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Ambivalência das políticas de segurança pública : os governos de Antônio Britto e de Olívio Dutra e os novos atores

Fernandes, Fábio Duarte
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar as ambivalências na implementação das políticas de Segurança Pública no Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 1995 a 2002, que abrange os governos de Antônio Britto e Olívio Dutra, bem como duas dimensões que perpassaram ambos os governos: as modificações nas funções da Brigada Militar, que passou a realizar Termos Circunstanciados de fatos delitivos ou conflitivos e o novo papel dos Municípios na Segurança Pública. A análise dos momentos de transformação pelos quais passou o país na área da Segurança Pública possibilitou reconstruir o campo de conflitos da segurança pública, analisando os vários agentes institucionais, as propostas de ação e as ambivalências nas práticas desenvolvidas nesse período. No período da Ditadura Militar tivemos a publicação das legislações penais, passando pelas Constituições de 1967 e 1969. Na Constituição Federal de 1988, o artigo nº 144 prevê a composição e competência das polícias no Brasil. A Segurança Pública passou a ter um novo enfoque, voltado para a manutenção da ordem pública interna, mas ainda permanece a ideia de uma segurança pública voltada para os interesses da segurança nacional e do Estado. No Brasil...

A multicriteria prioritization model to support public safety planning

Gurgel,André Morais; Mota,Caroline Maria de Miranda
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Setting out to solve operational problems is a frequent part of decision making on public safety. However, the pillars of tactics and strategy are normally disregarded. Thus, this paper focuses on a strategic issue, namely that of a city prioritizing areasin which there is a degree of occurrences for criminality to increase. A multiple criteria approach is taken. The reason for this is that such a situation is normally analyzed from the perspective of the degree of police occurrences. The proposed model is based on a SMARTS multicriteria method and was applied in a Brazilian City. It combines a multicriteria method and a Monte Carlo Simulation to support an analysis of robustness. As a result, we highlight some differences between the model developed and police occurrences model. It might support differentiated policies for zones, by indicating where there should be strong actions, infrastructure investments, monitoring procedures and others public safety policies.

Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles Andrew; Landrigan, Christopher Paul; Leape, Lucian L.
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals...

Melhoria da segurança pública: uma proposta para alocação de unidades policiais utilizando o modelo das p-medianas e do caixeiro viajante; Melhoria da segurança pública: uma proposta para alocação de unidades policiais utilizando o modelo das p-medianas e do caixeiro viajante; Public safety improvement: a proposal for police units allocation using p-median and travelling salesman model; Public safety improvement: a proposal for police units allocation using p-median and travelling salesman model

Gurgel, André Morais
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
The decrease in crime is one of the core issues that cause concern in society today. This study aims to propose improvements to public safety from the choice of points to the location of police units, ie the points which support the car and the police. For this, three models were developed in order to assist decision making regarding the best placement of these bases. The Model of Police Units Routing has the intention to analyze the current configuration of a given region and develop optimal routes for round preventative. The Model of Allocation and Routing for New Police Units (MARNUP) used the model of facility location called p-median weighted and traveling salesman problem (TSP) combined aiming an ideal setting for regions that do not yet have support points or to assess how far the distribution is present in relation to that found in solution. The Model Redefinition and Routing Unit Police (MRRUP) seek to change the current positioning taking into account the budgetary constraints of the decision maker. To verify the applicability of these models we used data from 602 points to instances of police command that is responsible for the capital city of Natal. The city currently has 31 police units for 36 of these 19 districts and police have some assistance. This reality can lead to higher costs and higher response times for answering emergency calls. The results of the models showed that in an ideal situation it is possible to define a distance of 500 km/round...

Strengthening Public Safety Nets from the Bottom Up

Weigand, Christine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Public safety nets in developing countries address the vulnerability of the poor and the near-poor to income disruption, but such formal programs do not operate in a vacuum. Private and informal mechanisms may already exist. The design of public interventions requires a clear understanding of what mechanisms are already available and how (and to what extent) individuals and households use them to cope with income fluctuations. This note surveys some of those design considerations.

Switzerland - Using Public Transfers to Reduce Extreme Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The report focuses on the social safety net, particularly cash and in-kind transfers. The safety net can play an important role in addressing poverty and vulnerability; however, the process by which the safety nets have been developed in Swaziland has produced a fragmented system that leaves many Swazis unprotected by the safety net. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness are both necessary and possible. Poverty and extreme poverty in Swaziland are both overwhelmingly rural phenomena. The incidence of poverty is 73 percent in rural areas but only 31 percent in urban areas. Eighty-eight percent of the poor and 95 percent of the extreme poor live in rural areas, and the average consumption of the urban poor is 33 percent below the poverty line while it is 51 percent below the poverty line among the rural poor. Also, poverty is deeper in rural areas than it is in urban areas. The objective of this study is to identify viable ways to make the safety net more relevant and efficient through an in-depth analysis of poverty and vulnerability and of the efficacy of current safety net programs. The report focuses on publicly financed social transfers in Swaziland...

How Can Safety Nets Contribute to Economic Growth?

Alderman, Harold; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The paper provides an up-to date and selective review of the literature on how social safety nets contribute to growth. The evidence is carefully chosen to show how safety nets have the potential to overcome constraints on growth linked to market failures, and is organized into 4 distinct pathways: i) encouraging asset accumulation by changing incentives and by addressing imperfections in financial markets caused by constraints in obtaining credit, and from information asymmetries; overcoming such failures helps households to invest into their human capital or productive assets; ii) failures in insurance markets especially in low income setting; safety nets are assisting in managing risk both ex post and ex ante; iii) safety nets are overcoming failure to create assets and other local economy complementary factors to household-level investments; iv) safety nets are shown to relax political constraints on policy. Safety nets have a dual objective of directly alleviating poverty through transfers to the poor and of triggering higher growth for the poor. However...

Income Risk, Coping Strategies, and Safety Nets

Dercon, Stefan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Poor rural and urban households in developing countries face substantial risks, which they handle with risk-management and risk-coping strategies, including self-insurance through savings and informal insurance mechanisms. Despite these mechanisms, however, vulnerability to poverty linked to risk remains high. This article reviews the literature on poor households use of risk-management and risk-coping strategies. It identifies the constraints on their effectiveness and discusses policy options. It shows that risk and lumpiness limit the opportunities to use assets as insurance, that entry constraints limit the usefulness of income diversification, and that informal risk-sharing provides only limited protection, leaving some of the poor exposed to very severe negative shocks. Public safety nets are likely to be beneficial, but their impact is sometimes limited, and they may have negative externalities on households that are not covered. Collecting more information on households vulnerability to poverty through both quantitative and qualitative methods can help inform policy.

Swaziland : Using Public Transfers to Reduce Extreme Poverty

Blank, Lorraine; Mistiaen, Emma; Braithwaite, Jeanine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Swaziland has a number of social transfer programs, but these are not well coordinated and there is a need to better define the overall priorities of the overall safety net. Swaziland spends a significant amount on safety nets but there is room to increase the efficiency of spending by: (i) improving coordination between programs; (ii) making adjustments to program design and implementation; and (iii) removing some inefficient programs. Social transfers could play a larger role in reducing poverty but there are gaps in how well the safety net supports extremely poor households with children and/or unemployed household members. The assessment recommends that Swaziland should consider adopting a national child grant program and a public works program to fill these gaps.

Mali Social Safety Nets

Cherrier, Cecile; Ninno, Carlo del; Razmara, Setareh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This report shows that Mali s safety nets are insufficient to address the needs of the population and suggests ways to improve them. There is a need to devise a set of cost effective programs to expand the scope and coverage of the national safety net. Given that any reform plan must be financially feasible, the government must allocate its scarce resources to programs that are well targeted and efficient. Creating the fiscal room for safety nets will also depend on political will. The government needs to: (i) strengthen the strategic, institutional, and financial frameworks for designing, implementing, and monitoring and evaluating safety nets; and (ii) increase the effectiveness of the safety net system by strengthening existing programs and designing new ones.

Tanzania Poverty, Growth, and Public Transfers : Options for a National Productive Safety Net Program

Smith, W. James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This report reviews the role that safety nets have played in Tanzania and explores options on how they can contribute in accelerating poverty reduction in Tanzania, focusing on mechanisms for giving transfers to the poor. The report shows that given the large numbers of poor in Tanzania and the country s limited resources, it is essential that safety net interventions be well-targeted and efficiently organized. Significant amounts of money are already being spent on transfer programs in Tanzania, but their impact has been limited. The report recommends that for Tanzania, a single intervention will not be enough to effectively tackle extreme poverty but a combination of different type of cash transfer options is more likely to make a difference in the strategy to reduce extreme poverty and food insecurity.

Extended Coverage for Public Safety and Critical Communications Using Multi-hop and D2D Communications

Babun, Leonardo
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
In this thesis, we proposed the use of device-to-device (D2D) communications for extending the coverage area of active base stations, for public safety communications with partial coverage. A 3GPP standard compliant D2D system level simulator is developed for HetNets and public safety scenarios and used to evaluate the performance of D2D discovery and communications underlying cellular networks. For D2D discovery, the benefits of time-domain inter-cell interference coordi- nation (ICIC) approaches by using almost blank subframes were evaluated. Also, the use of multi-hop is proposed to improve, even further, the performance of the D2D discovery process. Finally, the possibility of using multi-hop D2D communications for extending the coverage area of active base stations was evaluated. Improvements in energy and spectral efficiency, when compared with the case of direct UE-eNB communi- cations, were demonstrated. Moreover, UE power control techniques were applied to reduce the effects of interference from neighboring D2D links.

Tanzania Poverty, Growth, and Public Transfers : Options for a National Productive Safety Net Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Tanzania has made significant economic progress in the recent past, with per capita national income almost doubling from United States (U.S.) 230 dollars equivalent in the late-1990s to U.S. 440 dollars. This report explores the role safety nets and transfers can play in reducing poverty more rapidly in Tanzania. It presents the potential need and costs, to inform a debate of options. The report reviews existing programs, and provides recommendations for an action plan to strengthen the current system and develop a more unified national program, one which will have a greater impact on poverty levels at reasonable cost, in line with the Government's poverty reduction strategy, known by the Swahili acronym MKUKUTA. The report looks at transfers to the poor, including public works employment, subsidies, food distribution programs, cash and in-kind transfers, and vouchers. This paper is organized in following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; attempts to lay out what the options might be, within an analytical assessment of the nature of poverty and shocks faced by the poor in Tanzania is given in chapter two; chapter three examines the effectiveness of existing transfer programs; at a strategic level it then evaluates the capacity of the state to spend on transfers...

The State of Social Safety Nets 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
This publication begins a series that will monitor and report on social safety nets in developing countries. This first report in the series provides key social safety nets statistics and explains trends using information from 146 countries, including detailed household survey data from 69 countries in the World Bank's Atlas of Social Protection: Indicators of Resilience and Equity (ASPIRE) database. This report reviews important policy and practical developments in social safety net programs and highlights emerging innovations. While the primary focus is on developing and emerging countries, it also includes some references to high-income settings.

Gender and Public Transport : Kathmandu, Nepal

World Bank
Fonte: Nepal Publicador: Nepal
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This study was commissioned by The World Bank as part of the research to feed into the development of the Government of Nepal's national transport management strategy. The overall strategy vision is 'to develop safe, efficient and environmentally friendly transport'. Under the second pillar of the draft strategy which refers to 'management of road transport', there is specific reference to the particular needs of women in transport. The study took place between October and December, 2013 and comprised a review of secondary data and the collection of primary data via a questionnaire survey of public transport users in the Kathmandu valley, qualitative conversations and focus group discussions with users and non-users of public transport as well as key informant interviews with transport operators, police and relevant Government department staff and supplemented by participant observation. The questionnaire survey was carried out with 470 people (60 percent women) and qualitative conversations involved a further 165 (58 percent women). The questionnaire was administered 'in situ' as people were commuting on public transport at different times of the day and on different transport routes in and around the city.

The Static and Dynamic Incidence of Vietnam's Public Safety Net

Van de Walle, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
How does Vietnam's public safety net affect outcomes for the poor? Although social welfare programs in Vietnam are centrally mandated, they are locally implemented according to local norms and local poverty standards and often rely heavily on local financing. The author examines the coverage, incidence, and horizontal equity of the programs that can be identified in the data from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey. She looks at the role of location in determining whether the poor are assisted nationally. And she explores dynamic incidence between 1993 and 1998 and the degree to which programs performed a safety net function. The author's analysis shows that coverage and payments to households are low and have had a negligible impact on poverty. In principle, better targeting could improve the impact of current outlays. The analysis also shows that the system was ineffective in protecting households that were vulnerable to shocks. Finally, the results suggest that although there is a greater concentration of poverty-related programs and greater household participation in poorer communes...

Public safety application for approaching emergency vehicle alert and accident reporting in VANETs using WAVE

Phule, Harshad
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Today's transport system has evolved from horse driven carriages and paved roads to a more complex road transport system made up of a variety of vehicles and other infrastructure, all put in place in order to support safe and efficient mobility of vehicles. The next step to further improve the transportation system of today is to make the vehicles and roadside infrastructure more intelligent by making them communicate with each other. This new ability will help find new solutions to current problems like traffic congestion, vehicular collisions, monitoring of adherence to traffic rules and alerting the drivers of hazardous conditions. Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) are vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to road side infrastructure networks which make this possible by providing support to numerous applications aimed towards improving safety and driving experience on the road. A Public Safety VANET application adhering to the IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standard and requirements laid down by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) was designed, implemented, simulated and tested over a scalable open-sourced test bed aimed towards simulating a complete Intelligent Transportation System consisting of various applications operating together. The application supports two features: Approaching Emergency Vehicle Alert: An Approaching Public Safety Vehicle (Police/Fire/EMS) in a state of emergency will alert the vehicles in its path using the VANET...

Política de segurança pública no Brasil: avanços, limites e desafios; Public Safety Policy in Brazil: Advances, Limits and Challenges

Carvalho, Vilobaldo Adelídio de; SINPOLJUSPI - Teresina - Piauí; Silva, Maria do Rosário de Fátima e; UFPI - Teresina - Piauí
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802011000100007O presente artigo, elaborado por meio de pesquisa teórica, discute a política de segurança pública adotada no Brasil contemporâneo, especialmente nesta primeira década no século 21. Inicialmente, apresenta reflexões sobre o papel do Estado no sentido de garantir a segurança pública enquanto direito fundamental do cidadão. Posteriormente, destaca o Plano Nacional de Segurança Pública (PNSP) e o Programa Nacional de Segurança Pública com Cidadania (Pronasci) como inovações na política de segurança pública brasileira. Considera que, apesar dos limites e desafios próprios da complexidade relativa à questão, têm ocorrido avanços na democratização da política de segurança, por meio de uma maior participação da sociedade nas discussões e na implementação das ações nessa área.; This article, based on theoretical research, discusses public safety policies adopted in contemporary Brazil, particularly in the first decade of the 21st century. It initially reflects on the role of the state to guarantee public safety as a fundamental right of the citizen. It then highlights the National Public Safety Plan (PNSP) and the National Public Safety with Citizenship Program (Pronasci) as an innovation in Brazilian public safety policy. It considers that despite the limits and challenges related to the complexity of the issue...

Prevenção integrada: novas perspectivas para as políticas de segurança no Brasil; Integrated prevention: new perspectives for public safety policies in Brazil

Azevedo, Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de; PUCRS - Porto Alegre - RS
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802006000100004O presente artigo busca identificar os elementos constitutivos de uma nova perspectiva de tratamento da conflitualidade social contemporâneo. Parte-se do reconhecimento dos limites do paradigma reativo, característico da modernidade em matéria penal, pautado pela lógica formal e dogmática da normatividade estatal. Se de um lado a crise deste paradigma leva ao recrudescimento do punitivismo, com propostas de aumento de penas e da utilização das mesmas não mais para retribuir ao delito ou reinserir o indivíduo na sociedade, mas como mecanismo de pura e simples contenção, e à supressão de garantias em nome da eficiência e do combate ao crime, de outro, surgem por toda parte experiências de gestão da segurança baseadas na participação cidadã e no engajamento da sociedade civil em políticas de inclusão social e controle público da atuação da polícia e do sistema penal.; This article seeks to identify the elements that are establishing a new perspective in the handling contemporary social conflicts. It is based on the recognition of the limits of the reactive paradigm, characteristic of modernity in relation to criminal issues, which is based on the formal and dogmatic logic of government normativity. On one hand the crisis in this paradigm has led to the reappearance of a punitive approach...

Citizenship, civil society and participation in public policies: The experience of the community safety forums in the municipality of La Plata; Ciudadania, sociedad civil y participacion en políticas publicas: La experiencia de los Foros Vecinales de Seguridad en el municipio de La Plata; Cidadania, sociedade civil e participação em políticas públicas: a experiência dos Foros Vecinales de Seguridad no município de La Plata

Sarmiento, Julio; Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Buenos Aires - Argentina; Tello, Claudia; Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Buenos Aires - Argentina; Segura, Ramiro; Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Buenos Aires - Argentina
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
The article presents results of a study about citizen participation in public safety policies in the municipality of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The work focuses on the analysis of the participation practices observed in Community Safety Forums and on the meaning that the forum members attribute to these forums. The study utilized qualitative data collection and analysis techniques, such as participant observation, interviews with key informants and interviews with Forum members. One important conclusion is that the participation does not take advantage of all the public policy possibilities, and that the forums thus express a form of “limited citizenship”. An example of this is the self-identification of the forum members as ‘neighbors’, a category that can be seen as moral and depoliticized. Finally, it is hoped that the article can support empiric research and the debate about the political meaning of participation of civil society in public policies.; El artículo presenta resultados de una investigación sobre la participación ciudadana en políticas de seguridad, desarrollada en el municipio de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina1. El trabajo se centra en el análisis de las prácticas de participación observadas em los foros vecinales de seguridad y en la significación que los foristas le asignan a las mismas. Cabe aclarar que para el desarrollo de la investigación se recurrió a técnicas cualitativas de recolección y análisis de datos...