Página 1 dos resultados de 217236 itens digitais encontrados em 0.165 segundos

Coordenação intraorganizacional de centros de P&D globalmente dispersos; Global R&D coordination within multinational companies

Guedes, Luis Fernando Ascenção
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Os investimentos em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento têm se constituído como fonte importante de vantagem competitiva, especialmente com o aprofundamento das decorrências da globalização dos mercados. A soma dos investimentos em P&D que os 27 países-membros da Comunidade Européia fizeram em 2007 superou EUR227 bilhões, ao passo que no mesmo ano os EUA investiram US$368 bilhões em P&D. Dados da OCDE e UNESCO apontam para um aumento do investimento global em P&D de US$525 bilhões em 1996 para mais de US$1 trilhão em 2006. Tendo em vista o cenário de franca expansão das funções de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento e do já consolidado movimento de descentralização do P&D em direção às subsidiárias da empresa multinacional, emerge a necessidade de coordenação global de esforços e uso racional dos recursos, de modo a tornar os investimentos e a gestão de P&D mais eficazes. A eficácia à qual se refere está na base da competitividade, na medida em que pode facilitar a flexibilidade da organização para fazer frente à dinâmica do mercado, auxiliar na economia de recursos e maximizar o retorno sobre os investimentos em infraestrutura e capacitação da mão-de-obra. Essa pesquisa se debruça sobre a questão da coordenação dos esforços de P&D em uma empresa multinacional de base tecnológica que tem centros de P&D em diversos países. São tratados temas relativos aos mecanismos de coordenação...

A influência da Internacionalização de P&D no desenvolvimento da Capacidade Dinâmica em Multinacionais Brasileiras; The influence of the Internationalization of R&D in the development of Dynamic Capacity in Brazilian Multinationals

Salvini, Jessâmine Thaize Sartorello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
A internacionalização das atividades de P&D permite às empresas multinacionais, dentre outras, acesso à tecnologia, que não seria obtida apenas com atuação no país de origem da companhia. Essa possibilidade pode promover uma maior capacidade de exploração do conhecimento tecnológico, podendo vir a se tornar uma plataforma de desenvolvimento de capacidades dinâmicas. O presente trabalho busca analisar como a internacionalização de P&D contribui para o desenvolvimento dos aspectos da capacidade dinâmica, tendo em vista que os elementos que a compõem podem ser mais facilmente alcançados com a dispersão de subsidiárias de P&D pelo mundo, garantindo, assim, maiores possibilidades de detecção de novas oportunidades mercadológicas e tecnológicas, melhores condições de aproveitamento e gestão adequada de mudanças do ambiente. Quanto à amplitude teórica, compreendem estudos relacionados a estruturas de internacionalização da atividade de P&D, como motivadores e coordenação de P&D e sua relação como os pressupostos inerentes ao desenvolvimento de capacidade dinâmica. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos foram adotadas a abordagem qualitativa exploratória, com análise de estudos de caso em empresas multinacionais brasileiras que possuem subsidiárias de P&D internacionalizadas. Com a pesquisa concluiu-se que a internacionalização de P&D motivada para aumento do conhecimento e com estrutura de coordenação de P&D descentralizadas e integradas influencia fortemente no desenvolvimento da capacidade dinâmica.; The internationalization of R & D allows multinational companies...

R&D investment, international trade, and home market and competitiveness efects

Pires, Armando Garcia
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.58%
We analyze the effects of R&D investment on international trade. The importance of studying this comes from the fact that one of the most important characteristics of modern industrial organization is that firms try to influence market behavior through strategic variables as R&D. Moreover international competition between firms is, more and more, also centered in R&D competition (besides output and price competition). With this in mind, we develop an oligopolist reciprocal-markets model where firms engage in R&D investment to achieve future reductions in marginal costs. We find ‘home market effects’ at the level of R&D investment, i.e.: firms located in countries that host a higher share of skilled-labor perform higher levels of R&D investment. As consequence, firms in these countries are more competitive than firms in other countries, and as such they can penetrate more easily foreign markets. As result of this ‘competitiveness effect’, countries where these firms are located run trade surplus, while countries where firms perform lower levels of R&D investment incur in trade deficits.

The Negatvity of Patents on R&D Investment. A Panel Data Analysis

Almeida, Alexandre Filipe Silveira de
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
The relationship between patents and R&D involves different levels besides the ones most obvious to us. Throughout the history of economics, patents have arisen as the core of a system of incentives to private pursue of R&D investments, providing the mechanism that guaranteed the appropriability of the output of the knowledge produced. The seminal work of Romer (1990) demonstrated the need to develop a system to assure the necessary return on innovative efforts and thus privately sustain a model of continuous technological improvement and economic growth. Patenting would result in imperfect competition and legally establish the monopoly over the use of the knowledge produced. This led to patents being perceived as an intermediate output of R&D efforts. Though this relationship has been subject of intensive study by economists, the reverse causality issue remains to be thoroughly analyzed, particularly in a negative sense. Can more patents have a negative effect on R&D investment? In the present thesis we address this question, synthesizing the theoretical and empirical studies concerning both the conventional R&D-patents relationship and the reverse causality, in particular, the potential for a negative impact of patents over R&D. The theoretical survey on this issue uncovered several gaps in the literature...

Assessment of companies practices concerning the evaluation of R&D investment projects

Amaro Pintos, Alexandre; Cunha, Jorge; Araújo, Maria Madalena Teixeira de; Ares Goméz, Enrique
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
This study introduces an on-going research project aimed at analyzing the impact of R&D projects both from the public and private points of view. From the public perspective the social impacts and objectives of these projects, frequently supported by National or European R&D programmes, should be underlined and properly considered in the evaluation process. On the other hand, the private perspective emphasizes mainly financial and strategic returns for the companies involved in research projects. This paper addresses part of the research conducted so far, focusing in particular on the private perspective, namely on the identification of the more appropriate methods for the evaluation of research and development (R&D) investments projects by companies. Several studies indicate that the use of traditional financial methods is not the most appropriate for evaluating R&D projects (see, for example, Chan, 2001, Proctor and Canada, 1992, and Mensah and Miranti, 1989). The use of these methods consists, basically, on discounting the expected future cash flows and the adoption of several methods for measuring its financial viability (e.g. NPV, IRR). This implies that the costs and benefits associated with the investment are easily and objectively quantified. Nevertheless this is not always possible for all types of investments...

¿Por qué son los incentivos fiscales cada vez más utilizados para estimular la inversión privada en I + D? (Why are tax incentives increasingly used to stimulate private R&D spending?)

Carvalho, Adão
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Resumen. Las tendencias en las políticas de I+D revelan una creciente preferencia por los incentivos fiscales para estimular la inversión privada en I+D y se pueden dividir en tres grupos: el número de países que aplican esquemas de incentivos fiscales a la I+D, la sustitución de la financiación directa por los incentivos fiscales y la generosidad cada vez mayor de los incentivos fiscales a la I+D. Las razones de la preferencia de los incentivos fiscales van más allá de las ventajas que estos instrumentos de política podrían tener sobre las medidas directas. Es la consecuencia de los importantes cambios introducidos en la política de C&T de la Unión Europea después de la Estrategia de Lisboa, los cambios en la lógica del apoyo público a la I+D privada y la competencia creciente entre los países por la inversión en I+D internacional. Ésta es la era de política de I+D basada en objetivos. ********** Abstract. Trends in R&D policy reveal a growing preference for tax incentives to stimulate private R&D spending in three ways: the number of countries implementing R&D tax incentives schemes, the substitution of direct funding for tax incentives...

Why are Tax Incentives Increasingly Used to Promote Private R&D?

Carvalho, Adão
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Although not new, tax incentives have known major changes over recent years and it is becoming an increasingly important instrument in the policy mix to stimulate private R&D in many countries around the world. The OECD reports three major trends: The implementation of R&D tax incentives schemes by a growing number of OECD and non-OECD countries; A steady substitution of direct funding schemes for tax incentives schemes to stimulate business R&D; The many changes to tax incentives schemes most countries have done to increase the levels of generosity and attractiveness. This paper attempts to explain the motives behind these trends in R&D policy to stimulate private R&D and takes a multi-level approach as the issue involves political, strategic and economic considerations. The reasons behind the growing preference for tax incentives go much beyond any possible advantage these policies might have over direct measures, and are also the consequence of a political change in the EU R&D policy after the Lisbon Strategy and the subsequent actions to stimulate R&D expenditures, a change in the economic rationale of public support of private R&D in face of the insufficiency of market failures to justify that public intervention in a new context characterised by a public determination to increase the amount of business R&D expenditures...

Business R&D Policy in Spain and Portugal: Objectives, Incentives and Outcomes

Carvalho, Adão; Corchuelo, Beatriz
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Spain and Portugal are two EU countries of different size but similar structural problems of science and technology (S&T) to address. Over recent years, the R&D policy of both countries has been designed to tackle analogous R&D structural problems and challenges aiming to increase the historical low-level expenditures on R&D (GERD), business R&D expenditures (BERD), and BERD/GERD ratio. This paper compares and discusses the R&D policy strategy of Spain and Portugal to promote R&D, with particular attention to R&D objectives and business R&D incentives. In this sense, the paper focuses on the characteristics and differences of the two main tools used by governments to stimulate business R&D: direct funding (subsidies and loans) and indirect support (fiscal incentives for R&D). The scope and design of these instruments are likely to condition the firms’ decision on how and when to invest in R&D and be able to partly reduce the problems with business underinvestment in R&D. The paper shows the differences and similarities of these tools in Portugal and Spain. Paradoxically, these countries have two of the most generous fiscal systems for R&D of the OECD but their S&T indicators of remain comparatively low. Despite the governments’ efforts...

A comparative analysis of business R&D policy in Spain and Portugal

Carvalho, Adão; Corchuelo, Beatriz
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
This paper compares the R&D policy strategy of Spain and Portugal to promote business R&D spending by focusing on the R&D objectives, incentives and outcomes. It aims to uncover new matters for policy attention and research concerning the public support for business R&D. These countries have similar R&D structural problems to address, two of the most generous fiscal systems for R&D and comparatively low S&T indicators as compared to the EU average. Both failed to reach the R&D intensity goals of the past and it is unlikely they will reach the R&D goals set for 2020. Nevertheless, the rationale for attracting international R&D investment is competitive. Three important issues call for attention: the inverse public incentive structures for business R&D, the faster growth of the BERD/GDP ratio in Portugal over recent years and the implications of the tax reform in Spain in 2008. As a conclusion, we believe that both countries are missing opportunities for mutual learning and should coordinate their R&D public policies.

Social network analysis applied to knowledge creation and transfer in the portuguese agricultural R&D field: an exploratory study

Neto, Miguel de Castro; Correia, Ana Maria R.; Pinto, Pedro; Aguiar, José
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.52%
Paper presented at the 9th European Conference on Knowledge Management, Southampton Solent University, Southampton, UK, 4-5 Sep. 2008. URL: http://academic-conferences.org/eckm/eckm2008/eckm08-home.htm; There is growing interest in the nature and scale of scientific collaboration regarding the processes involved with knowledge creation and sharing. One of the possible approaches to developing metrics for this area of research is based on the idea that co-authorship creates a social network of researchers. We present an exploratory study using a social network approach to examine the structure and pattern of knowledge creation and sharing within a Portuguese research community, working in the agricultural field, over the last seven years. The members of this community are with the Instituto Nacional da Investigação Agrária (INIA) which recently became part of a newly created R&D State Laboratory, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos (INRB), under the umbrella of the Portuguese Ministry of Agriculture Rural Development and Fisheries. The social network analysis used data from an information system containing the results from all the scientific activities developed in the last seven years by the research community working in INIA. The information system was the major result of AGRO 444 - Development of an Information System for Knowledge and Innovation Discovery and Diffusion in the Agro-Rural Sector...

Vertical R&D Sprillovers, Cooperation, Market Structure, and Innovation.

ATALLAH, Gamal
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 281012 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
This paper studies vertical R&D spillovers between upstream and downstream firms. The model incorporates two vertically related industries, with horizontal spillovers within each industry and vertical spillovers between the two industries. Four types of R&D cooperation are studied : no cooperation, horizontal cooperation, vertical cooperation, and simultaneous horizontal and vertical cooperation. Vertical spillovers always increase R&D and welfare, while horizontal spillovers may increase or decrease them. The comparison of cooperative settings in terms of R&D shows that no setting uniformly dominates the others. Which type of cooperation yields more R&D depends on horizontal and vertical spillovers, and market structure. The ranking of cooperative structures hinges on the signs and magnitudes of three competitive externalities (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal) which capture the effect of the R&D of a firm on the profits of other firms. One of the basic results of the strategic investment literature is that cooperation between competitors increases (decreases) R&D when horizontal spillovers are high (low); the model shows that this result does not necessarily hold when vertical spillovers and vertical cooperation are taken into account. The paper proposes a theory of innovation and market structure...

R&D and Development

Lederman, Daniel; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Lederman and Maloney trace the evolution of research and development (R&D) expenditures along the development process using a new global panel data set. They show that R&D effort measured as a share of GDP rises with development at an increasing rate. The authors examine how four groups of countries from Latin America, Asia, advanced manufacturing exporters, and advanced natural resource-abundant countries fare relative to the predicted development trajectory. Latin America generally underperforms as do some countries in Asia and Europe, but their striking finding is that some-Finland, Israel, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan (China)-have radically deviated from the predicted trajectory and displayed impressive R&D takeoffs. The authors ask whether these countries overinvest in R&D but find that the high estimates of the social rates of return probably justify this effort. Moreover, the returns to R&D decline with per capita GDP. The authors attempt to explain why rich countries invest more in R&D than poor countries. They conclude that financial depth...

R&D and Aggregate Fluctuations

Pourpourides, Panayiotis M.; Artuc, Erhan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
The research and development (R&D) sector is considered one of the main driving forces of sustainable growth in the long run. The sector, however, also shows excessive volatility which raises interesting questions regarding the sources of this volatility as well as the nature of the relation between the sector and aggregate fluctuations. Using data from the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis and National Science Foundation, we show that technology innovations are the main source of fluctuations in R&D investment while R&D technology shocks are important in driving aggregate output fluctuations. After taking nominal innovations into consideration, such as shocks in monetary policy and inflation, capital investment-specific shocks explain 70 percent of fluctuations of R&D investment, while R&D technology shocks explain 30 percent of the variation in the output of the non-R&D sector. Technology innovations jointly explain most of the variation of output in the R&D sector and 78 percent of the variation of output in the rest of the economy.

International Competition and U.S. R&D Subsidies: A Quantitative Welfare Analysis

IMPULLITI, Giammario
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
The geographical distribution of R&D investment changes dramatically in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1970s U.S. firms are the uncontested world leaders in R&D investment in most manufacturing sectors. Later, led by Japan and Europe, foreign firms start challenging American R&D leadership in many sectors of the economy. In this period of increasing competition we also observe a substantial increase in the U.S. R&D subsidy. In a version of the multi-country quality ladder growth model I study the effects of foreign R&D competition on domestic welfare and on the optimal R&D subsidy. I build a new empirical index of international R&D rivalry that can be used to perform quantitative analysis in this type of frameworks. In a calibrated version of the model I focus on the period 1979-1991 and perform the following quantitative exercises: first, I evaluate the quantitative effects of the observed increase in foreign R&D competition on U.S. welfare. I find that the positive growth effect and the negative business-stealing effect of foreign competition on U.S. welfare substantially balance each other, and the overall welfare effect of competition is negligible - less then 1 percent of per-capita consumption. Moreover, using estimates of the effective U.S. R&D subsidy rate...

International Competition and U.S. R&D Subsidies: A Quantitative Welfare Analysis

IMPULLITI, Giammario
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
The geographical distribution of R&D investment changes dramatically in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1970s U.S. firms are the uncontested world leaders in R&D investment in most manufacturing sectors. Later, led by Japan and Europe, foreign firms start challenging American R&D leadership in many sectors of the economy. In this period of increasing competition we also observe a substantial increase in the U.S. R&D subsidy. In a version of the multi-country quality ladder growth model I study the effects of foreign R&D competition on domestic welfare and on the optimal R&D subsidy. I build a new empirical index of international R&D rivalry that can be used to perform quantitative analysis in this type of frameworks. In a calibrated version of the model I focus on the period 1979-1991 and perform the following quantitative exercises: first, I evaluate the quantitative effects of the observed increase in foreign R&D competition on U.S. welfare. I find that the positive growth effect and the negative business-stealing effect of foreign competition on U.S. welfare substantially balance each other, and the overall welfare effect of competition is negligible - less then 1 percent of per-capita consumption. Moreover, using estimates of the effective U.S. R&D subsidy rate...

On "Indirect" Trade-Related R&D Spillovers

Lumenga-Neso, Olivier; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Influential literature argues that trade promotes knowledge flows and technology transmission between trading partners. This literature focuses on 'direct' research and development (R&D) spillovers which are related to the levels of R&D produced by the trading partners. In this paper the authors argue that 'indirect' trade-related R&D spillovers also take place between countries, even if they do not trade with each other. These 'indirect' spillovers are associated with available rather than with produced levels of R&D. The empirical results suggest that these 'indirect' trade-related spillovers are at least as important as the 'direct' ones, and strengthen the view that trade does matter for the international transmission of R&D. The empirical results also suggest that, due to the existence of these 'indirect' effects, bilateral trade patterns are relatively less important as determinants of the level of foreign R&D spillovers acquired through trade.

Innovation policy in Ireland and Northern Ireland, 1991 to 2001 – the changing face of firm-level financial incentives for R&D

Hewitt-Dundas, Nola; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, Bernadette; Lenihan, Helena
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
peer-reviewed; Technology policy encompasses a number of different strands but can be sub-divided between institutional support e.g. development of educational and technological infrastructure, and financial support, or more specifically support at the enterprise level for R&D e.g. financial incentives to enterprises. It has been suggested that national technology policy tends to reinforce the strengths of a country’s industrial system, particularly in relation to large firms and the promotion of R&D in core technologies and focuses less on technology transfer which is often left to regional technological policy initiatives. In lagging regional economies, which are often dominated by SME’s, this presents specific challenges for technology policy. This paper presents a comparative analysis of technology policy at both the national and regional levels in Ireland and Northern Ireland respectively, over the 1990s. In both Ireland and Northern Ireland the period from 1991-99 was marked by expansion as measured by steady output growth for manufacturing as a whole (albeit at substantially lower levels in Northern Ireland than in Ireland). In Ireland this largely reflected rapid economic growth of output in the high-tech sectors...

INFLUÊNCIA DA ESTRUTURAÇÃO DE DEPARTAMENTOS DE P&D NA INOVAÇÃO: UM ESTUDO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MÁQUINAS E IMPLEMENTOS AGRÍCOLAS NO BRASIL DOI: 10.5773/rai.v8i1.742; THE INFLUENCE OF R&D DEPARTMENTS ON INNOVATION: THE CASE OF THE AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT AND IMPLEMENT INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL DOI:10.5773/rai.v8i1.742

Castro, Bernardo Hauch Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/05/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
O presente estudo tem o objetivo de discutir se a existência de uma estrutura exclusivamente dedicada a pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D) influencia a propensão a inovar e o desempenho inovador de empresas do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas brasileiro. Partindo-se de uma abordagem institucionalista, em que tais departamentos poderiam ser fruto de um estímulo ambiental, o estudo testa estatisticamente diversas hipóteses relacionadas a essa influência. Os resultados não só sugerem uma correlação entre o porte da empresa e a existência de um departamento de P&D, como também apontam que o desempenho inovador depende da forma como o P&D está estruturado. Empresas com departamentos de P&D estruturados tendem a ter uma participação maior de produtos novos no faturamento. Além disso, a pesquisa mostra que empresas com departamentos de P&D nem sempre possuem uma estratégia de diferenciação de produtos. Os resultados do estudo são importantes para se entender a influência do uso de P&D estruturado como parte da implementação de uma estratégia empresarial e podem se constituir em um novo elemento para a decisão gerencial de estruturar um departamento de P&D.; This paper relates the existence of a formally structured research and development (R&D) department to the propensity to innovate and the innovation performance of companies in the agricultural equipment and implements industry in Brazil. We tested several hypotheses inspired by institutional theory...

A RELEVÂNCIA DOS GASTOS COM P&D PARA O MERCADO BRASILEIRO DE CAPITAIS: UM ESTUDO COM DISTRIBUIDORAS DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO PERÍODO DE 2002-2009 DOI:10.5773/rai.v8i2.703; THE RELEVANCE OF R & D SPENDING TO THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET: A STUDY OF ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE PERIOD 2002 TO 2009 DOI:10.5773/rai.v8i2.703

Alves, Alessandro Pereira; Silva, Tatiane Gomes; Macedo, Marcelo Alvaro da Silva; Marques, José Augusto Veiga da Costa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a relevância dos gastos com P&D para o mercado de capitais das empresas do setor de distribuição de energia elétrica no período de 2002 a 2009. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa empírico-positivista com processo de amostragem não probabilístico, pois parte-se de um universo naturalmente restrito, já que as empresas foram escolhidas a partir da listagem das empresas distribuidoras de energia elétrica de capital aberto negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo. Assim, fez-se uma análise de regressão (pooling) dos gastos com P&D contra o valor de mercado das empresas sob análise, tendo como variáveis de controle o lucro líquido (LL) e o patrimônio líquido (PL). Os resultados mostram que a informação de gastos com P&D é relevante para o mercado de capitais quando analisada isoladamente. Porém, quando essa informação é regredida tendo como variáveis de controle o LL e o PL observa-se que, apesar da melhoria no R2 ajustado, a variável P&D não se mostra significativa a 5%. Ainda numa comparação dessa regressão com uma regressão do valor de mercado com apenas as variáveis de controle percebe-se que através do teste de Wald não se capturou ganho marginal no nível informacional do LL e do PL com a adição da informação dos gastos com P&D. Logo...

The Changing role of R&D gatekeepers

Ettlie, John; Elsenbach, Jorg
Fonte: Industrial Research Institute, Inc Publicador: Industrial Research Institute, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Understanding communication flows in R&D laboratories for the last five decades has been enhanced by illuminating the role of R&D gatekeepers. Simply put, for applied projects (as opposed to basic or service R&D). the R&D gatekeeper- usually the first-line supervisor in a research group - was traditionally the primary reservoir of ideas for new and improved products. Add marketing and one has the balanced model of idea sourcing. Have things changed? Data from three studies conducted over 15 years on successful sourcing of ideas for new products and services, show that the profile for the R&D gatekeeper has evolved away from primary dependence on first-line supervisors. This role is now more broadly shared across several positions above (e.g. R&D middle management and VP of R&D) and below (e.g. engineering and R&D staff) the technical supervisor, especially in small- and medium-sized enterprises.