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Adolescência e desafios na contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids: uma relação em questão para a saúde pública; Adolescence and challenges for contraception and prevention of STD / AIDS: a relation at issue on Public Health

Carvalho, Ludmila Ramos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2013 PT
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No presente trabalho partimos do pressuposto de que o planejamento reprodutivo e a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST), sobretudo a Aids, ganham especificidades quando considerada a fase da adolescência, de forma a se caracterizarem como um problema complexo e de natureza multidisciplinar para o campo da saúde pública. Em termos de objetivos, propomos verificar as relações existentes entre práticas contraceptivas, práticas preventivas para DST/AIDS, sexualidade e corpo, na perspectiva de adolescentes, garotos e garotas. Do ponto de vista metodológico, trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, com proposta de análise discursiva a partir de relatos orais de adolescentes de ambos os sexos, colhidos através da técnica de depoimentos pessoais. Quanto aos resultados podemos observar, a despeito da presença de alguns resquícios de tradicionalismo em termos das relações de gênero, uma abertura nos discursos de garotos e garotas para a busca de relações mais igualitárias que envolvem as diferentes esferas da vida. Em relação às práticas sexuais e afetivo-sexuais, observamos que o cuidado com o corpo assume significado especial em termos de instrumento de conquista, requerendo para tal, adequá-lo a uma linguagem própria e especial bem como a determinado padrão de beleza. Em termos de considerações finais...

Cyanobacteria Toxicity: Potential Public Health Impact in South Portugal Populations

Bellém, F.; Nunes, S.; Morais, M.
Fonte: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues Publicador: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic, plantlike organisms present in lakes, recreational waters,and reservoirs, and often dominate phytoplankton communities in warm, nutrient-enriched hard waters. A stable water column rich in certain nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus,is associated with favorable environmental conditions that support development of cyanobacterial population maxima or “blooms.” Under specific conditions, cyanobacteria produce toxins that are responsible for acute poisoning and death of animals and humans. The main aim of this study was to correlate the presence of cyanobacteria blooms with potential toxicity to humans as a public health issue. In Portugal, seven reservoirs located in the southern region were selected and studied between 2000 and 2008. Reservoirs were characterized by physical and chemical aspects, and identification of phytoplankton communities. In the case of cyanobacterial blooms, toxins that affected the liver, nervous system, and skin were detected, namely, Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon spp., and Oscillatoria. These findings suggest the presence of a potential risk for public health, and indicate the need to implement mitigation measures in all studied reservoirs. These measures may involve (1) water eutrophication control to avoid blooms...

Oral cancer in Brazil: a secular history of Public Health Policies

MARTINS FILHO,Paulo Ricardo Saquete; SANTOS,Thiago de Santana; SILVA,Luiz Carlos Ferreira da; PIVA,Marta Rabello
Fonte: Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic Publicador: Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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The oral cancer in Brazil is considered an important public health issue. Despite almost a century of combat disease, with oncological assistance programs and prevention campaigns based public policies, the incidence of oral cancer in several regions is still high. The major goal of cancer prevention and control is a reduction in both the incidence of the disease and the associated morbidity and mortality, as well as improved life for cancer patients and their families. Low-income and disadvantage groups are generally more exposed to avoidable risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol consumption. These groups have less access to the health services and education that would empower them to make decisions to protect and improve their own health. Thus, cancer control programs are the most effective instrument to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice and achieve this goal. The authors report some key historical facts concerning the fight against oral cancer in Brazil, in addition to addressing the epidemiological aspects of disease.

Comparing Health Systems in Four Countries: Lessons for the United States

Brown, Lawrence D.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2003 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2003
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
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The Rekindling Reform initiative examined the health systems of 4 countries: Canada, France, Germany, and Great Britain (United Kingdom). From the 4 country reports published in this issue of the American Journal of Public Health, 10 crosscutting themes emerge: (1) coverage, (2) funding, (3) costs, (4) providers, (5) integration, (6) markets, (7) analysis, (8) supply, (9) satisfaction, and (10) leadership. Lessons for the United States are presented under each point.

Articulation of Undergraduate and Graduate Education in Public Health

Lee, Joel M.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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The rapid growth of individual undergraduate courses, minors, and baccalaureate degrees in public health presents a new issue for graduate public health education: how does a graduate or professional program address previously completed undergraduate public health coursework? A review of college directories found listings for 154 North American baccalaureate degrees in public health, public health education, and public health nursing. This article addresses the purposes of public health undergraduate education as (1) general liberal arts education, (2) education complementary to other non-public health graduate degrees, (3) preprofessional education, and (4) professional education preparing undergraduates for entry-level careers. Following a discussion of reasons to consider articulation of undergraduate and graduate degrees, as well as barriers to articulation, the article presents potential strategies for articulation and future issues to consider in addressing admission of undergraduate public health students to master of public health programs.

Climate Change and Local Public Health in the United States: Preparedness, Programs and Perceptions of Local Public Health Department Directors

Maibach, Edward W.; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L.; Balbus, John
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2008 EN
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While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health departments view and are responding to climate change as a public health issue, we conducted a telephone survey with 133 randomly selected local health department directors, representing a 61% response rate. A majority of respondents perceived climate change to be a problem in their jurisdiction, a problem they viewed as likely to become more common or severe over the next 20 years. Only a small minority of respondents, however, had yet made climate change adaptation or prevention a top priority for their health department. This discrepancy between problem recognition and programmatic responses may be due, in part, to several factors: most respondents felt personnel in their health department–and other key stakeholders in their community–had a lack of knowledge about climate change; relatively few respondents felt their own health department...

The Declaration of Helsinki and public health

Williams, John R
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2008 EN
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This section looks back on a ground-breaking contribution to public health, reproduces an extract of the original text and adds a commentary on its significance from a modern perspective. To complement the theme of this month’s issue, John R Williams looks at the Declaration of Helsinki and how it has evolved over time. The original declaration is reproduced here in full with permission of the World Medical Association.

Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

Puhl, Rebecca M.; Heuer, Chelsea A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
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Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective

Luxton, David D.; June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective.

Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue

Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Gelius, Peter; Schow, Diana
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 EN
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Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, “translates” into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a “policy problem” that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to “sell” to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government.

Conceptualizing food security for Aboriginal people in Canada

Power, Elaine
Fonte: Canadian Journal of Public Health Publicador: Canadian Journal of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 88418 bytes; application/pdf
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Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people.; "Reproduced with permission of the Canadian Public Health Association. Originally published in CJPH Power...

How to Improve Public Health Systems : Lessons from Tamil Nadu

Das Gupta, Monica; Desikachari, B.R.; Somanathan, T.V.; Padmanaban, P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Public health systems in India have weakened since the 1950s, after central decisions to amalgamate the medical and public health services, and to focus public health work largely on single-issue programs - instead of on strengthening public health systems broad capacity to reduce exposure to disease. Over time, most state health departments de-prioritized their public health systems. This paper describes how the public health system works in Tamil Nadu, a rare example of a state that chose not to amalgamate its medical and public health services. It describes the key ingredients of the system, which are a separate Directorate of Public Health - staffed by a cadre of professional public health managers with deep firsthand experience of working in both rural and urban areas, and complemented with non-medical specialists with its own budget, and with legislative underpinning. The authors illustrate how this helps Tamil Nadu to conduct long-term planning to avert outbreaks, manage endemic diseases, prevent disease resurgence...

How Might India’s Public Health Systems Be Strengthened?

Das Gupta, Monica; Shukla, Rajendra; Somanathan, T.V.; Datta, K.K.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The central government s policies, though well-intentioned, have inadvertently de-emphasized environmental health and other preventive public health services in India since the 1950s, when it was decided to amalgamate the medical and public health services and to focus public health services largely on single-issue programs. This paper discusses how successive policy decisions have diminished the Health Ministry s capacity for stewardship of the nation s public health. These decisions have introduced policies and fiscal incentives that have inadvertently enabled states to prioritize medical services and single-issue programs over broader public health services, and diminished the capacity of the public health workforce to deliver public health services. Diseases resulting from poor environmental health conditions continue to impose high costs even among the more affluent, and hinder development. There are many approaches to strengthening the public health system, and the authors suggest one that may require relatively little modification of existing structures and systems. They suggest establishing a focal point in the Health Ministry for public health stewardship...

Economics and public health: an exploration.

Harford, Jane Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1154713 bytes; 71970 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN
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Economics has become a dominant framework for analysing problems in public health and health care and for proposing policy solutions. A separate subdiscipline of health economics has grown out of the welfare economics tradition to develop specific methods for economic inquiry into health care issues. The encroachment of economics into health care and public health has not occurred without consternation from within the health field. Part of the reason for this concern arises from a mismatch between the worldview of public health and that of mainstream economics. However, this mismatch is largely unexamined, and there has been limited attempt to address the mismatch and to propose alternative approaches to economic questions in public health. This thesis examines the project of public health in some detail, making reference to the consensus documents of the World Health Organization that set out the values base of public health and define its approach and some of its activities. Public health is a collective activity, mostly undertaken outside of markets and is primarily concerned with impacts on populations. It is inherently political and focuses on populations as its unit of analysis. This contrasts to the approach of mainstream economics...

Female Genital Cutting, Women's Health, and Development : The Role of the World Bank

Rogo, Khama; Subayi, Tshiya; Toubia, Nahid; Sharief, Eiman Hussein
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C) is a customary practice indigenous to 28 African countries and is also reported among African immigrants in countries in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. FGM/C is also found in some Muslim communities in the highlands of India. The report documents the extent to which FGM/C is perceived as a public health issue. The social and political situation in Somalia in light of the civil unrest is likely to be a challenge in expanding the reach and effectiveness of FGC interventions particularly in rural communities. The experience of Kouroussa in Haute Guinea through the Population and Reproductive Health Project presented at the development marketplace 2000 competition with the project ending female genital cutting also gave the opportunity to the Bank to address FGM/C in a more systematic way, using all available resources. Other opportunities for supporting FGM/C programs include classic World Bank lending instruments such as Sector Investment Loans (SIL)...

Analysing Ontario Public Health Nurses Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Roles and Responsibilities in Addressing Climate Change

Laan, Megan
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The developed world now recognizes the long-term implications of climate change on the health of global populations. In 2008, the Canadian Nurses Association and the International Council of Nurses clearly defined the role of the nurse in building community resilience to climate change. The purpose of this study was to explore Ontario public health nurses’ (PHN) knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and actions towards climate change. Data for this cross-sectional study was collected with an online questionnaire. Using the concepts underpinning the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the questionnaire adapted a series of previously developed questions. Descriptive statistics along with comparisons using Kruskal-Wallis H tests and Chi-square statistics were calculated using SPSS®. Logistic Regression was used to explore predictive models for intention to act. The majority of participants agreed that climate change is happening and will have local impacts. Most participants believed that PHNs and local public health agencies (LPHAs) had a responsibility to address climate change but had less agreement about ability and the level of priority given to the issue. Geographic comparisons showed that northern region participants were in less agreement than the central region regarding LPHAs responsibility to address climate change. Liberal leaning participants were more likely to agree that climate change posed a local risk than Conservative leaning participants. However...

Service Learning Within the University of Connecticut Master of Public Health Program

Gregorio, David I.; DeChello, Laurie M.; Segal, Joan
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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Since 2005, the University of Connecticut Master of Public Health Program has administered its required service-learning practicum through coordinated activities of second-year students assigned to examine a pressing public health issue in Connecticut. The initiative underscores our program's commitment to preparing students for careers as leaders in applied practice and our emphasis on collaboration. Our thematic approach links content across the core curriculum, provides a venue where students demonstrate mastery of academic principles, and affirms values of public responsibility and common purpose. Projects have focused on public health concerns associated with childhood obesity, health literacy, and living with disabilities. Working together and with community-based preceptors, students estimate service needs, assess available program/service capacity, and recommend policy options. Results are compiled within a written report that accompanies a state legislative hearing. This article presents the rationale and organization of our service-learning practicum, and describes how the experience affects the education and personal growth of students and contributes positively to the community at large.

Reframing School Dropout as a Public Health Issue

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Ruglis, Jessica
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2007 EN
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Good education predicts good health, and disparities in health and in educational achievement are closely linked. Despite these connections, public health professionals rarely make reducing the number of students who drop out of school a priority, although nearly one-third of all students in the United States and half of black, Latino, and American Indian students do not graduate from high school on time. In this article, we summarize knowledge on the health benefits of high school graduation and discuss the pathways by which graduating from high school contributes to good health. We examine strategies for reducing school dropout rates with a focus on interventions that improve school completion rates by improving students' health. Finally, we recommend actions health professionals can take to reframe the school dropout rate as a public health issue and to improve school completion rates in the United States.


Marta, Gustavo N.; Job, José R. P. P.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2008 POR
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A questão do aborto é fonte de reflexões desde os primórdios da civilização e demanda diligências para a tentativa de seu enquadramento social ao longo da história do pensamento humano. Instaura-se como problemática pessoal, social e exatamente por isso, torna-se pelo fato irrefutável de acontecer, objeto de saúde pública. A segurança sanitária com que o abortamento é realizado está relacionada com a legalidade federativa particular de cada país e a condição sócio-econômica da mulher que aborta. Os autores tecem considerações sobre sua inserção, característica e influência na sociedade brasileira. O objetivo é debater a relação entre os fundamentos que norteiam as políticas de Estado e de saúde pública e a questão do abortamento, na medida em que tal assunto, pela relevância, constitui também um problema de saúde pública. Apresenta-se, assim, uma perspectiva que figura como um caminho argumentativo que conduz evidências ao debate proposto.; The issue of abortion has been a source of considerations since the dawn of civilization, and it calls for great circumspection when one attempts to fit it socially throughout the history of Human Thinking. It is established as a personal and social problem . and for this exact reason...


Diniz, Simone Grilo; Salgado, Heloisa de Oliveira; Aguiar Andrezzo, Halana Faria de; Cardin de Carvalho, Paula Galdino; Albuquerque Carvalho, Priscila Cavalcanti; Azevedo Aguiar, Cláudia; Niy, Denise Yoshie
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2015 ENG; POR
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Disrespect and abuse (in Brazil called obstetric violence), described by different terms, is increasingly used in social activism, in academic research and public policy formulation, and was recently recognized as a public health issue by the World Health Organization. As an innovative theme, it requires a mapping its origins, definitions, typology, impacts on maternal health and proposals for its preventing and remedy. We presente a critical-narrative review about this issue, including academic literature, productions of social movements and institutional documents, in Brazil and internationally. After a short historical overview, we map the definitions and types of violence. The complex causation of these forms of violence is discussed, including the role of professional training, the organization of health services, and the implications for maternal morbidity and mortality. Finally we present interventions in public health that have been used or proposed to prevent and mitigate obstetric violence, and an agenda for innovation and research in this area.