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Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e tempo de sobrevida ajustado para a qualidade de vida em pacientes com câncer internados em unidades de terapia intensiva; Quality of life related to health and quality-adjusted life years in patients with cancer admitted to intensive care units

Silva, Karina Normilio da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/04/2015 PT
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Introdução: Há poucos estudos avaliando qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS) e anos de vida ajustados para qualidade de vida (QALY) em pacientes com câncer que necessitam internação em unidades de terapia intensiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar sobrevida, QVRS e QALY durante o seguimento a longo prazo de pacientes com câncer internados em UTI. Métodos: Realizamos uma coorte prospectiva de pacientes com câncer admitidos em duas UTIs do estado de São Paulo. Coletamos dados na admissão da UTI, incluindo QVRS antes da doença aguda que motivou internação em UTI e no seguimento em 15 dias, 3 meses, 6 meses, 12 meses e 18 meses para avaliar a QVRS e status vital. Adicionalmente, o status vital foi avaliado em 24 meses. QVRS foi determinada com o questionário EQ-5D-3L. A sobrevida foi calculada com o estimador de Kaplan-Meier e o QALY com uma adaptação do estimador Zhao e Tsiatis. Resultados: Foram incluídos 792 pacientes. A média de idade foi 61,6±14,3 anos, 42,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino e metade foi admitida após cirurgia eletiva. A média do escore SAPS3 foi 47,4±15.6. A probabilidade de sobreviver 12 e 18 meses foi 42.4% e 38.1%, respectivamente. A média do índice de utilidade da QVRS antes da internação na UTI foi 0...

Health-Related Quality of Life, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, and Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy in New York City from 1995 to 2006

Lubetkin, Erica I.; Jia, Haomiao
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We applied our previously developed estimation equation to predict EQ-5D index scores from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Healthy Days measures for the New York City (NYC) adult population from 1995 to 2006 and compared these trends over time with the US general population. Such scores enabled us to examine the burden of disease attributable to smoking and overweight/obesity at both the local and national levels. We employed the estimation equation to the 1993–2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to obtain EQ-5D index scores for all survey respondents based on their age, self-rated health status, and overall number of unhealthy days. With the combination of mortality data, we calculated trends of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), life expectancy (LE), and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) as well as the percent of QALYs and QALE lost contributed by smoking and overweight/obesity. Mean EQ-5D index scores for NYC adults decreased from 0.874 to 0.852 but, more recently, have increased to 0.869. The LE of an 18-year-old living in NYC increased 4.7 years and QALE increased 2.6 years. The contribution of smoking to the proportion of QALYs lost decreased from 6.7% to 3.5%, while the contribution of overweight/obesity to the proportion of QALYs lost increased from 4.5% to 16.9%. The proportion of QALEs lost due to smoking decreased from 5.5% to 4.5%...

Climate change and disability-adjusted life years

Zhang, Y.; Bi, P.; Hiller, J.
Fonte: Natl Environ Health Assn Publicador: Natl Environ Health Assn
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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The authors conducted a systematic review of the studies of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost because of climate change. The review considered both methodological issues and research results. It found that little is known about DALYs lost because of climate change, except for results based on limited information presented in the World Health Organization (WHO) global-burden-of-disease study in 2002. The measurement of DALYs attributable to climate change presents additional difficulties over measurement of DALYs attributable to other causes. Further studies linking DALYs and climate change should be conducted in various populations and in different ecological regions, including developing countries.; http://www.neha.org/JEH/2007_abstracts.htm#Climate%20Change%20and%20Disability-Adjusted%20Life%20Years

Modelling the long term cost effectiveness of clopidogrel for the secondary prevention of occlusive vascular events in the UK

Karnon, J.; Brennan, A.; Pandor, A.; Fowkes, G.; Lee, A.; Gray, D.; Coshall, C.; Nicholls, C.; Akehurst, R.
Fonte: Librapharm Publicador: Librapharm
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Objective: To assess the long term cost effectiveness of clopidogrel monotherapy compared with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) monotherapy in patients at risk of secondary occlusive vascular events (OVEs) in the UK. Design: Cost utility analysis based on clinical data from CAPRIE (a multicentre randomised controlled trial, involving 19185 patients); long-term effects were extrapolated beyond the trial period using a Markov model populated with data from UK observational studies. Health economic evaluation carried out from the perspective of the UK National Health Service. Participants: A representative cohort of 1000 UK patients aged 60 years (approximate mean age of the CAPRIE population), with the qualifying diagnoses of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease, who are at risk of secondary OVEs (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or vascular death). Interventions: Patients were assumed to receive treatment with either clopidogrel (75 mg/day) for 2 years followed by ASA (325 mg/day, average) for their remaining lifetime, or ASA alone (325 mg/day, average) for life. Main outcome measures: Incremental cost per life year gained and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results: In the base case...

The cost-effectiveness of increasing kidney transplantation and home-based dialysis

Howard, K.; Salkeld, G.; White, S.; McDonald, S.; Chadban, S.; Craig, J.; Cass, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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BACKGROUND: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) consumes sizable proportions of health budgets internationally, but there is considerable variability in choice of RRT modality among and within countries with major implications for health outcomes and costs. We aimed to quantify these implications for increasing kidney transplantation and improving the rate of home-based dialysis. METHODS: A multiple cohort Markov model was used to assess costs and health outcomes of RRT for new end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients in Australia for 2005-2010, using a health-care funder perspective. Patient characteristics and current practice patterns were based on the ANZDATA Registry. Two proposed changes were modelled: (i) increasing kidney transplants by between 10% and 50% by 2010; and (ii) increasing home haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) to the highest rates observed among Australian centres. We assessed costs (Australian dollars), survival and quality-adjusted survival, and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The number of new ESKD patients in 2010 was estimated to be 2700, with annual RRT costs of about $A700 million; cumulative costs (2005-2010) were $A5 billion. Increasing transplants by 10-50% saves between $A5.8 and $A26.2 million...

The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

Piantadosi, C.; Visvanathan, R.; Naganathan, V.; Hunter, P.; Cameron, I.; Lange, K.; Karnon, J.; Chapman, I.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Background: Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178). Methods/Design: One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score <24 and either: a) low body weight (body mass index, in kg/m2: <22) or b) recent weight loss (>7.5% over 3 months)]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion: The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe...

A risk adjusted cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative models of nurse involvement in obesity management in primary care

Karnon, J.; Hajiali Afzali, H.; Gray, J.; Holton, C.; Banham, D.; Beilby, J.
Fonte: North Amer Assoc Study Obesity Publicador: North Amer Assoc Study Obesity
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Controlled evaluations are subject to uncertainty regarding their replication in the real world, particularly around systems of service provision. Using routinely collected data, we undertook a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of alternative applied models of primary health care for the management of obese adult patients. Models were based on the reported level of involvement of practice nurses (registered or enrolled nurses working in general practice) in the provision of clinical-based activities. DESIGN AND METHODS: Linked, routinely collected clinical data describing clinical outcomes (weight, BMI, and obesity-related complications) and resource use (primary care, pharmaceutical, and hospital resource use) were collected. Potential confounders were controlled for using propensity weighted regression analyses. RESULTS: Relative to low level involvement of practice nurses in the provision of clinical-based activities to obese patients, high level involvement was associated with lower costs and better outcomes (more patients losing weight, and larger mean reductions in BMI). Excluding hospital costs, high level practice nurse involvement was associated with slightly higher costs. Incrementally, the high level model gets one additional obese patient to lose weight at an additional cost of $6...

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Murray, C.J.L.; Vos, T.; Lozano, R.; Naghavi, M.; Flaxman, A.D.; Michaud, C.; Ezzati, M.; Shibuya, K.; Salomon, J.A.; Abdalla, S.; Aboyans, V.; Abraham, J.; Ackerman, I.; Aggarwal, R.; Ahn, S.Y.; Ali, M.K.; Alvarado, M.; Anderson, H.R.; Anderson, L.M.; An
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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BACKGROUND: Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time. METHODS: We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality...

A model-based economic evaluation of improved primary care management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australia

Hajiali Afzali, H.; Gray, J.; Beilby, J.; Holton, C.; Karnon, J.
Fonte: Adis International Ltd. Publicador: Adis International Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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BACKGROUND: There are few studies investigating the economic value of the Australian practice nurse workforce on the management of chronic conditions. This is particularly important in Australia, where the government needs evidence to inform decisions on whether to maintain or redirect current financial incentives that encourage practices to recruit practice nurses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with two models of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities (high and low level) in the management of type 2 diabetes within the primary care setting. METHODS: A previously validated state transition model (the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model) was adapted, which uses baseline prognostic factors (e.g. gender, haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]) to predict the risk of occurrence of diabetes-related complications (e.g. stroke). The model was populated by data from Australian and UK observational studies. Costs and utility values associated with complications were summed over patients' lifetimes to estimate costs and QALY gains from the perspective of the health care system. All costs were expressed in 2011 Australian dollars (AU$). The base-case analysis assumed a 40-year time horizon with an annual discount rate of 5 %. RESULTS: Relative to low-level involvement of practice nurses in the provision of clinical-based activities...

Mapping oral health related quality of life to generic health state values

Brennan, D.; Spencer, A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Background: A summary utility index is useful for deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for cost analyses or disability weights for burden of disease studies. However, many quality of life instruments provide descriptive profiles rather than a single utility index. Transforming quality of life instruments to a utility index could extend the use of quality of life instruments to costs analyses and burden of disease studies. The aims of the study were to map a specific oral health measure, the Oral Health Impact Profile to a generic health state measure, the EuroQol, in order to enable the estimation of health state values based on OHIP data. Methods: Data were collected from patients treated by a random sample of South Australian dentists in 2001–02 using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental conditions and provided patients with self-complete questionnaires to record the nature, severity and duration of symptoms using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) and 14-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) instruments. Data were available from 375 patients (response rate = 72%). A random two-thirds sample of patients was used in tobit regressions of EQ-5D health state values estimated using OHIP-14 in a model with categories of OHIP responses as indicator variables and in a model with OHIP responses as continuous variables. Age and sex were included as covariates in both models. The remaining one-third sample of patients was used to test the models. Results: The OHIP item 'painful aching in mouth' was significantly related to health state values in both models while 'life less satisfying' was also significant in the continuous model. Mean forecast errors relative to the mean observed health state value were higher when fitted to the categorical model (17.4%) compared to the continuous model (15.2%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings enable health state values to be derived from OHIP-14 scores for populations where utility has not or cannot be measured directly.; David S Brennan and A John Spencer

Evaluating the effects of variation in clinical practice: a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of acute stroke services

Pham, C.; Karnon, J.; Caffrey, O.; Ben-Tovim, D.; Hakendorf, P.; Crotty, M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Methods for the cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies are now well established, but such methods may also have a useful role in the context of evaluating the effects of variation in applied clinical practice. This study illustrates a general methodology for the comparative analysis of applied clinical practice at alternative institutions -- risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis -- with an application that compares acute hospital services for stroke patients admitted to the main public hospitals in South Australia. Methods: Using linked, routinely collected data on all South Australian hospital separations from July 2001 to June 2008, an analysis of the RAC-E of services provided at four metropolitan hospitals was undertaken using a decision analytic framework. Observed (plus extrapolated) and expected lifetime costs and survival were compared across patient populations, from which the relative cost-effectiveness of services provided at the different hospitals was estimated. Results: Unadjusted results showed that at one hospital patients incurred fewer costs and gained more life years than at the other hospitals (i.e. it was the dominant hospital). After risk adjustment, the cost minimizing hospital incurred the lowest costs...

Lifetime cost-utility analyses of deferasirox in beta-thalassaemia patients with chronic iron overload: A UK perspective

Karnon, J.; Tolley, K.; Vieira, J.; Chandiwana, D.
Fonte: Adis International Ltd Publicador: Adis International Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Regular blood transfusions for beta-thalassaemia patients lead to the accumulation of iron deposits in the body. In order to remove such deposits, iron chelation therapy is required. Subcutaneously administered deferoxamine has been the gold standard chelation therapy for over 40 years. Deferasirox is a newer chelation therapy that is taken orally once daily. The objective of this study was to estimate the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with deferoxamine and deferasirox in a cohort of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemia patients from a UK health service perspective. METHODS: A 50-year annual cycle state transition model comprised three core health states: alive without cardiac complications, alive with cardiac complications, and dead, as well as representing other chronic complications of iron overload: diabetes, hypogonadism, hypoparathyroidism and hypothyroidism. The model was calibrated to identify sets of convergent input parameter values that predicted observed overall survival by mean lifetime compliance with chelation therapy. A pivotal non-inferiority trial informed the main estimates of the effectiveness of deferasirox, which were applied to the calibrated model. Using cost values for the year 2011...

A preliminary model-based assessment of the cost-utility of a screening programme for early age-related macular degeneration

Karnon, J.; Czoski-Murray, C.; Smith, K.; Brand, C.; Chakravarthy, U.; Davis, S.; Bansback, N.; Beverley, C.; Bird, A.; Harding, S.; Chisholm, I.; Yang, Y.
Fonte: National Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment Publicador: National Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by developing a decision analytic model that incorporated and assessed all of the National Screening Committee criteria. A further objective was to identify the major areas of uncertainty in the model, and so inform future research priorities in this disease area. DATA SOURCES: Major databases were searched in March 2004 and updated in January 2005. REVIEW METHODS: Systematic literature reviews covered the epidemiology and natural history of AMD, the screening and treatment effectiveness and health-related quality of life relating to AMD. A hybrid cohort-individual sampling model was implemented to describe the range of pathways between the incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and death via clinical presentation and treatment at different stages of the disease. As significant shortfalls in the data available from the literature were apparent, so a range of primary data sources were also used to populate the model. To obtain estimates for the value of parameters deemed to be within an expert's remit, data describing some parameters were elicited from relevant experts. The data identified informed probability distributions describing the uncertainty around the model parameters. To incorporate joint parameter uncertainty (i.e. correlations between parameters)...

Association between Lifestyle Factors and Quality-Adjusted Life Years in the EPIC-NL Cohort

Fransen, Heidi P.; May, Anne M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Struijk, Ellen A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2014 EN
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85.97%
The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20–70 years at baseline (1993–7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]).

Cost-Effectiveness of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation in Portugal; Custo-Efectividade dos Novos Anticoagulantes Orais na Fibrilhação Auricular em Portugal

Costa, J; Fiorentino, F; Caldeira, D; Inês, M; Lopes Pereira, C; Pinheiro, L; Vaz-Carneiro, A; Borges, M; Gouveia, M
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:Recently, three novel non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants received approval for reimbursement in Portugal for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). It is therefore important to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of these new oral anticoagulants in Portuguese AF patients. METHODS: A Markov model was used to analyze disease progression over a lifetime horizon. Relative efficacy data for stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), bleeding (intracranial, other major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding), myocardial infarction and treatment discontinuation were obtained by pairwise indirect comparisons between apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban using warfarin as a common comparator. Data on resource use were obtained from the database of diagnosis-related groups and an expert panel. Model outputs included life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), direct healthcare costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS:Apixaban provided the most life years gained and QALYs. The ICERs of apixaban compared to warfarin and dabigatran were €5529/QALY and €9163/QALY, respectively. Apixaban was dominant over rivaroxaban (greater health gains and lower costs). The results were robust over a wide range of inputs in sensitivity analyses. Apixaban had a 70% probability of being cost-effective (at a threshold of €20 000/QALY) compared to all the other therapeutic options. CONCLUSIONS:Apixaban is a cost-effective alternative to warfarin and dabigatran and is dominant over rivaroxaban in AF patients from the perspective of the Portuguese national healthcare system. These conclusions are based on indirect comparisons...

Avaliação econômica do tratamento da esquizofrenia com antipsicóticos no Sistema Único de Saúde; Evaluación económica del tratamiento de la esquizofrenia con antipsicóticos en Sistema Único de Salud; Economic evaluation of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia treatment within the Brazilian Healthcare System

Lindner, Leandro Mendonça; Marasciulo, Antonio Carlos; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Grohs, Geder Evandro Motta
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2009 POR; ENG
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OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações de custo-utilidade entre medicamentos antipsicóticos de primeira e segunda gerações no tratamento da esquizofrenia. MÉTODOS: Foi construído um modelo de Markov de cinco anos, a partir de um levantamento em prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um centro de atenção psicossocial em Florianópolis (SC), 2006. Os custos foram avaliados sob a perspectiva o Sistema Único de Saúde. As utilidades foram medidas em anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade obtidas na literatura. RESULTADOS: No modelo de Markov, a alternativa mais custo-efetiva foi a utilização de risperidona e haloperidol antes de olanzapina. CONCLUSÕES: Os antipsicóticos haloperidol e risperidona apresentaram melhor relação de custo-efetividade quando comparados à olanzapina. Estratégias que priorizem a utilização de antipsicóticos com melhor relação de custo-efetividade podem otimizar recursos, sem necessariamente implicar prejuízos à saúde dos pacientes atendidos no Sistema Único de Saúde.; OBJETIVO: Evaluar las relaciones de costo-utilidad entre medicamentos antipsicóticos de primera y segunda generaciones en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia. MÉTODOS: Fue construido un modelo de Harkov de cinco años, a partir de un levantamiento en prontuarios de pacientes atendidos en un centro de atención psicosocial en Florianópolis (Sur de Brasil)...

Economic evaluation of the use of exogenous pulmonary surfactants in preterm newborns in a Mexican population

Salinas-Escudero,Guillermo; Reyes-López,Alfonso; Garduño-Espinosa,Juan; Villasís-Keever,Miguel Angel; Martínez-Valverde,Silvia; Muñoz-Hernández,Onofre
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS) therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were MXN$136670 per LYG and MXN$125250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP) per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.

Cost-effectiveness of childhood hepatitis A vaccination in Argentina: a second dose is warranted

Ellis,Alejandro; Rüttimann,Ricardo W.; Jacobs,R. Jake; Meyerhoff,Allen S.; Innis,Bruce L.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of childhood vaccination against hepatitis A in the five geographic regions of Argentina, and to determine whether adding a second dose to the current one-dose schedule would provide health gains justifying its added cost. METHODS: A Markov model was used to consider four immunization options for the 2005 birth cohort: (1) no vaccination; (2) vaccination at 12 months of age, (3) vaccinations at 12 and 72 months of age; or (4) vaccinations at 12 and 18 months of age. Hepatitis A costs and consequences were predicted over 50 years. The cost-effectiveness of first and second vaccine doses was assessed through a range of vaccine prices and assumptions regarding the duration of vaccine protection. Costs and health gains (measured in quality-adjusted life years) were adjusted to present values using a 3% annual discount rate. RESULTS: The one-dose vaccination policy is predicted to reduce each birth cohort member's 50-year probability of overt hepatitis A from 7.2% to 4.1%. A second dose would reduce the probability to between 2.0% and 2.2%. Vaccination at 12 months of age, at 12 and 72 months, or at 12 and 18 months would reduce cases among personal contacts by 82%, 87%, and 92%, respectively. The first vaccine dose would meet accepted standards of cost-effectiveness in each region...

Economic evaluation of the use of exogenous pulmonary surfactants in preterm newborns in a Mexican population

Salinas-Escudero,Guillermo; Reyes-López,Alfonso; Garduño-Espinosa,Juan; Villasís-Keever,Miguel Angel; Martínez-Valverde,Silvia; Muñoz-Hernández,Onofre
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS) therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were MXN$136670 per LYG and MXN$125250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP) per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.

Preferences of urban Zimbabweans for health and life lived at different ages

Shumba,Darlies; Kristian,Hansen; De Weerdt,Willy; De Cock,Paul
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the age-weighting preferences of urban Zimbabweans in relation to health care priorities. METHOD: A total of 67 randomly selected residents of a high-density area of Harare participated in the study. Participants were asked "person trade-off" questions to determine their preferences in terms of the numbers of people of various ages who would be saved from death and from suffering a year of ill-health relative to the number of 30-year-olds who would be saved from these eventualities. FINDINGS: The responses indicate that the value of averting a year of ill-health was judged greatest for 15-year-olds and was equal for people aged 1, 30, and 45 years. The value of averting a death primarily reflected the expected years of life lost, but the influence of age-weighting was evident in that 15 years was the most highly valued age. CONCLUSION: Although the age-weighting curves did not correspond exactly with the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) age-weights, Zimbabweans showed a preference for saving the lives of young adults. The GBD age-weights should be used to determine the disability-adjusted life years lost in the Zimbabwean population.