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Trabalho produtivo e acumulação de capital: uma perspectiva sociopolítica

Veiguinha, Joaquim Jorge de Jesus Paiva
Fonte: Repositório Científico Lusófona Publicador: Repositório Científico Lusófona
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Esta investigação visa analisar a relação entre trabalho produtivo e acumulação de capital desde a época do mercantilismo. Parte da hipótese de que não é a forma material ou imaterial do produto do trabalho que determina se este é ou não produtivo, mas a função que ele desempenha no processo global de acumulação de capital. Concebemos o capital como uma relação de produção em que trabalhadores assalariados produzem uma mais-valia para os proprietários dos meios de produção que não se limitam a consumi-la improdutivamente, mas a reinvesti-la periodicamente no processo produtivo. Pretendemos demonstrar que com o desenvolvimento do capitalismo a esfera do trabalho produtivo se alarga para além do processo de produção material porque a ciência se transforma numa força produtiva e, por conseguinte, num instrumento de valorização do capital. Além do mais, a revolução cibernética converte uma parte crescente do trabalho intelectual em trabalho produtivo. No entanto, como a desigualdade na repartição de rendimentos não parou de aumentar desde os anos oitenta do século passado, estas transformações tecnológicas não contribuíram para a melhoria das condições de existência de todos mas apenas para o incremento do sobretrabalho que sustenta a acumulação de capital.; This research aims to analyze the relationship between productive labour and capital accumulation since the era of mercantilism. Starts from the hypothesis that material or immaterial forms of the labour product does not determine whether or not it is productive...

A união do ensino com o trabalho produtivo: a educação em Marx e Engels.; The union of teaching with productive work: education in Marx and Engels.

Paula, Douglas Ferreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
O trabalho consiste num estudo de caráter teórico que investiga a inter-relação de conceitos fundamentais da teoria marxista a partir da tese político-pedagógica da união do ensino com o trabalho produtivo. Percorrendo o conjunto da obra de Karl Marx (e, por extensão, de Friedrich Engels), pretende-se demonstrar que só é possível compreender o sentido da tese em pauta com base na crítica ao ensino e ao trabalho no capitalismo, assim como na proeminência com que as contradições oriundas do modo de produção capitalista figuram nessa obra. Apoiando-se em estudos já realizados acerca da concepção educacional desses autores, a dissertação reforça o aspecto político da tese, destacando na análise conceitos como os de força produtiva, e dando ênfase às contradições entre trabalho e capital. Argumenta-se inicialmente que a tese da união de ensino e trabalho em Marx e Engels surge em oposição à realidade do ensino e do trabalho, tal qual a observavam autores do século XIX. Estuda-se em seguida o conceito de forças intelectuais da produção, abordando a questão da ciência incorporada nas forças produtivas a partir do capitalismo, e o modo pelo qual tal ciência objetivada mantém-se estranha aos trabalhadores...

Trabalho produtivo em Karl Marx: novas e velhas questões; Productive labour in Karl Marx: new and old issues

Cotrim, Vera Aguiar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.79%
Esta pesquisa examina a conceituação de Marx acerca do trabalho produtivo, tanto em suas determinações gerais, quanto como categoria econômica particular do modo de produção capitalista. Tem por objetivo, em primeiro lugar, explicitar o critério distintivo do trabalho produtivo com relação ao trabalho improdutivo na forma de sociabilidade capitalista, analisando a relação que ambas as categorias estabelecem com o capital social, bem como entre si. Com isso, pretende-se explicitar os fundamentos da unidade da classe trabalhadora e a base de sua oposição ao capital. Em segundo lugar, temos como finalidade expor as transformações concretas que o trabalho experimenta após a subsunção ao capital, em sua relação com a categoria de trabalho produtivo. Assim, abordamos o trabalho complexo e o trabalho imaterial como formas do trabalho produtivo para o capital, em sua conexão com o desenvolvimento da produtividade do trabalho social.; This research examines Marx conception of productive labour concerning both its general determination and its existence as a particular economic category of capitalist mode of production. Firstly, it is aimed at eliciting the distinctive criteria of productive labour with regard to unproductive labour in capitalist form of sociability and analyzing the relationship that both categories establish with social capital...

Trabalho e desenraizamento operário: um estudo de depoimentos sobre a experiência de vida na fábrica; Labour and workers` uproot: a study about life experience in the workshop metallurgy

Svartman, Bernardo Parodi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
A discussão da experiência de trabalho nas fábricas, tendo já nos exigido pesquisas em grau de iniciação científica e de mestrado, segue sendo nosso alvo neste doutorado. Realizamos no mestrado uma pesquisa em regime de observação participante numa fábrica metalúrgica de pequeno porte em Diadema/SP. O pesquisador, durante dois anos e meio, trabalhou um dia por semana como ajudante geral, procurando, ao lado dos operários, recolher os acontecimentos e as conversas que, ali, melhor exprimiam a experiência do trabalho. Quanto era empobrecedora ou enriquecedora a experiência psicossocial do trabalho? Quando as condições de trabalho, ao mesmo tempo materiais e psicológicas, mostravam-se geradoras de humilhações, como eram enfrentadas pelos trabalhadores? Registramos e discutimos: as habilidades exigidas na realização das atividades fabris; o modo como o trabalho operário abrigava ou prejudicava a atenção, a imaginação, a memória e o pensamento do trabalhador; o relacionamento dos trabalhadores entre si, com as máquinas, as ferramentas e as chamadas peças de trabalho (a matéria-prima e os produtos do trabalho). Os resultados apresentam o trabalho fabril ainda hoje relacionado ao fenômeno descrito por Simone Weil como desenraizamento. E apresentam trabalhadores resistentes...

Processo de trabalho, divisão sexual do trabalho e práticas sociais das operárias na indústria eletroeletrônica no contexto da flexibilidade produtiva; Labour process, sexual division of labour and social practises of female industrial workers in eletricial & eletronic industry on manufacturing flexibility context

Lapa, Thaís de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
nas empresas, que ocorrem no Brasil sob a égide da reestruturação produtiva capitalista desde 1980 e com maior ênfase em 1990, são observados neste estudo à luz da problemática da divisão sexual do trabalho, tomando como campo de análise o segmento de eletroeletrônicos, o qual possui a mais elevada proporção de mulheres da indústria metalúrgica. A pesquisa parte da problemática da visibilização de trabalhadoras como objeto de conhecimento nas análises sobre a classe trabalhadora, procurando oferecer contribuição à sociologia do trabalho a partir de reflexão empírica-teórica gendrada sobre o trabalho, sustentando assim a necessidade do reconhecimento da composição sexuada da classe e reivindicando a indissociabilidade das dimensões classe e gênero. Com base em estudo setorial focado em duas indústrias eletroeletrônicas transnacionais no ramo de telecomunicações e informática, cujas plantas analisadas localizam-se em municípios do interior de São Paulo, foram identificadas e analisadas características do processo de trabalho em diversos setores produtivos das empresas. Essas empresas fabricam no Brasil - uma desde a década de 1990 e outra desde 2000 - telefones celulares, tablets, monitores, notebooks...

Trabalho em pequenos negocios no Brasil : impactos da crise do final do Seculo XX; Labour in the Brazilian small business : impacts of the end of the Twentieth century crisis

Anselmo Luis dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Esta tese tem como objeto de estudo a evolução da ocupação e das condições de trabalho em pequenos negócios no Brasil no período 1980-2005. O conjunto dos ocupados em pequenos negócios é aqui entendido como o universo que compreende os trabalhadores assalariados - com e sem carteira de trabalho assinada - e empregadores nas micro e pequenas empresas, os trabalhadores por conta própria, os empreendedores sem empregados e os trabalhadores sem remuneração. A hipótese considerada é que esse conjunto de trabalhadores ampliou de forma expressiva sua participação na estrutura ocupacional brasileira, processo que aprofundou a precariedade das condições de trabalho neste segmento e que expressa parcela expressiva da deterioração das condições e das relações de trabalho do conjunto da estrutura ocupacional brasileira, no período analisado. O desenvolvimento do trabalho mostrou que este processo ocorreu principalmente em função das reduzidas taxas de crescimento econômico, das profundas transformações estruturais pelas quais passou a economia brasileira nos anos 90 e pelas transformações ocorridas nas estruturas social, cultural e de consumo que continuaram transformando aspectos importantes do aparelho produtivo e da estrutura ocupacional...

Labour market trends and implications of regional integration

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Includes bibliography; Labour markets represent the backbone of economic functioning, providing the means of survival to populations, with labour income ensuring the livelihood of workers and families alike. Labour is also an essential input into production - in many cases it is the main input, especially in service sectors which are dominant sectors in the Caribbean. As such, labour markets define economic well-being: in competitive economies labour is paid its marginal product. This implies that only productive labour prospers as higher productivity implies higher earnings, which in turn allows for higher consumption and a higher standard of living. The vitality and health of labour markets, therefore, play a crucial role in attaining and maintaining economic prosperity. Labour markets not only need an adequate match of supply and demand of labour - in terms of quantity as well as quality, but also in terms of being based on an institutional framework conducive to its smooth functioning. This requires inter alia a setting that regulates contractual agreements and protects the rights of workers, whilst not distorting hiring and firing decisions of firms.

Good Jobs in Turkey

Grun, Rebekka; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal; Immervoll, Herwig; Capar, Sinem; Levin, Victoria; Aran, Meltem; Gruen, Carola; Yener, Levent; Cebeci, Tolga
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
This joint study, by the World Bank and the Turkish Ministry of Development, explores the status and effects of good jobs in Turkey s current economy. After a brief account of economic events, it examines the relationship between growth and employment in Turkey, with a particular regard to the participation of different social groups in the labor market, such as women and youth. It then analyzes where jobs are being created and which activities are the most productive for the Turkish economy, and assesses if jobs have moved to more productive activities in recent years. Finally, the report proceeds to measure the impact of different types of jobs on the welfare of an entire household and on the household s relative position in the overall income distribution.

Productive engagement across the life course: paid work and beyond

Loh, Vanessa; Kendig, Hal
Fonte: Australian Social Policy Association Publicador: Australian Social Policy Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 27 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
An uncertain economic outlook and the certitude of an ageing population highlight the importance of productive activity across all age groups for Australia’s future. This paper reviews Australian and international research on productive ageing, which has typically focused on older age groups and specific activities, and presents national findings from Wave 10 (2010) of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey on productive activities across the life course. Both paid, tax‑generating and unpaid, voluntary activities are examined, including paid work, volunteering, caregiving, childcare, and domestic work. The kinds of productive activity people engaged in varied across age groups for men and women, highlighting the potential competition between paid work and other activities, and the importance of health and education for engagement across all ages. While the Government has begun leading actions to enhance and recognise these contributions that bring economic and social benefits both to the individual and the broader community, our research reinforces the value of investment in human capital for productive engagement across the lifespan inclusive of early, middle and later life.

New regional convergence in productivity and productive structure : application to european southern countries

Maroto Sánchez, Andrés; Cuadrado Roura, Juan R.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Diverse approaches have been used to analyse the hypothesis of convergence between European regions. This paper is particularly focused on productivity trends and the effects of changes in regional productive structures, which seems to be the main source of the observed productivity convergence. The crucial mechanism explaining this last process (labour apparent productivity) is the transfer of labour from the less productive activities to the most ones, a fact that has been particularly important in the poorest regions. The apparent exhaustion of this process runs in parallel to the progressive end of regional convergence in income per capita. So convergence of productive structures seems to be the factor explaining the apparent contradiction between the observed convergence of aggregate productivity levels and the absence (or clear reduction) of productivity convergence within the different sectors. The analysis intends to show that the convergence process is probably exhausted through this way. The core point of the paper is sigma convergence in GDP approach as well as the productive structure convergence. The paper takes as a reference those regions included in five European Mediterranean countries (Spain, France...

How to boost the PhD labour market? : facts from the R&D and innovation policies side

Benito, Mónica; Romera, Rosario
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em 01/11/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
This paper analyzes the PhD labour market in connection to the Research and Innovation countries’ performance. Research and Innovation is essential for competitiveness in a global economy and doctorate holders have the skills and attributes to both engage in world-class research and make productive contributions in a wide spectrum of professional roles in innovation, in particular, in the private sector. However, in the recent literature little attention has been paid to measure the doctorate’s employment in the private sector, their role in the public-private research linkages and their effects on the innovation performance of the countries. The recruitment of PhD graduates in the private sector should be considered a key avenue in converting publicly funded basic research into commercialized innovations, technological progress and productivity growth. The aim of this paper is to examine which policies are boosting the PhD employment especially in the business sector and how these policies affect the research and innovation performance of the countries.

Class struggle in the public service: class and labour process in the Australian Public Service

Kuhn, Rick
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Honours)(non-ANU) Formato: iv, 101 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
The body of the thesis is divided into three parts: overview and clarification of theoretical issues - chapter 1, 2 and 3; some developments in the Australian Public Servie (APS) labour process since 1945 - chapters 4 and 5; public service employee organisation, chapter 6. Chapter 1 provides an outline of the empirical scope of the thesis and a statistical overview of state employment in Australia. Chapter 2 considers marxist theories which have a bearing on the questions in hand. Therborn’s 1978 essay “Dictatorship of the Proletariat and the Class character of the State Apparatus” which directly addresses the central concerns of the thesis is examined. It is criticised for its inadequate understanding of the distinction between state and civil society, shared by many other marxist analyses, which leads to a replacement of concepts of historical materialism by those of orthodox social science, when the internal structure of the state is being analysed. The critique of Therborn leads to the conclusion that the nature of class relations within the state must be the basis for further analysis of the state’s internal structure. These class relations are explored by taking up the debate on the "new middle class", initiated by Poulantzas. He maintains that state employees are members of the new petty bourgeoisie rather than proletarian...

Armenia : Promoting Productive Employment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
This paper examines labor market outcomes in Armenia and their impact on poverty. The outcomes are of considerable concern: relatively few persons of working age are employed, and many of those who are employed have low-productivity jobs. The problem is not only high unemployment, but also low labor force participation. The main factor behind the low employment/population ratio is weak labor demand and the scarcity of productive job opportunities. This paper begins in section one by discussing the main labor market challenges in Armenia, before focusing on unemployment in section two. Section three analyzes the nature of employment and jobs, while section four examines wage determination and structure. Section five then evaluates the relationship between individuals' and households' labor market status and poverty. Finally, section six concludes with policy implications of the analysis. In order to reach the 60 percent employment rate Armenia would need to create an additional 166,000 jobs. This will lead to a 14 percent increase in employment...

Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic strategy. This booklet highlights the three-pillar plan for job creation derived from the Tanzania country economic memorandum. The first pillar looks at job creation from the angle of small non-farm businesses, which have been growing very fast during the rapid urbanization. The second pillar focuses on farms because those still capture the largest share of employment in Tanzania, while the third pillar discusses the job-creation potential associated with business expansion into new markets. By focusing on a comprehensive set of concrete actions, the goal is to stimulate debate as well as to build ownership and accountability among policy-makers and key stakeholders in the country.

Gambia, The - Youth Employment and Skills Development Study : Improving Youth Employment Outcomes Through Enhanced Skills Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
Despite substantial improvements in access to basic education and steady economic growth, The Gambia still faces considerable challenges in respect to reducing poverty. As the result of its narrow economic base and its reduced internal market, the country will continue to rely heavily on the productivity of its citizens to reverse the cycle that keeps families in poverty generation after generation. Poverty reduction is a complex equation that involves improvements in job creation, especially for high-skilled and productive employment, as well as improvements in human capital levels to ensure that citizens are able to take advantage of employment opportunities. Currently, however, low human capital levels greatly limit the productivity and employment outcomes of the population, as evidenced by the fact that a majority continues to work in subsistence agriculture, especially in rural areas. The Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper II (2007-2015, PRSP II) recognizes the need to focus on improving youth employment outcomes. It states that 'The Gambia has a problem of youth unemployment especially those that have limited skills. Consequently...

Productive development in open economies

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.58%
Includes bibliography; Presentation The countries of the Latin American and Caribbean region have shown a keen and lasting interest in mechanisms of economic development and public policies for its promotion. This is a process in which ECLAC has been involved ever since it was founded over half a century ago. Today, the debate on these issues continues against the backdrop of a globalization process in which the remarkable dynamism of some dimensions -especially its economic, financial and cultural aspects- contrasts with the slow formation of an institutional network capable of coping with the increased interdependence of nations on various levels and of gradually rectifying the striking asymmetries of the global order. Over the past two decades, the Latin American and Caribbean region has wagered heavily on its integration into the global economy. In fact, of all the developing regions of the world, it has been the most resolute in its pursuit of economic liberalization. A review of this period brings to light a number of extremely important achievements, but it also reveals areas in which the region is lagging behind and others in which unfinished business remains. ECLAC contends that the region must build upon the progress it has already made...

Labour markets, worker protection and lifelong learning in a global economy: experiences and perspectives of Latin America and the Caribbean

Weller, Jürgen
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.69%
Includes bibliography; Despite the expansion of the world economy in recent years, the employment situation remains uncertain, with a high percentage of the labour force unemployed or engaged in occupations that do not enable workers to escape from poverty. Recent growth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, which have been relatively high compared with historical levels -albeit lower than those recorded in other regions- have had a favourable impact on job creation, employment rates and poverty; however, serious problems still persist, in our region as well, in terms of high unemployment, underemployment and job insecurity, and these situations are compounded by barriers to access to productive employment affecting specific sectors of the population, especially the least skilled, including youth and women.Sustained economic growth is known to be necessary, albeit insufficient, for generating high-quality employment and this, in turn, is recognized as the material base needed to ensure a decent life for the vast majority of the population and to build social cohesion in Latin America and the Caribbean.Labour-market trends reflect economic growth, which, according to its characteristics alters the extent and composition of labour demand. However...

Toward Solutions for Youth Employment; A 2015 Baseline Report--Overview

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE) were launched in October 2014 as a multi-stakeholder coalition to positively disrupt the youth employment landscape. S4YE is a partnership initiated by the World Bank, Plan International, the International Youth Foundation (IYF), and Youth Business International (YBI), RAND, Accenture, and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with a view to contributing to a world where all youth have access to work opportunities. The mission of S4YE is to provide leadership and catalytic action and mobilize efforts to significantly increase the number of young people engaged in productive work by 2030. It seeks to develop innovative solutions through practical research and active engagement with public, private and civil stakeholders, to enable solutions for all youth at scale. This inaugural report explores how S4YE can find and advance solutions to the challenges of getting all youth into productive work.

Steel lives: An ethnography of labour in contemporary Sheffield.

Mollona, Massimiliano
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
My doctoral research focuses on the experience of labour in a deprived area of Sheffield, UK, where I lived and worked in two steel factories for eighteen months. In my thesis, I study the factory as a physical, economic and political space located between society and the state, and explore how state neo-liberal policies and globalisation affect working class productive and reproductive strategies, and narratives of labour; and reshape the spaces of the factory, the family and the neighbourhood. In the first part of the thesis I reconstruct the history of steel labour on the shopfloor and in the neighbourhood. In Chapter 1, I show that industrial capitalism fragmented the workforce into 'artisans' - skilled casual labourers - and 'proletarians' - unskilled wage workers. In Chapter 2, I show how this fragmentation was reproduced in the neighbourhood by public social and economic policies and by the 'medical discourse' centred on the health of working classes. The two shopfloor ethnographies in Chapter 3 and 4, show that the historical fragmentation between 'artisans' and 'proletarians' is reproduced in the capitalist labour processes today. The neighbourhood ethnographies in Chapter 5 and 6 challenge the hypothesis of 'late capitalism' scholars of the social fragmentation of the artisan-labourers and of the social stability of the families of the aristocracy of labour...

Free media, labour and citizenship rights in a democracy

Shaw,Padmaja
Fonte: OberCom Publicador: OberCom
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
India is the most populous democracy in the world. In the early years after attaining independence, as a new democracy, Indian development strategy was driven by what Francine Frankel (2005) calls the “the Gandhian-socialist consensus” that was predominantly value oriented. Frankel enumerates the areas of consensus - first, there was the general agreement that economic policy should aim for the progressive removal of inequalities in Indian society, and ultimately result in the complete disappearance of class distinctions. Second, the Gandhians and the socialists concurred on the need to limit sharply the existing scope of the acquisitive instinct in Indian economic life, and to create a new set of cooperative motives. The Nehruvian socialist state envisioned a strong industrial base under state ownership (Frankel, 2005) and wage labour was seen within the ethical context of productive employment and as a defining frame for good citizenship. This and the Constitutional guarantee of Fundamental Rights helped to give legitimacy to wage labour’s expectation of citizenship rights through provision of jobs, better working conditions, better social services and healthcare. By the 1990s, after economic liberalization, the basic premises of this vision were discarded even in populist political rhetoric...