer si la définition et les explications de la religion que propose l'anthropologie sont compatibles, en tout ou en partie, avec les données et modèles de la psychobiologie. Une synthèse des hypothèses psychobiologiques est d'abord présentée; elle sert de point de comparaison analytique avec les théories anthropologiques de la religion. Deux de ces théories, celles de Edward Burnett Tylor ([1874] 1889) et Clifford Geertz ([1966] 2010), sont résumées et ensuite analysées en rapport avec leur définition de la religion, leurs éléments universels (explicites et implicites) et leurs principes théoriques. Ces deux auteurs sont reconnus pour leur influence majeure dans ce domaine et ils s'appuient sur des fondements théoriques opposés. L'analyse démontre que seule la théorie de Tylor confirme l'hypothèse de ce mémoire...

Representaciones sociales de religión que inciden en el desarrollo humano de los habitantes del centro poblado de naranjal Timaná-Huila que participan de las denominaciones católica, pentecostal y el movimiento misionero mundial.

Castro Sierra, Erikson Julian
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia UNAD Publicador: Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia UNAD
Tipo: Proyecto_de_Investigacion Formato: pdf
SPA
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Imagenes anexas e historia de las iglesias; En la presente investigación que se basó en los lineamientos de la escuela de ciencias sociales, artes y humanidades, ESCAH, del programa de psicología de la universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia UNAD, CEAD Pitalito, se desarrolló teniendo en cuenta el objetivo: “Conocer las representaciones sociales de religión que inciden en el desarrollo humano de los adultos residentes en el centro poblado Naranjal Timaná Huila que participan de las denominaciones católica, pentecostal y el movimiento misionero mundial, mediante un estudio cualitativo de tipo descriptivo, para contar con referentes que permitan orientar la función social de la religión”; estableciéndose como proyecto de investigación, con la finalidad de optar el título de psicólogo Además, para tal fin el diseño metodológico instauro la investigación en teorías orientadas a interpretar esa realidad, mediante un tipo de investigación cualitativa de tipo exploratorio, vinculado al enfoque Critico-social, el cual posibilita el avance del conocimiento humano y cultural; en busca del mismo ideal, “transformar la sociedad”. Por consiguiente esta investigación utilizó teorías de Serge Moscovici para conocer las representaciones de religión del centro poblado de naranjal del municipio de Timaná Huila; además de las teorías orientadas dentro del marco del psicoanálisis...

Rousseau: ¿religión política o instrumentalización política de la religión?; Rousseau: political religion or political instrumentalization of religion?

Iván Garzón Vallejo; Universidad de La Sabana
Fonte: Universidad del Norte Publicador: Universidad del Norte
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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Este artículo explora el problema de la política y la religión en JeanJacques Rousseau desde una perspectiva filosófica. Para ello expone la forma como Rousseau concibe la religión en sus principales obras, destacando su carácter equívoco y polémico. Luego analiza el concepto de la religión civil desde la óptica del papel público que debía desempeñar en la comunidad política. Finalmente, sugiere los argumentos que fundamentan la propuesta rousseauniana como el diseño de una religión civil o política, o si, por el contrario, es una suerte de instrumentalización política de la religión, elemento que lo emparentaría con otros autores modernos. Este texto no pretende resolver el dilema, sino sugerir que hay razones para sostener cualquiera de estas dos lecturas de la obra del ginebrino.; This article explores the problem of politics and religion in Jean-JacquesRousseau from a philosophical perspective. In order to achieve this goal,this paper firstly shows how Rousseau conceives religion in his majorworks, and it emphasizes in their ambiguous and controversial character. After that, this paper analyzes the concept of civil religion based onthe public role that it was called to play within the political community.Finally...

Análisis de las expresiones en torno a la religión en las estrategias de marketing político. Estudio de caso: campaña política a la presidencia de la República de Colombia de Juan Manuel Santos Calderón.

Noriega Pitre, Ana Carolina
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno Publicador: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2012 SPA
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La religión suele a ser una herramienta útil para las estrategias de marketing político, en tanto los individuos pueden llegar a definir parte de sus decisiones políticas con base en la misma. En este sentido, a través del análisis de la utilización de las expresiones en torno a la religión en las estrategias de marketing político implementadas en la campaña política a la presidencia de la República de Colombia de Juan Manuel Santos Calderón en el año 2010, en este estudio de caso se busca dilucidar el papel de dicha utilización.; Religion tends to be a useful tool for political marketing strategies, while individuals may come to define part of their political decisions based on it. Thus, through the analysis of the use of expressions about religion in political marketing strategies implemented in the Juan Manuel Santos Calderón's political campaign for the presidency of the Republic of Colombia, in 2010, this case study seeks to elucidate the role of such use.

Religion and healthcare in the European Union : policy issues and trends

Petrova, Dimitrina; Clifford, Jarlath
Fonte: London : Alliance Publishing Trust, [Brussels] : NEF Initiative on Religion and Democracy in Europe. 2009. Publicador: London : Alliance Publishing Trust, [Brussels] : NEF Initiative on Religion and Democracy in Europe. 2009.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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92 p. ; 24 cm.; Libro Electrónico; The impact of religious doctrine on the law, policy and practice of healthcare is becoming increasingly significant for a whole range of issues – from euthanasia to fertility treatment; from belief-based exemption from performing abortion for doctors to the medication and dietary needs of religious patients; from organ donation to contraception; from circumcision to suicide. The relationship between religion and healthcare has a long history of evoking tension and debate in Europe. While developments in medical technologies and techniques question the religious beliefs of policy-makers, practitioners and patients across the European Union, research into the legal and policy responses by EU member states on such issues remains underdeveloped. The challenge of health policy, which is common across the European Union, is to balance fundamental human rights such as the right to equality, the right to health and the right to freedom of religion while adhering to secular principles. This report aims to map out the major issues at stake and to initiate a broader discussion on how the religious needs of the community, religious doctrine and religious practices across the European Union affect public health policy.; Preface: The ‘Religion and Democracy in Europe’ initiative 7 About the authors 8 Introduction 9 Background 9 Purpose and conceptual framework 10 Terms...

La religión como currículo social: educación, valores e Islam en Europa; La religión como currículo social: educación, valores e Islam en Europa; Religion as social curriculum: education, values and Islam in Europe

García, Vicente Javier Llorent; Ivanescu, Carolina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ;
Publicado em 01/12/2013 ES
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Cuando la religión se convierte en parte integrante de los debates políticos modernos, las ideas religiosas influyen en las decisiones y definiciones de conceptos como la educación, la participación en el mercado laboral, la estructura y función de la familia como unidad social y la igualdad. La integración y la inmigración pasan a primer plano a medida que el concepto de ciudadanía adquiere dimensiones culturalistas y moralizantes. Finalmente, religión, política y educación se interfieren en las áreas de la vida que pertenecen a la esfera privada y pública. Desde nuestra perspectiva pedagógica, entendemos que las líneas educativas marcadas por la religión influyen notablemente en el devenir de muchos ciudadanos y se incrustan en el foro político-social. Así nos encontramos que la religión como poderoso instrumento de socialización ejerce una gran influencia intencionada en la educación y valores de los ciudadanos y se configura como el currículo social, normalmente oculto, del contexto próximo de muchos ciudadanos. La presencia del Islam y los musulmanes en Europa, aunque no es un fenómeno nuevo, es cuestionada por los Estados-nación confrontando el currículo oficial, la educación reglada, con el currículo social...

La vocation sublime: le rapport entre religion et sublimation de la vocation religieuse; A Vocação Sublime: da relação entre religião e sublimação na definição da vocação religiosa; The sublime vocation: about the relation between religion and sublimation on the determination of the religious vocation; La vocación sublime: la relación entre religión y sublimación en la definición de vocación religiosa

Noé, Sidnei Vilmar
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2010 POR
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Este artigo pergunta pela relação entre o conceito freudiano de sublimação e sua possível aplicação para a compreensão da relevância psíquica da religião na constituição da vocação religiosa. A tese sustentada é que o mecanismo de defesa da sublimação é responsável por boa parte da relevância psicológica da religião para a definição da vocação religiosa.; This essay asks for the relation between the Freudian concept of sublimation and his possible application for understanding of religion’s psychic importance by the constitution of religious vocation. The proposed hypothesis means that the defending mechanism of sublimation is responsible for the most part of the psychological relevancy of religion on the determination of the religious vocation.; Este artículo se pregunta sobre la relación entre el concepto freudiano de sublimación y su posible aplicación a la comprensión de la importancia psicológica de la religión en la constitución de la vocación religiosa. La tesis que se sustenta es que el mecanismo de defensa de sublimación es responsable por gran parte de la importancia psicológica de la religión para la definición de una vocación religiosa.; Cet article interroge la relation entre le concept freudien de sublimation et sa possible application pour la compréhension de l’importance psychique de la religion dans la constitution de la vocation religieuse. L’hypothèse soutenue envisage le mécanisme de défense de la sublimation comme responsable par la plus part de l’importance psychologique de la religion vers la définition de la vocation religieuse.

El estudio de la religión en México enmarcado en el campo intelectual y el campo del poder: The study of religion in Mexico framed in the intellectual field and the field of power

Torre,Renée de la
Fonte: Sociedad y religión Publicador: Sociedad y religión
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 ES
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Este artículo ofrece una revisión del desarrollo y de los principales aportes de los estudios de la religión en las ciencias sociales (a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XX hasta la actualidad), enmarcados en el contexto particular del desarrollo de la interacción entre el campo intelectual y el campo de poder mexicano. Por un lado, representa un estado de la cuestión sobre los temas, intereses y debates que enmarcan los estudios sobre la religión, pero por otro lado, también busca hacer comprensibles los enfoques, las omisiones y las inclusiones a la luz de las condiciones históricas que moldean los énfasis e intereses de lo estudiado.

Género y la religión politizada en Mauricio1

Ramtohul,Ramola
Fonte: Sociedad y religión Publicador: Sociedad y religión
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 ES
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En este trabajo se analiza la dimensión de género de la religión politizada en Mauricio, un país que se caracteriza por tener una sociedad plural con divisiones fuertemente enraizadas, y cuya población está compuesta por migrantes de Francia, el continente africano, India y China. Por miedo a la dominación hindú, la población se ha dividido en torno de la cuestión de la independencia2 aquí que un 44% de los ciudadanos votaran en contra. El miedo a la dominación hindú en un Mauricio independiente conllevó al aumento de la competencia entre las distintas comunidades y grupos religiosos con el objeto de obtener representación en el parlamento. Mientras Mauricio avanzaba hacia la independencia al final del reinado colonial, la religión se politizaba cada vez más. Así, la representación basada en identidades étnicas, religiosas o comunitarias quedó consagrada en la Constitución y en el sistema electoral. Este artículo sostiene que la religión politizada en Mauricio conlleva una significativa dimensión de género porque ha ocasionado la marginalización de género y de las mujeres en las instituciones políticas y en el Parlamento, al mismo tiempo que ha debilitado al Movimiento de Mujeres. Las mujeres, poniendo en juego sus múltiples identidades e identificándose con los conflictos de la religión politizada...

What is religion? an African understanding

Beyers,Jaco
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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Western thought has influenced the way that religion is understood. Western philosophy supported the separation between the sacred and the profane. Modernism, focusing on human rationality, reduced religion to a set of correctly formulated dogmas and doctrines. Western thought, dominated by Christianity, created a hierarchical structure of world religions through a theology of religions. Can an African understanding of religion make a contribution to the understanding of what religion is? Such a question requires an African understanding of religion, as well as an understanding of African religion. From an African perspective, religion emphasises the human effort to systematise, in society, the continuation of a religious experience relevant to a specific context. Tradition, expressed in rituals and ethics, becomes the social expression of these religious experiences. African religion tends not to differentiate the transcendental from the earthly. African scholars do not present one unified understanding of religion. Some scholars would even argue that an African understanding is nothing more than an internalised form of Western perspectives. To characterise African Traditional Religion as a separate type of religion minimises the contribution that an African understanding can make to religion.

Obituaries and predictions: a sociological perspective on the future of religion

Beyers,J.
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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Religion is a social phenomenon. Society and, therefore, religion will continue to exist as long as human beings exist. This article explores this syllogism, by analysing two 19th-century social theories on the future of religion. Weber was not positive as to the future of religion and foresaw that religion would die out at the hands of rationality and modernisation. Durkheim predicted that religion would suffer at the hands of rationality and modernisation, but that it would not die out completely. It would disappear from the public domain and become a private matter. As private matter, religion might even grow, according to Durkheim. These theories became the framework for all theories on religion and secularisation. Berger, Luckmann and others followed along these lines. A new appraisal of where we currently stand with the effects of secularisation on religion is necessary. At present, religion is perceived as being vibrant and active. There are reasons why religion did not disappear or become invisible as was predicted. The article investigates certain key characteristics of current society in order to determine the nature of religion in the future. It examines the role of pluralism, individualism and the effect of uncertainty. The result as to the future of religion is a dichotomy of continuity and discontinuity.

Religion education, intercultural education and human rights: A contribution for Cornelia Roux

Jackson,Robert
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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In this article, I draw on my own experience as a researcher, writer on theory and pedagogy of religion education¹ and contributor to European policy documents. This provides a basis to discuss some issues pertinent to Cornelia Roux's personal and professional journey as a researcher in religion education and related fields, including intercultural education, human rights education and citizenship education. I refer to our meetings over the years, both in and beyond South Africa, especially in the context of the International Network for Interreligious and Intercultural Education, and to the development of Professor Roux's ideas on Religion in Education (RiE), Religion and Education (RaE). An attempt is then made to articulate a view on the question of liberalism in relation to human rights, which connects to a stance on intercultural education and to religion education and values education more widely. The position developed is consistent with the approach to empirical research developed by Professor Roux and her team. The article concludes by relating Cornelia Roux's personal journey to some of the themes considered above.

Pushing the conceptual boundaries in researching religion in education in diversity: A critical appraisal of Cornelia Roux's work

Ferguson,René
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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This article emanates from a global analysis of the many articles, book chapters and research reports written by Cornelia Roux from 1988 to 2013. The article is a critical appraisal of Roux's contribution to the fields of religion and human rights in education in South Africa as 'scholar-activist'. An analysis of Roux's published work indicates that she was conscious of changes in political and social paradigms especially where religion in education is concerned, and consequently the need for 'paradigm shifts' before effective learning and teaching religion in diverse religious and cultural educational contexts could occur. Given the influences of her Reformed Christian upbringing, growing up and being educated in apartheid South Africa, Roux was ever conscious of the need to challenge patriarchy, bigotry, religious intolerance and cultural particularism. Consequently, key themes are evident in her work that would contribute significantly to the debates on religion in education in South Africa and abroad. The article covers the following themes in Roux's work: the significance of values in education and in collaborative research, the need for paradigm shifts for effective learning and teaching religion and values; the teacher as facilitator/ mediator of learning; creative and appropriate pedagogies for diversity and learning to understand 'the other'; classroom praxis and research as praxis; religion and belief as a human right in a diverse society; and finally a critical discussion of Roux's research projects as collaborative and consciousness-raising endeavours.

Mapping the curriculum-making landscape of religion education from a human rights education perspective

Simmonds,Shan
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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With the advent of democracy in South Africa, religious education became a contested topic in the education sector. Contestation stemmed from the desire to embrace religious plurality rather than Christian National Education (CNE) that dominated the curriculum pre-1994. This contestation initiated the reconceptualisation of religion in curriculum-making. Together with other scholars, Roux, a scholar-activist, has played a seminal role in conceptualising religion in the curriculum as religion in education (RiE) and more recently, religion and education (RaE). In disrupting the boundaries of religion, she has also made human rights the departure point for engagement with RaE. The concomitant blurring of the boundaries between religion education (RE) and human rights education (HRE), has made it necessary to explore the complexities of the foundations of human rights. In response, this article uses Roux's work to extend the argument by exploring the possibilities of human rights literacy (HRLit) in curriculum-making for HRE. To conclude, this conception of HRLit is considered juxtaposed to Roux's most recent scholarship, which interrogates gender as a specific position within HRE. In engaging with this scholarship, this article takes a critical HRLit perspective so as to embrace Roux's work through an alternative theoretical lens.

The study of religion as passionate engagement: The visionary sensibility of talal asad

Rafudeen,Auwais
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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As interpreted by this essay, Asad locates the key features of the secular perspective as residing in representation, quantification and the autonomy of the individual. These features are inscribed in the way the secular, and a religious studies implicated by this secular, approaches religion. But in analyzing these features, Asad uncovers alternate ways of approaching religion, ways that do not categorize religion within a broader secular project, but engage its manifestations as sense-driven, passionate, transforming forms of life. These ways, we believe, have implications for the notions of 'theory' and 'method' in religious studies.

Rethinking religion, magic and witchcraft in South Africa: From colonial coherence to postcolonial conundrum

Wallace,Dale
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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Religion, magic and witchcraft are conceptual, socially constructed categories, the boundaries of which have been contested under diverse religious, cultural and intellectual conditions in the west. This paper focuses firstly on the polemical relationship between religion and magic in the context of colonial South Africa, namely, the historical factors that privileged the category religion and the multiple effects of the social and legal imposition of western epistemologies on colonised communities whose practices constituted 'magic', and, therefore, were synonymous with 'witchcraft'. Secondly, examples of strategies to reinforce the religion/magic dichotomy, to collapse their subjective boundaries, and the complexity witchcraft discourses bring to both positions are provided in the context of the religious and cultural hybridity of postcolonial South Africa. A parallel discussion is on the influence Christian and Enlightenment thought had on category construction in the study of religion and questions the extent to which Religion Studies today engages in decolonising the categories religion, magic and witchcraft in ways that do not contradict religious realities in our society.

Religion as political instrument: The case of Japan and South Africa

Beyers,Jaco
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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Religion can be an effective instrument in politics. This has been a phenomenon all over the ages and different political contexts. Politicians utilise religion in order to gain political goals. This paper wants to investigate the reasons why religion is such an effective instrument within politics. The investigation is as much a historical investigation as it is descriptive. After careful analysis of contexts, a deduction is made to reach an understanding of the reasons for the political use of religion. The author identified through investigating two examples (i.e. politics in South Africa and Japan) several elements to consider when discussing religion within politics: (a.) no separation between spheres of existence, (b.) culture of religious participation in politics, (c.) politics and religion touch emotional and sentimental chords, (d.) religion contributes to national identity, (e.) religion can provide a claim to divine approval of political decisions, (f.) religious communities are effective partners in implementing government policies. The author consciously decided not to investigate the relationship between Islam and politics as different elements play a role in such considerations.