Com o constante crescimento tecnológico, é bastante comum deparar-se com um display público em lugares de grande concentração de pessoas, como aeroportos e cinemas. Apesar de possuírem informações úteis, esses displays poderiam ser melhor aproveitados se fossem interativos. Baseando-se em pesquisas sobre a interação com displays grandes e as características próprias de um display colocado em um espaço público, busca-se uma maneira de interação que seja adequada a esse tipo de situação. O presente trabalho introduz um método de interação por gestos sem necessitar que o usuário interagente segure ou tenha nele acoplado qualquer dispositivo ao interagir com um display público. Para realizar as tarefas que deseja, o usuário só precisa posicionar-se frente ao display e interagir com as informações na tela com suas mãos. São suportados gestos para navegação, seleção e manipulação de objetos, bem como para transladar a tela de visualização e ampliá-la ou diminui-la. O sistema proposto é construído de forma que possa funcionar em aplicações diferentes sem um grande custo de implantação. Para isso, é utilizado um sistema do tipo cliente-servidor que integra a aplicação que contém as informações de interesse do usuário e a que interpreta os seus gestos. É utilizado o Microsoft Kinect para a leitura dos movimentos do usuário e um pós-processamento de imagens é realizado de modo a detectar se as mãos do usuário se encontram abertas os fechadas. Após...
Instant Places is an investigation into the role of Bluetooth presence and naming as techniques for situated interaction around public displays. Our utilization of Bluetooth naming extends beyond identity representation, introducing the use of a simple instruction mechanism in which the system can recognise parts of the Bluetooth device name as explicit instructions to trigger the generation of pervasive content on situated displays. The study specifically addresses the suitability of these techniques and the type of social practices that emerged from their availability in a real setting. The results of the study, which involved the deployment of a fully functional prototype in a bar for several weeks, suggest that, despite their simplicity, these techniques were effective in their ability to sustain situated interaction around a public display and were easily and creatively appropriated for new forms of social practices.
The paradigm of proximity-based discovery and communication enabled
by Bluetooth technology can be very relevant in Ambient Intelligence as an
enabler for situated interaction. In this work, we explore the use of Bluetooth naming
as a key driver for situated interaction around public displays. Our approach to
the use of Bluetooth naming extends beyond self-exposure and introduces support
for simple commands in the name that can trigger actions on the displays. Our
specific objective is to evaluate the usability of this interaction technique and uncover
any guidelines for its usage. We have conducted a study combining a trial in
a public bar and a set of usability interviews. The results obtained confirm Bluetooth
Extended Naming as an easily adoptable technique for situated interaction
and suggest some recommendations to improve its effectiveness.
The development and design of computational artefacts and their current widespread use in diverse
contexts needs to take into account end-users needs, likes/dislikes and broader societal issues including
human values. However, the fast pace of technological developments highlight that the process of
defining the computational artefacts not only needs to understand the user but also engineers and
designers’ creativity. Considering these issues, we have been exploring the adoption of the Worth-
Centred Design framework, proposed by Gilbert Cockton, to guide our development efforts regarding
situated digital public displays.
We will present our insights as a design team regarding the use of the WCD framework for the on-going
development of situated digital public displays. Furthermore, we will discuss our current efforts to extend
the adoption of the framework. Finally, future steps are presented, and will focus on enriching our
understanding concerning potential places for situated digital displays, stakeholders’ views, encouraging
open participation and co-creation.
Public digital displays could greatly benefit from
the ability to dynamically select from the Internet content
items that would be strongly related with the place where each
display is installed. Generically, this is similar to the type of
problem addressed by recommender systems. However, the
usage context of a public display raises specific challenges that
may limit the applicability of existing recommender systems.
In this paper, we explore the creation of a recommender
system for public situated displays that is able to autonomously
select relevant content from Internet sources using keywords
as input. This type of recommender system should enable
public displays to become devices for Internet information
delivery in public spaces, while also making them more
situated in the social settings in which they are installed. We
have created a recommender system based on these principles
and we have conducted two studies to evaluate the perceived
performance of the system. The results have shown that
keywords can be very effective in driving user-generated
content, but they often need to be complemented with
contextual information that disambiguates their semantics; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - SFRH/BD/31292/2006
Dynamic sources, which make regularly updated data available for use by other applications, are
increasingly a key enabling feature of the web. They are extensively used in all sorts of social media
applications where they are re-combined in multiple ways to generate new aggregate services. Public
situated displays are an emergent area where dynamic sources can also play a key role in providing situated
and frequently updated content. However, the specificities of public displays raise the need for automated
selection of the most relevant sources to present. This study addresses relevance from the perspective of
timeliness. We propose a timeliness model that supports the most common types of dynamic source. To
validate that model, we set an experiment with a public display exhibiting content from dynamic sources
and receiving from users feedback on its timeliness. The results from this experiment suggest a reasonable
match between our model and the users’ perspectives on timeliness. The results also show that the model is
able to make comparative calculations of timeliness for different types of dynamic source. These results
enable us to conclude that timeliness functions may help to significantly increase the relevance of content
automatically selected from dynamic sources.
In public display systems determine what to present
and when is a central feature. Although several adaptive
scheduling alternatives have been explored, which introduce
sensibility of the display to some type of external variable, they
are still very dependent on the user in their behavior, content
specific in their nature and very rigid in their adaptation to
their social environment, not providing visitors of the place
with appropriate, rich and personalized information according
to their interests and expectations. There is a need for solutions
that successfully integrate the wealth of dynamic web sources
as providers for situated and updated content with social and
contextual environment around the display so as to present the
most appropriate content at every moment, and thus
improving the utility of the system. In this paper, we present a
recommender system for public situated displays that is able to
autonomously select relevant content from Internet sources
using a keyword-based place model as input. Based on external
relevance criteria the system finds and pre-selects only those
sources that are more relevant, and an adaptive scheduling
algorithm continuously select content that are relevant, timely,
in accordance with the place model...
Public displays are progressively embedded in urban settings. Such displays become elements of an integrated pervasive ecosystem in which vari-ous displays with multiple applications are accessed by multiple viewers. Still, many public displays employ content that is based on pre-defined schedules as encountered in conventional digital signage systems. We envision future dis-play deployments embedding many applications that are running concurrently and able to continuously react to users’ requests. In this paper, we investigate application selection and control concepts based on a mixed-initiative scenario in which display system and viewers are both involved in the process of content presentation. Our approach is inspired by traditional GUI interaction concepts and design considerations of sensing systems. Hence, this research would in-form the design of novel techniques for application selection and control in per-vasive display environments.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)
Digital public displays can have a key role in urban ubiquitous computing
infrastructures, but they have not yet managed to fill this role. A key step
in that direction would be the emergence of an application model for open display
networks that would enable anyone to create applications for display infrastructures.
In this work, we study the development of web-based applications
for public displays. We report on our experience of application development for
real world public deployment and also on an experiment with external web developers
to assess their ability to create such applications using our own development
tools. The results show that the web-based app model can effectively be
used in the context of public displays and that web developers are able to leverage
upon their expertise to create this type of applications.
Public display systems are still far from being a communication medium that people can appropriate to serve diverse communication goals. Moving towards open displays will require new publication paradigms that can overcome the challenges of meaningful engagement and enable users to fully understand and control the entire publication process. In this paper, we report on the study of two novel and complimentary communication paradigms for public displays inspired by the metaphors of pin badges and posters. The study is grounded on a 6 month deployment of Instant Places across 10 displays in diverse urban locations. We have collected user and system data regarding the emerging practices around these publication paradigms. The findings from this study constitute a novel contribution towards understanding the elements that may drive user-generated content in networks of urban displays, informing the design of new tools and procedures for situated publication in public displays.
Serie : "Lecture notes in business information processing", ISSN 1865-1348, vol. 143; Digital public displays have an enormous potential as a collaborative technology to socialize in public venues, especially when they are open to the participation of visitors. However, user-generated content is a form of control sharing that requires safeguards against the publication of content deemed inap-propriate. In this work, we study the perceptions of Café owners in regard to their acceptance of user-generated content displayed on their venue screens. Our goal is to inform the design of new media sharing services for public dis-plays by uncovering how existing practices with paper leaflets could be lever-aged as a conceptual framework for dealing with content appropriateness. Based on interviews with 10 café owners, we identify important insights into some of practices surrounding the distribution of paper leaflets and their impli-cations for the design of media sharing services for public displays.
Large-scale pervasive public displays networks are becoming an emerging paradigm and represent a radical transformation in the way we think about information dissemination in public spaces. One of the features of pervasive public display systems is their ability to create experiences that span across multiple displays in a coordinated fashion.
Proprietary single site display solutions exist but these are not open to third-party developers.
On the other hand, scalable open systems that enable large-scale, synchronised and multi-screen experiences, spanning multiple networks domains
will call for the definition of multiple administrative boundaries that accommodate function partitioning. In our research, we are studying the key requirements involved in this open application synchronisation and present our initial work on designing a synchronisation model and
Application Programming Interface for public displays application developers that is built on top of the PubSubHubbub protocol, an open protocol
for distributed publish/subscribe communication on the Internet.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)
Urban spaces are increasingly embedded with various types of public digital displays. Many of these displays can be subject to multi-user interactions and support a broad range of applications. A fundamental implication emerging from the interactive nature of those applications is that users should have access to appropriate selection and control techniques that would allow them to drive the way applications are shown and used in the respective environment. Such techniques should enable each user to reason and express intentions about the system behavior, while also dealing with concurrent requests from multiple users in a way that is fair and clear. In this study, we aim to inform the definition of novel techniques for application selection and control in pervasive display environments that can address the above challenges. Drawing inspiration from traditional GUI interaction concepts we developed and deployed a public display system that supports multiple applications and is able to receive explicit content presentation requests from multiple viewers. Based on the experiment observations and interviews with the participants, we reached a set of design considerations for future pervasive displays environments that are open to third party applications providers and allow the audience to influence content presentation.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT); Towards Future Pervasive Display Networks (PD-NET)
Tese de doutoramento em Tecnologias e Sistemas de Informação; Public digital displays have become increasingly ubiquitous in our technological landscape. Considering their flexibility and communication potential, public displays can become an important communication channel and even reach the attention, usage, and relevance that smartphones have today. Interaction with public displays is recognised as a key element in making them more engaging and valuable, but most public display systems still do not support any interactive feature. A key reason behind this apparent paradox is the lack of efficient and clear abstractions for incorporating interactivity into public display applications. While interaction can be achieved for a specific display system with a particular interaction modality, the lack of proper interaction abstractions means that there is too much specific work that needs to be done outside the core application functionality to support even basic forms of interaction.
In this work, we investigate and develop interaction abstractions for public displays.
We start by analysing public displays from the point of view of the information that results from the various interactions and that can be used to drive several types of content adaptation behaviour on public displays. We call this information digital footprints...
Public displays are often strongly situated signs deeply embedded in their physical, social, and cultural setting. Understanding how the display is coupled with on-going situations, its level of situatedness, provides a key element for the interpretation of the displays themselves but is also an element for the interpretation of place, its situated practices, and its social context. Most digital displays, however, do not achieve the same sense of situatedness that seems so natural in their nondigital counterparts. This paper investigates people’s perception of situatedness when considering the connection between public displays and their context. We have collected over 300 photos of displays and conducted a set of analysis tasks involving focus groups and structured interviews with 15 participants. The contribution is a consolidated list of situatedness dimensions that should provide a valuable resource for reasoning about situatedness in digital displays and informing the design and development of display systems.
Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Informática; The most important element in a network of public displays is a piece of software, the player, it is responsible for interpreting the presentation instructions, which are sent in a specific format, and make the content visible to the users according to those instructions.
One of the big issues regarding this type of software is their restrict system requirements, a player is usually conceived having a specific target platform, this creates some issues when deploying new displays. With the increasing development of web technologies emerges a solution to this issue: a web based player with low system requirements and the capability to be deployed in a wider range of platforms.
Ultimately this web based player aims to increase the reach and availability of the public displays networks by creating a platform to which the non-proprietary developer can create content to.
Urban spaces are increasingly embedded with various types of public digital displays. Many of these displays can be subject to multi-user interactions and support a broad range of applications. A fundamental implication emerging from the interactive nature of those applications is that users should have access to appropriate selection and control techniques that would allow them to drive the way applications are shown and used in the respective environment. Such techniques should enable each user to reason and express intentions about the system behavior, while also dealing with concurrent requests from multiple users in a way that is fair and clear. In this study, we aim to inform the definition of novel techniques for application selection and control in pervasive display environments that can address the above challenges. Drawing inspiration from traditional GUI interaction concepts we developed and deployed a public display system that supports multiple applications and is able to receive explicit content presentation requests
from multiple viewers. Based on the experiment
observations and interviews with the participants, we reached a set of design considerations for future pervasive displays environments that are open to third party applications providers and allow the audience to influence content presentation.
This paper contributes to the understanding of how digital public displays can be utilized in schools taking into consideration educational goals. This work is part of a currently on-going research project that aims to promote students' curiosity in science and technology through creative film-making, collaborative editing activities, and content sharing. In order to explore the design space concerning digital public displays for schools' contexts, six workshops with secondary school teachers in two different countries were conducted to elicit sensitivities towards possible features and interaction techniques as well as inquire about expectations and technology adoption. Our findings suggest that teachers are receptive to the technology and were able to
generate scenarios that take advantage of the possibilities offered by digital public displays to stimulate learning processes.However, there are several crucial elements regarding management and control of content that need to be carefully
crafted/designed in order to accommodate each schools' organizational issues.
Public digital displays are moving towards open display networks, resulting in a shift in the focus from single-purpose public displays that are developed with a single task or application in mind, to general- purpose displays that can run several applications, developed by different vendors. In this new paradigm, it is important to facilitate the development of interactive public display applications and provide programmers with toolkits for incorporating interaction features. An important function of such toolkits is to support interaction with public displays through a users' smartphone, allowing users to discover and interact with the public display applications configured in a given display. This paper describes our approach to providing dynamically generated graphical user interfaces for public display applications that is part of the PuReWidgets toolkit.; Jorge Cardoso has been supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia” (FCT) and “Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação 2010”, co-funded by the Portuguese Government and European Union by FEDER Program and by FCT training grant SFRH/BD/47354/2008.
Interaction is repeatedly pointed out as a key enabling element towards more engaging and valuable public displays. Still, most digital public displays today do not support any interactive features. We argue that this is mainly due to the lack of efficient and clear abstractions that developers can use to incorporate interactivity into their applications. As a consequence, interaction represents a major overhead for developers, and users are faced with
inconsistent interaction models across different displays. This paper describes the results of a study on interaction widgets for generalized interaction with public displays. We present PuReWidgets, a toolkit that supports multiple interaction mechanisms, automatically generated graphical interfaces, asynchronous events and concurrent interaction. This is an early effort towards the creation of a programming toolkit that developers can incorporate into their public display applications to support the interaction process across multiple display systems without considering the specifics of what interaction modality will be used on each particular display.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)