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Economic and Management Higher Education Systems in Portugal: An Exploratory Study about the Challenges Setting by the New Bologna Paradigm

Reis, Elizabeth; Roberto, José Afonso; Saraiva, Margarida; Novas, Jorge Casas
Fonte: International Conference on Advances in Management Publicador: International Conference on Advances in Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.69%
Aiming at the increase of mobility in Europe, the Bologna Process is being implemented so that, until 2010, it will be possible to apply a set of common principles to all higher education institutions of the adherent countries. This ambitious process is trying to answer to a several social questions and economic challenges, promoting at the quality of education, the research capacity and the employment of the graduates. With the main objective of investigating the implications of this new teaching/learning paradigm in the work market with respect to the economic and business courses, an inquiry process was carried out. This paper presents the preliminary results and discusses some of the conclusions extracted from the inquiry process. It is expectable that the results of the inquiry process may contribute to improve the understanding about this new social and organizational reality in Europe by the educational institutions, the employers and the graduates.

Implementation of quality management systems in HEI: the approach of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal (Portugal)

Pires, António Ramos; Saraiva, Margarida; Gonçalves, Helena
Fonte: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED) Publicador: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.85%
Higher Education Institutions (HEI) have special features that matter to consider in the implementation of its Quality Management Systems (QMS). These should convey clear and broadly accepted messages, so they need to find the best balance between academic freedom and responsibility for accountability. Given these characteristics, as well as the weakness of diagnostic tools, the culture of independence of teachers and insufficient authority and stability of the management bodies, the QMS of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal (IPS) was designed to be based on two fundamental pillars: profound knowledge of the variables with impact on results and evidence-based management. In other words, it was not based on procedures (as usual), but in information. In this sense, and assuming known statement that “we cannot manage what we do not know”, the basic component of the QMS is a monitoring system. We applied the recommendation of Snyder et al. (2000, p.320) "Stimulating the imbalance with information", urging people to act on the basis of clear information. The work undertaken till now (last five years) is described and discussed critically. This work includes, among other activities and projects, the design of a Global Model Process...

Skills, Not Just Diplomas : Managing Education for Results in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Sondergaard, Lars; Murthi, Mamta; Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Bodewig, Christian; Rutkowski, Jan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
The countries of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are currently emerging from the deepest recession suffered by any developing region. Post-crisis conditions are very different from those of preceding years. Financial resources are more limited and more expensive, and export growth is restrained by potentially slower growth in destination countries. Restoring and sustaining growth in this context require reforms that boost competitiveness and increase labor productivity. Such reforms are all the more important given the shrinking of the working-age population in many countries of the region. This book uses a range of different data sources to argue that the skills problem in the ECA region relates more to the quality and relevance of the education provided in ECA countries than to problems of access. A central argument of the book is that ministries of education are constrained in a number of ways from effectively managing their education and training sectors. The three most important and interrelated impediments to improving quality and relevance are the lack of systematic data on key skills-related performance issues (i.e....

Higher Education in Francophone Africa : What Tools Can Be Used to Support Financially-Sustainable Policies?

Gioan, Pierre Antoine
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
The higher education and research sector in the French-speaking countries of Africa has, for more than a decade, been in a state of severe crisis, stemming from an increasing disparity between the requirements vital to providing high quality education and the available resources. The goal of this article is to: i) highlight the factors which have lead to the development of this situation in most countries; ii) identify the conditions for creating a framework to regulate the trends in the higher education and research systems and allow them to be more financially sustainable; and iii) identify ways of increasing funding for this sector as well maintaining its level of quality. The Main tools to support financially-sustainable policies include: i) controlling student inflows into higher education in order to avoid an increase in the student population that will be difficult to manage; ii) targeting student assistance more effectively towards the most disadvantaged and deserving students; iii) limiting the duration of study at the higher education level in order to prevent the number of students from building up in the institutions; iv) guiding students more effectively towards courses that offer better employment prospects; v) trying to promote a higher education private sector through fiscal and non-fiscal incentives; vi) reducing unit education costs; and vii) mobilizing additional self-generated resources.

Indonesia - Spending More or Spending Better : Improving Education Financing in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
The report is divided into two parts. The first three chapters show that the vast increase in education resources has not been accompanied by a similar increase in learning outcomes, and thus highlight the urgent need to improve the quality of spending. Chapter one starts by describing the complex financing and governance systems. With this policy framework in mind, Chapter two focuses on the 20 percent rule, analyzing its consequences for budget planning and management and examining where resources went after this vast increase in spending. The chapter also provides some estimates of the cost of meeting future government objectives, in the context of discussions on expanding compulsory education, and broadening teacher certification. Chapter three looks at education outcomes, reviewing the significant improvements in access and equity, as well as the worrisome trends in learning outcomes. It points to improving the quality of education and expanding access to secondary and above (especially for the poor) as the main challenges in the sector. Given the cost of achieving these goals...

Stuck in the Middle? Human Capital Development and Economic Growth

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Vy; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.91%
The challenge of sustaining economic growth over the long term is one that only a few countries have been able to surmount. Slowing momentum in countries like Malaysia and Thailand has led analysts and policy makers to consider what it would take to lift them out of middle-income status, where other countries have arguably become stuck. The paper examines the role of human capital formation in the quest to sustain economic growth in these two countries. It argues that a good education system is fundamental to equip workers with marketable skills. Malaysia and Thailand have successfully expanded access to schooling, but the quality of education remains an issue. Modern education systems should aim to provide universally-available quality education using the following policies: prioritize budgets to deliver quality and universally-available basic education before expanding higher levels of schooling; provide appropriate incentives and rewards to teachers; permit school autonomy and ensure accountability for results; invest in early childhood development; and consider implementing income-contingent loan financing schemes to expand higher education.

Addressing Governance at the Center of Higher Education Reforms in Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Since joining the Bologna process in 2005, the Armenian government and higher education institutions have made significant progress in reforming the higher education system. Despite reforms, the public perception of higher education governance and management is poor. Reasons for the poor public perception of higher education governance are primarily embedded in system-wide factors. Recent research has identified a governance structure and regulatory framework as key to the development of overall higher education systems. The study finds that underperformance of the higher education system is associated with a legal framework that lacks coherence and the entire system lacks capacity to effectively exercise autonomy and accountability.

Framework for the Reform of Education Systems and Planning for Quality

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Velez, Eduardo; Wang, Catherine Yan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.9%
In 2000, the goal that, by 2015, all children will have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality, was set. Despite the progress in terms of student enrollment and completion, the quality of learning produced in developing countries remains poor. Existing models of education production are inadequate for informing education reform for the purpose of improving school quality, as measured by student learning. Thus, a broader and more integrated approach of policy making is put forward. Building on theory and empirical evidence on what works, the paper puts forward a framework for improving the quality of education. The framework includes six factors: (1) assessment; (2) autonomy; (3) accountability; (4) attention to teachers; (5) attention to early childhood development; and (6) attention to culture. Going forward, there is a need to develop a system of international quality benchmarks drawing on a larger body of evidence. Most importantly, more empirical evidence from impact evaluations is needed.

Demand and Supply of Skills in Ghana : How Can Training Programs Improve Employment?

Darvas, Peter; Palmer, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
Ghana has a youthful population of 24 million and has shown impressive gains in economic growth and in poverty reduction over the last two decades. The necessary sustained growth requires three critical steps: (1) increase productivity in the strategic economic sectors, (2) diversify the economy, and (3) expand employment. Raising the level and range of skills in the country provides a key contribution to these core drivers of sustained growth. Skills development in Ghana encompasses foundational skills (literacy, numeracy), transferable and soft skills, and technical and vocational skills. These skills are acquired throughout life through formal education, training, and higher education; on the job through work experience and professional training; through family and community; and via the media. This report focuses on one segment of Ghana s skills development system: formal and informal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) at the pre-tertiary level. Although TVET alone does not guarantee productivity gains or job creation...

Tajikistan : Higher Education Sector Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.91%
The introduction provides background on higher education reforms in Tajikistan and the rationale for this study. Chapter one presents an overview of the higher education system. Chapter two outlines the system-wide governance framework for Tajikistan s higher education system. It examines the regulatory framework governing higher education, system-level and institutional-level governance, stakeholders participation, and corruption. Chapter three reviews international trends in quality assurance as a benchmark for Tajikistan and examines Tajikistan s existing quality assurance system. Chapter four analyzes the higher education financing model in Tajikistan. Chapter five assesses the feasibility of using Information and Communication Technologies to improve access, quality, and relevance of higher education in Tajikistan. It also presents the results of an innovative pilot project to apply ICT-based solutions for higher education challenges. Chapter six concludes with a summary of findings and policy recommendations.

Governance for Quality in Higher Education in Odisha, India

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
The rise of the global economy, where social and economic development are driven by knowledge coupled with the information and technology revolution, signifies that tertiary education everywhere cannot continue with business as usual. The hope is that by creating, applying and disseminating new ideas and technologies to greater numbers, higher education systems will graduate a skilled, flexible and productive work force. The scope of the study includes primarily the governance and management system across the Higher Education (HE) sector in Odisha; the current Quality Assurance System (QAS) including affiliation and accreditation and the inter-relationship between QAS and HE governance system; issues associated with autonomy in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Odisha; the existing policy and legal environment in view of systemic transformation of governance for excellence; and international experience of good practices of governance and management system focusing on quality assurance. This paper aims: to describe and analyze the state of governance in Odisha higher education with special focus on the role of the higher education department of the GoO...

Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information, together with an analysis of the current situation of the education sector, describes the motivation for the study and demonstrates the urgent need to shift the focus in education policy to quality assurance. Chapter III describes the conceptual framework developed for the analysis of how successful systems carry out education quality assurance. The framework developed identifies education participants, including: students; teachers; principals and school administrators; schools; local governments (districts, municipalities); regional governments (states, provinces); and the national government. Chapter IV applies the framework to the nine education systems selected as comparisons and presents a summary of the quality assurance functions and institutions in each selected education system. Chapter V describes the four alternative instructional visions for quality assurance in education developed as a result of the international review. Finally...

Tajikistan : Review of Public Expenditures on Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.9%
This policy note is part of the World Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the third in the series, examines public expenditures on education in Tajikistan, focusing on assessing efficiency and equity of general education spending. Section 2 reviews the characteristics of Tajikistan's educational system, including access and equity in enrollment and quality of education. Section 3 analyzes overall public spending on education and a breakdown by financing source, subsector, and expenditure category, as well as unit costs by level of education. Section 4 examines general education financing, which is the largest spending unit within the education sector, in more depth. Section 5 covers demographic trends and enrollment projections and their implications on education spending. Section 6 provides the main conclusions: 1) the level of public spending on education in Tajikistan is comparable to similarly developed countries; 2) the pre-school enrollment rate is extremely low; 3) while primary education is near universal with gender parity...

Secondary Education in India : Universalizing Opportunity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
The dramatic growth in Indian elementary education enrollment and improvements in retention and transition rates over the past ten years, particularly among more disadvantaged groups, are increasing pressure on the secondary level to absorb new entrants. Given ongoing center and state investments in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (education for all), this trend will continue for the next 10 years. At the same time, India's impressive, sustained economic growth has increased household and labor market demand for secondary and higher education. Secondary education's contribution to economic growth, demonstrated high social benefits (particularly for girls), and support of democratic citizenship reinforce the need for increased public support at this level, particularly in light of the very large inequalities in access to secondary education, by income, gender, social group and geography. The challenge is to dramatically improve access, equity and quality of secondary education simultaneously. Small-scale learning achievement studies and parental preference for private schools suggest that the quality of public secondary education is alarmingly low. Efforts to improve the quality of secondary education are thus urgent...

Costs and Financing of Higher Education in Francophone Africa; Couts et financement de l'enseignement superieur en Afrique Francophone

Brossard, Mathieu; Foko, Borel
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.85%
This study is a follow-up to the Higher Education for Francophone Africa's Development Conference, held from June 13 to 15, 2006 in Ouagadougou at the initiative of the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Burkina Faso, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie. It continues and expands upon discussions that took place during that event. This study includes two sections. The first analyzes the expenditure for the higher education in the countries of French-speaking Africa by adopting a dual comparison approach: (i) chronologically, for the last 15 years, and (ii) inter alia, in particular juxtaposing French-speaking Africa compared to other developing regions. The second part presents financial simulation models in regard to national higher education development plans for the countries of French-speaking Africa.

Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Regional 2008 : Higher Education and Development; Politicas de proteccion socialeficaces : diseno e implementacion para la proteccion y la promocion

Lin, Justin Yifu; Pleskovic, Boris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.81%
The Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) is one of the best-known conferences for the presentation and discussion of new knowledge on development. It is an opportunity for many of the world's finest development thinkers to present their ideas. The papers in this volume were presented at the ABCDE that was held on January 16-17, 2007, in Beijing, China. Each year the topics selected for the conference represent either new areas of concern for future research or areas that the author believes will benefit from a reexamination. The topic of the 2007 conference was 'higher education and development,' which encompassed five themes: higher education and migration, private-public provision of higher education, financing of higher education, technological innovation (linkages between universities and industry), and higher education and labor markets in Asia.

Matching Aspirations : Skills for Implementing Cambodia's Growth Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Phnom Penh Publicador: World Bank, Phnom Penh
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
Over the past decade, Cambodia improved the skills of its workforce at a slower rate than other countries in East Asia. And, although Cambodia's firms do not perceive skills as their main business constraint, skills shortages may negatively affect the process of both industrial and agricultural upgrading and economic diversification. Employers point to a structural imbalance in skills supply, including a relative shortage of vocational training graduates compared to university graduates. This report provides valuable insight for Cambodia to develop the skills necessary to match the country's development aspiration. At the same time, it outlines specific actions to create opportunities for access to information in the skills market, to expand household-oriented interventions, to improve school retention, and to strengthen second-chance options - including technical and vocational education and training. This report further proposes how to expand financing for early childhood development effectively, to strengthen institutions, and to promote incentives toward better results among skills providers, including higher education institutions. The analysis in this report represents an important collaborative contribution to Cambodia's growth strategy and human development agenda.

Putting Higher Education to Work : Skills and Research for Growth in East Asia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
A fundamental question facing East Asia, especially its low- and middle income economies, is how to sustain or even accelerate the growth of recent decades. From 1950 to 2005, for example, the region's real income per head rose sevenfold. With aging populations, these economies will need to derive an increasing share of growth from productivity improvements rather than from physical factor accumulation to drive growth. The book argues that higher education is failing to deliver skills for growth and research for innovation because of widespread disconnects between higher education institutions and other skill and research users and providers. These disconnects undermine the very functioning of the higher education system. The main assumption of the report is that to deliver labor market skills to higher education graduates, these institutions: (a) must have characteristics that are aligned with what employers and employees need; and (b) must be well connected among themselves and other skills providers. Similarly...

Critical Case Insights from Mali : Strengths and Opportunities for Education Reform in the Midst of Crisis

Reyes, Joel; Kelcey, Jo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.8%
The education resilience assessment for Mali was conducted within a wider programmatic study and technical assistance framework, Mali: impact of the crisis on social sectors. The broad assessment and action plan supported by this framework crosses the education, health, and social protection sectors. This assessment introduces a resilience lens to identify both the risks brought about or accentuated during the recent political and security crisis in the country, and the community and institutional assets that have helped displaced and host communities cope with it. This focus on risks and assets is fundamental to a resilience approach, and are indeed interrelated. In education resilience, the author's stress how the education system protects and fosters the assets of local school actors, but resilience also suffuses the institutional level, contributing to the policies, programs, and resources that address the protection and educational development needs of students. In this Mali education resilience study...

Reorganization of the public and private systems of higher education in Brazil; Reorganização dos sistemas público e privado da educação superior no Brasil

Dourado, Luiz Fernandes; Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG
Fonte: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines Publicador: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/10/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.81%
This article aims at analyzing the process of reorganization of higher education in Brazil during the decade of the 1990’s by means of modifications in the juridical field and its follow-ups in the policies and management for this level of education in the public and private systems. These are configurated in an effective reform process of this level of education even if it was done without the effective participation of the different segments of the academic community and under the cover of the State reform and the centrality conferred to the private sector in this process. In conjunction with the analyses made of the impact on the reorganization of the private and public higher education systems and by means of policies of expansion, privatization and altering of the identity of higher education institutions, this study tries to uncurtain the reflections and indicate the basic principles to be used in favor of the construction of a restructuring process for higher education which saveguards public, democratic and social quality higher education understood as an unquestionable social right.   ; O presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de reorganização da educação superior no Brasil na década de 1990 por meio das alterações efetivadas no campo jurídico e de seus desdobramentos nas políticas e gestão para esse nível de ensino nos sistemas públicos e privados...