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Física quântica e formação docente: confluência de várias redes; Quantum Physics and Teacher Training: Confluence of Several Networks

Canato Junior, Osvaldo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2014 PT
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Tendo reformulado a mecânica surgida da termoestatística das radiações eletromagnéticas, a física quântica abriu o caminho nas baixas energias para a complexidade dos materiais e da vida, e nas altas energias para as partículas elementares e conexões cosmológicas. Entre as demais ciências, ela fundamenta a química fina, a biologia molecular e inúmeras aplicações práticas. No cotidiano tecnológico, através dos semicondutores e lasers da microeletrônica, a quântica é a alma conceitual das telecomunicações e das redes informáticas, instrumentando todas as atividades humanas, das relações pessoais às práticas médicas, e condicionando a emergência de uma sociedade em rede. Em associação com as tecnologias que promove, o domínio quântico tem sido central na investigação das redes complexas que transforma a compreensão de processos naturais, tecnológicos e sociais. Das redes neurais às sociais, qualquer campo de atividade e de conhecimento está sendo modificado ou desequilibrado pela percepção de seu caráter complexo. Impactada pelo novo ambiente, a educação já se desenvolve com recursos em rede amplamente difundidos e revê a conceituação do aprender como algo complexo e em rede em lugar da velha sequência linear de conteúdos. Sendo convergência e fonte de várias redes...

8.06 Quantum Physics III, Spring 2003; Quantum Physics III

Rajagopal, Krishna, 1965-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Continuation of 8.05. Units: natural units, scales of microscopic phenomena, applications. Time-independent approximation methods: degenerate and non-degenerate perturbation theory, variational method, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, applications to atomic and molecular systems. The structure of one- and two-electron atoms: overview, spin-orbit and relativistic corrections, fine structure, variational approximation, screening, Zeeman and Stark effects. Charged particles in a magnetic field: Landau levels and integer quantum hall effect. Scattering: general principles, partial waves, review of one-dimension, low-energy approximations, resonance, Born approximation. Time-dependent perturbation theory. Students research and write a paper on a topic related to the content of 8.05 and 8.06. From the course home page: Course Description This course is a continuation of 8.05, Quantum Physics II. Content includes: Natural Units Charged particles in a magnetic field Time-independent perturbation theory Variational and semi-classical methods Quantum Computing The adiabatic approximation and Berry’s phase Scattering Time-dependent perturbation theory

8.05 Quantum Physics II, Fall 2002; Quantum Physics II

Rajagopal, Krishna, 1965-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Together 8.05 and 8.06 cover quantum physics with applications drawn from modern physics. General formalism of quantum mechanics: states, operators, Dirac notation, representations, measurement theory. Harmonic oscillator: operator algebra, states. Quantum mechanics in three-dimensions: central potentials and the radial equation, bound and scattering states, qualitative analysis of wavefunctions. Angular momentum: operators, commutator algebra, eigenvalues and eigenstates, spherical harmonics. Spin: Stern-Gerlach devices and measurements, nuclear magnetic resonance, spin and statistics. Addition of angular momentum: Clebsch-Gordan series and coefficients, spin systems, and allotropic forms of hydrogen.

Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity

Chen, Xiaodong
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2005
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Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable...

Proceedings of the 11th workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic

Coecke, Bob; Hasuo, Ichiro; Panangaden, Prakash
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/12/2014
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This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic (QPL 2014), which was held from the 4th to the 6th of June, 2014, at Kyoto University, Japan. The goal of the QPL workshop series is to bring together researchers working on mathematical foundations of quantum physics, quantum computing and spatio-temporal causal structures, and in particular those that use logical tools, ordered algebraic and category-theoretic structures, formal languages, semantic methods and other computer science methods for the study of physical behavior in general. Over the past few years, there has been growing activity in these foundational approaches, together with a renewed interest in the foundations of quantum theory, which complement the more mainstream research in quantum computation. Earlier workshops in this series, with the same acronym under the name "Quantum Programming Languages", were held in Ottawa (2003), Turku (2004), Chicago (2005), and Oxford (2006). The first QPL under the new name Quantum Physics and Logic was held in Reykjavik (2008), followed by Oxford (2009 and 2010), Nijmegen (2011), Brussels (2012) and Barcelona (2013).

Quantum Physics and Classical Physics - in the Light of Quantum Logic

Mittelstaedt, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In contrast to the Copenhagen interpretation we consider quantum mechanics as universally valid and query whether classical physics is really intuitive and plausible. - We discuss these problems within the quantum logic approach to quantum mechanics where the classical ontology is relaxed by reducing metaphysical hypotheses. On the basis of this weak ontology a formal logic of quantum physics can be established which is given by an orthomodular lattice. By means of the Soler condition and Piron's result one obtains the classical Hilbert spaces. - However, this approach is not fully convincing. There is no plausible justification of Soler's law and the quantum ontology is partly too weak and partly too strong. We propose to replace this ontology by an ontology of unsharp properties and conclude that quantum mechanics is more intuitive than classical mechanics and that classical mechanics is not the macroscopic limit of quantum mechanics.; Comment: 10 pages, LaTeX, to appear in Int. Jour. Theo. Phys, few typos corrected

Exploring the Quantum Speed Limit with Computer Games

Sørensen, Jens Jakob W. H.; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael; Jensen, Jesper Halkjær; Planke, Tilo; Gajdacz, Morten Ginnerup Andreasen Miroslav; Mølmer, Klaus; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.; players, Quantum Moves
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science exploits this intuition by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. Gamification is an effective tool for attracting citizen scientists and allowing them to provide novel solutions to the research problems. Citizen science games have been used successfully in Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping. However, gamification has never been applied in quantum physics. Everyday experiences of non-experts are based on classical physics and it is \textit{a priori} not clear that they should have an intuition for quantum dynamics. Does this premise hinder the use of citizen scientists in the realm of quantum mechanics? Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems in quantum physics. Quantum Moves aims to use human players to find solutions to a class of problems associated with quantum computing. Players discover novel solution strategies which numerical optimizations fail to find. Guided by player strategies, a new low-dimensional heuristic optimization method is formed, efficiently outperforming the most prominent established methods. We have developed a low-dimensional rendering of the optimization landscape showing a growing complexity when the player solutions get fast. These fast results offer new insight into the nature of the so-called Quantum Speed Limit. We believe that an increased focus on heuristics and landscape topology will be pivotal for general quantum optimization problems beyond the type presented here.; Comment: 18 pages...

Testing quantum physics in space using high-mass matter-wave interferometry

Kaltenbaek, Rainer
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/08/2015
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Quantum superposition is central to quantum theory but challenges our concepts of reality and spacetime when applied to macroscopic objects like Schr\"odinger's cat. For that reason, it has been a long-standing question whether quantum physics remains valid unmodified even for truly macroscopic objects. By now, the predictions of quantum theory have been confirmed via matter-wave interferometry for massive objects up to $10^4\,$ atomic mass units (amu). The rapid development of new technologies promises to soon allow tests of quantum theory for significantly higher test masses by using novel techniques of quantum optomechanics and high-mass matter-wave interferometry. Such experiments may yield novel insights into the foundations of quantum theory, pose stringent limits on alternative theoretical models or even uncover deviations from quantum physics. However, performing experiments of this type on Earth may soon face principal limitations due to requirements of long times of flight, ultra-low vibrations, and extremely high vacuum. Here, we present a short overview of recent developments towards the implementation of the proposed space-mission MAQRO, which promises to overcome those limitations and to perform matter-wave interferometry in a parameter regime orders of magnitude beyond state-of-the-art.; Comment: 4 pages...

Can classical physics agree with quantum physics on quantum phenomena?

Marrocco, Michele
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/04/2015
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Classical physics fails where quantum physics prevails. This common understanding applies to quantum phenomena that are acknowledged to be beyond the reach of classical physics. Here, we make an attempt at weakening this solid belief that classical physics is unfit to explain the quantum world. The trial run is the quantization of the free radiation field that will be addressed by following a strategy that is free from operators or quantum-mechanical concepts; Comment: 9 pages

Correlations in Quantum Physics

Dorner, Ross; Vedral, Vlatko
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2012
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We provide an historical perspective of how the notion of correlations has evolved within quantum physics. We begin by reviewing Shannon's information theory and its first application in quantum physics, due to Everett, in explaining the information conveyed during a quantum measurement. This naturally leads us to Lindblad's information theoretic analysis of quantum measurements and his emphasis of the difference between the classical and quantum mutual information. After briefly summarising the quantification of entanglement using these and related ideas, we arrive at the concept of quantum discord that naturally captures the boundary between entanglement and classical correlations. Finally we discuss possible links between discord and the generation of correlations in thermodynamic transformations of coupled harmonic oscillators.; Comment: 10 pages, 1 figure. Submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys. B, special issue "Classical Vs Quantum correlations in composite systems" edited by L. Amico, S. Bose, V. Korepin and V. Vedral

Unitary Quantum Physics with Time-Space Noncommutativity

Balachandran, A. P.; Govindarajan, T. R.; Molina, C.; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this work quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. The Moyal plane is treated in detail. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated by a noncommutative Schrodinger equation is studied. We prove in particular the following: suppose the Hamiltonian of a quantum mechanical particle on spacetime has no explicit time dependence, and the spatial coordinates commute in its noncommutative form (the only noncommutativity being between time and a space coordinate). Then the commutative and noncommutative versions of the Hamiltonian have identical spectra.; Comment: 18 pages, published version

Noncommutative analysis and quantum physics I. States and ensembles

Neumaier, Arnold
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/1999
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In this sequence of papers, noncommutative analysis is used to give a consistent axiomatic approach to a unified conceptual foundation of classical and quantum physics. The present Part I defines the concepts of observables, states and ensembles, clarifies the logical relations and operations for them, and shows how they give rise to dynamics and probabilities. States are identified with maximal consistent sets of weak equalities in the algebra of observables (instead of, as usual, with the rays in a Hilbert space). This leads to a concise foundation of quantum mechanics, free of undefined terms, separating in a clear way the deterministic and the stochastic features of quantum physics. The traditional postulates of quantum mechanics are derived from well-motivated axiomatic assumptions. No special quantum logic is needed to handle the peculiarities of quantum mechanics. Foundational problems associated with the measurement process, such as the reduction of the state vector, disappear. The new interpretation of quantum mechanics contains `elements of physical reality' without the need to introduce a classical framework with hidden variables. In particular, one may talk about the state of the universe without the need of an external observer and without the need to assume the existence of multiple universes.; Comment: 38 pages

Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/08/2011
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A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.; Comment: Supporting materials available at http://tinyurl.com/baily-dissertation

Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/08/2011
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The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes-contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response...

A Class of Deductive Theories that cannot be Deterministic: Classical and Quantum Physics are not deterministic

Reznikoff, Iegor
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The problem of the determinism of Quantum Mechanics has been a main one during the 20th century. At the same time, in the context of Logic and Set Theory, the importance of ancient paradoxes as well as the appearance of many new ones, has shed light on and deeply influenced the foundations of Mathematics and somehow of Physics. But, strangely, concerning Physics, a paradox which we call the Memory Paradox has remained yet undiscovered, despite its simplicity and remarkable consequences, mostly in Physics and surprisingly in classical Physics that appear to be non deterministic, contrary to the general belief since Newton, Laplace, etc.. The non determinism of Quantum Physics follows without any supplementary hypothesis. This paper extends a previous one (arXiv: 1203.2945v1 [physics.gen-ph] 13 Mar 2012).; Comment: 4 pages (the first version has only 2); the case of classical physics is treated explicitly

How to account for quantum non-locality: ontic structural realism and the primitive ontology of quantum physics

Esfeld, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2014
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The paper has two aims: (1) it sets out to show that it is well motivated to seek for an account of quantum non-locality in the framework of ontic structural realism (OSR), which integrates the notions of holism and non-separability that have been employed since the 1980s to achieve such an account. However, recent research shows that OSR on its own cannot provide such an account. Against this background, the paper argues that by applying OSR to the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics, one can accomplish that task. In particular, Bohmian mechanics offers the best prospect for doing so. (2) In general, the paper seeks to bring OSR and the primitive ontology theories of quantum physics together: on the one hand, in order to be applicable to quantum mechanics, OSR has to consider what the quantum ontology of matter distributed in space-time is. On the other hand, as regards the primitive ontology theories, OSR provides the conceptual tools for these theories to answer the question of what the ontological status of the wave-function is.; Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1406.0732

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/07/2013
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The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics -- relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality, or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just co-exist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment.; Comment: 8 pages

Pascual Jordan, his contributions to quantum mechanics and his legacy in contemporary local quantum physics

Schroer, Bert
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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After recalling episodes from Pascual Jordan's biography including his pivotal role in the shaping of quantum field theory and his much criticized conduct during the NS regime, I draw attention to his presentation of the first phase of development of quantum field theory in a talk presented at the 1929 Kharkov conference. He starts by giving a comprehensive account of the beginnings of quantum theory, emphasising that particle-like properties arise as a consequence of treating wave-motions quantum-mechanically. He then goes on to his recent discovery of quantization of ``wave fields'' and problems of gauge invariance. The most surprising aspect of Jordan's presentation is however his strong belief that his field quantization is a transitory not yet optimal formulation of the principles underlying causal, local quantum physics. The expectation of a future more radical change coming from the main architect of field quantization already shortly after his discovery is certainly quite startling. I try to answer the question to what extent Jordan's 1929 expectations have been vindicated. The larger part of the present essay consists in arguing that Jordan's plea for a formulation without ``classical correspondence crutches'', i.e. for an intrinsic approach (which avoids classical fields altogether)...

What we can learn about quantum physics from a single qubit

Dür, W.; Heusler, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2013
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We present an approach for teaching quantum physics at high school level based on the simplest quantum system - the single quantum bit (qubit). We show that many central concepts of quantum mechanics, including the superposition principle, the stochastic behavior and state change under measurements as well as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be understood using simple mathematics, and can be illustrated using catchy visualizations. We discuss abstract features of a qubit in general, and consider possible physical realizations as well as various applications, e.g. in quantum cryptography.; Comment: 15 pages, 19 figures

Quantum physics meets biology

Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2009
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Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.; Comment: 26 pages, 4 figures, Perspective article for the HFSP Journal