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Una propuesta metodológica para la apropiación de costos de producción en la atención prenatal; Methodology for appropriation of production costs in the primary prenatal care

MAEDA, Sayuri Tanaka; CIOSAK, Suely Itsuko; EGRY, Emiko Yoshikawa
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
La actual coyuntura económica brasileña trae consecuencias para el Estado en todas sus esferas, implicando en una cuidadosa planificación de sus administradores. Así, la aplicación adecuada de su presupuesto es uno de los objetivos primordiales anhelado por el sector salud. El presente estudio presentará una metodología para la apropiación de costos de la atención prenatal de bajo riesgo, que puede servir de subsidio para investigaciones científicas e intervención en la planificación y evaluación de costos. Esta apropiación se realizó teniendo como escenario la Salud de la Familia, al cual acuden las embarazadas de forma prioritaria. En la perspectiva de la cobertura universal a la que se propone el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS), el correcto estimado de los costos hará posible la contribución en la formulación presupuestaria y en la programación de recursos para garantizar una atención de calidad.; Brazilian economy nowadays shows that what is most important is for every sector to carefully plan, instead of merely spending finite financial resources. Thus, the adequate application of each health budget item has been one of the main goals of health planners and managers. This study aims to present a methodology for the appropriation of production costs in health care to low-risk pregnant women. It also intends to give the basis to the construction of a cost-evaluation methodology that can be used for both research and health planning. This appropriation was based on the scenario of the Family Health in São Paulo...

A costs structure analysis of the Brazilian sugar and ethanol companies

ALBANEZ, Tatiana; BONIZIO, Roni Cleber; RIBEIRO, Evandro Marcos Saidel
Fonte: UNIV FED RURAL PERNAMBUCO, DEPT LETRAS CIENCIAS HUMANAS Publicador: UNIV FED RURAL PERNAMBUCO, DEPT LETRAS CIENCIAS HUMANAS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The Brazil consolidated itself as the largest world producer of sugarcane, sugar and ethanol. The creation of the Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL and the growing use of cars with flexible motors were some of the factors that helped to motivate still more the production. Evolutions in the agricultural and industrial research did the Brazilian competitiveness in sugar and ethanol globally elevated, what is evidenced when comparing the amount produced at the country and the production costs, which turned a big one differential. Therefore, the administration of costs is of great relevance to the sugar and ethanol companies, for representing a significant rationalization in the production processes, with economy of resources and the reach of better earnings, besides reducing the operational risk pertinent at the fixed costs of production. Thus, the present work has for objective to analyze the costs structure of sugar and ethanol companies of the Center-south area of the country through an empiric-analytical study based in methodologies and concepts extracted of the costs accounting. It is verified that great part of the costs and operational expenses have variable behavior, a positive factor for the sector reducing the operational risk of the activity. The main restraint of this study is the sample of five years and 10% of the number of plants in Brazil that although they represent 30% of the national production...

Economias de escala na produção de frangos de corte no Brasil.; Economies of scale in the Brazilian broiler production.

Garcia, Luis Alberto Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/09/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
A fim de atender uma demanda interna e externa crescente, a produção de frangos de corte, de excepcional desempenho no agronegócio brasileiro, tem se expandido, nos últimos anos, para outros estados do país além dos tradicionais produtores. Particularmente nos estados da região Centro-Oeste, importantes projetos avícolas foram implantados, incorporando-se novos produtores ao sistema. Observa-se que, alguns destes avicultores da nova fronteira possuem áreas de terra maiores e produzem em maior escala que os produtores da região tradicional. Justifica-se, assim, a investigação empírica para determinar o tamanho ótimo da atividade de produção de frangos de corte, a fim de inferir sobre a existência ou não de economias de escala no setor. Adicionalmente, procura-se avaliar a possibilidade dos pequenos produtores avícolas das regiões tradicionais serem afetados, diante da concorrência com a produção em grande escala do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Neste sentido, o objetivo central do presente trabalho é o de estimar uma função de custo transcendental logarítmica (translog) para a atividade de produção de frangos de corte, por conseguinte, verificar a existência de economias de escala no setor. O referencial teórico do estudo é o da teoria microeconômica dos custos de produção e dualidade. Os dados utilizados para a análise são de corte transversal...

Custo de produção para soja convencional e transgênica a luz das metodologias utilizadas pelos órgãos públicos no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos: um estudo para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; Cost of production for GMO and conventional soybean seed based at the methodology utilized by the publics agency on Brazil and United States: a study for South Mato Grosso State

Menegatti, Ana Laura Angeli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar e comparar custos de produção para a soja, visando as análises comparativas de custos incorridos entre a cultura trasngênica e convencional e entre os custos contidos nas planilhas disponibilizadas pelos órgãos públicos no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos. Para tanto foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo, no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, para levantamento, através de entrevistas a produtores, de dados primários referentes a safra 2004/05 que compuseram o banco de dados necessário para a formação das planilhas de custo de produção. O comparativo entre as duas modalidades de cultivo, viabilizado através de revisão bibliográfica dos conceitos envolvidos em uma planilha típica de custo de produção, revelou que o custo da soja transgênica foi aproximadamente 14,8 % menor do que o da soja convencional. A análise mostrou que os produtores que adotaram a nova tecnologia tiveram um custo inferior com herbicida e mão-de-obra quando comparado ao custo da convencional. Para o comparativo entre as planilhas obtidas a luz das metodologias dos órgãos públicos, coube a revisão bibliográfica das metodologias utilizadas pela Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB) para o Brasil e pelo Departamento de Agricultura (USDA) para os Estados Unidos. A partir de dados comuns...

Modelagem e implantação de sistema de informações para monitorar custo de produção dos produtos fabricados pela Farmácia Hospitalar do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo; Modeling and implantation information system to monitor the production costs of manufactured products by the hospital pharmacy of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo

Marin, Marcia Lucia de Mario
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
A partir do método de custeio por absorção, com adaptação do custeio baseado em atividades, um sistema de informações foi modelado e implantado para monitorar custo de produção, dos produtos fabricados pela farmácia hospitalar do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. Foram analisados os formulários dos produtos fabricados, insumos, gastos indiretos de fabricação, controle de qualidade e totalizados os tempos gastos da mão-de-obra direta de 100 produtos fabricados em julho de 2003. Os resultados mostraram que de 35 itens produzidos com similares, 28 apresentaram custo de produção inferior ao preço do fabricante no mercado, estimando que nesse mês o HC deixou de gastar, aproximadamente, 750 mil reais com a produção interna. Os 65 itens restantes eram produtos exclusivos e especiais. Os gastos com insumos corresponderam a 69% do custo total de produção. O modelo proposto mostrou que a farmácia hospitalar pode proporcionar redução de gastos à entidade.; On the basis of the absorption costing method, with a number of adaptations from activity based costing, an information system was modeled and implanted to monitor the production costs of products manufactured by the hospital pharmacy of Hospital das Clínicas...

Desenvolvimento de modelo de cálculo e de indicador de custos de produção para a ovinocultura paulista; Development of a cost calculation model and cost index for sheep production in São Paulo state, Brazil

Raineri, Camila
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Um dos principais desafios do setor da ovinocultura no Brasil é verificar sua competitividade em termos de custos e preços, e possuir recursos e ferramentas que permitam indicar quais condições poderiam ser satisfeitas para sua viabilização. A presente pesquisa teve como finalidade desenvolver um modelo para cálculo e análise de custo da ovinocultura e, a partir dele, elaborar um índice de custo de produção (ICPC) para acompanhar sua evolução. Painéis foram realizados em regiões relevantes do estado de São Paulo para definir as características de propriedades representativas de criação de cordeiros, e estas foram tomadas como base para a construção do modelo. As mesorregiões selecionadas foram as de São José do Rio Preto, Bauru, Araçatuba, Campinas e Piracicaba. Em seguida, foi definido o modelo de cálculo de custo de produção, com base na Teoria Econômica. Foram então acompanhados os preços dos insumos e calculados mensalmente os custos de produção para as propriedades representativas, permitindo a elaboração dos índices de custo. Realizou-se então a análise das elasticidades dos preços dos insumos e dos coeficientes zootécnicos. Por fim, foi conduzida a validação do ICPC junto a produtores e técnicos. Ficou nítido que a atividade enfrenta muitos desafios...

O impacto das tecnologias de informação e comunicação, implantadas a partir de 2003, sobre a estrutura de custos no governo do Rio Grande do Sul

Silveira, Stefano José Caetano da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
O conceito de governo eletrônico (e-Gov) surgiu do somatório de ações e benefícios proporcionados pelas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TICs). O produto final deste trabalho é a proposição de um estudo que identifique os custos de produção e os custos de transação, bem como seus respectivos componentes nos projetos do Governo do Rio Grande do Sul analisados antes e depois das modernas soluções de TICs implantadas a partir de 2003, tanto sob a ótica do Estado como do cidadão. Nessa proposta, foi adotado o referencial teórico da Nova Economia Institucional (NEI), focando custos de produção e de transação positivos, representados, respectivamente, pelos projetos Órgãos Públicos e Pregão Eletrônico, sendo o primeiro vinculado à Junta Comercial do Rio Grande do Sul (JUCERGS) e o último à Central de Compras do Estado (CECOM-RS). Concluiu-se que a utilização de TICs torna os processos mais ágeis e transparentes, permitindo uma queda tanto dos custos de produção como dos custos de transação. Isto é possível devido ao arrefecimento dos custos de barganha, negociação, tomada de decisão, monitoramento e cumprimento das cláusulas vigentes nos contratos firmados entre o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e seus fornecedores...

Comportamento dos custos de produção do café arábica em relação aos fatores climáticos

Rodrigues, Núbia Aparecida
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
O gerenciamento dos custos de produção do café arábica enfrenta desafios devido à diversidade de fatores que afetam a sua formação dentro das propriedades rurais. Dentre os diversos fatores que interferem na formação dos custos de produção do café arábica se destacam os fatores climáticos, especialmente as condições de precipitação e de temperatura. O café se diferencia das demais plantas frutíferas perenes, pois necessita de dois anos para completar o seu ciclo reprodutivo, isto que dizer que o florescimento e a frutificafação não ocorre no mesmo ano civil. Esta particularidade fez com que estudiosos dividissem o ciclo fenológico do cafeeiro em fases fenológicas com a finalidade de facilitar o entendimento das exigências climáticas da planta. Estas fases são: (1) vegetação e formação das gemas foliares, (2) indução e maturação das gemas florais, (3) florada, chumbinho e expansão dos frutos, (4) granação, (5) maturação e (6) repouso. O comportamento das condições climáticas em cada uma destas fases interfere no desempenho produtivo da planta. A revisão teórica apontou que a produtividade da lavoura afeta a formação dos custos de produção. Diante disso, pretendeu investigar o comportamento dos custos de produção do café arábica em relação aos fatores climáticos nas fases fenológicas do cafeeiro. A amostra deste estudo foi composta pelas cidades referência das principais regiões produtoras do país...

Trade Integration in East Asia : The Role of China and Production Networks

Haddad, Mona
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Production networks have been at the heart of the recent growth in trade among East Asian countries. Fragmentation trade, reflected mainly in the trade in parts and components, is expanding more rapidly than the conventional trade in final goods. This is mainly due to the relatively more favorable policy setting for international production, agglomeration benefits arising from the early entry into this new form of specialization, considerable intercountry wage differentials in the region, lower trade and transport costs, and specialization in products exhibiting increasing returns to scale. The economic integration of China has deepened production fragmentation in East Asia, countering fears of crowding out other countries for international specialization. International production fragmentation in East Asia has intensified intraregional trade but has depended heavily on extraregional trade in final goods. While production networks centered on China have contributed significantly to growth in East Asia...

Infrastructure and Trade Preferences for the Livestock Sector : Empirical Evidence from the Beef Industry in Africa

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Trade preferences are expected to facilitate global market integration and offer the potential for rapid economic growth and poverty reduction for developing countries. But those preferences do not always guarantee sustainable external competitiveness to beneficiary countries and may risk discouraging their efforts to improve underlying productivity. This paper examines the EU beef import market where several African countries have been granted preferential treatment. The estimation results suggest that profitability improvement achieved by countries under the Cotonou protocol compares unfavorably with the returns to nonbeneficiary countries in recent years. Rather, it shows that public infrastructure, such as paved roads, has an important role in lowering production costs and thus increasing external competitiveness and market shares.

The Cost of Compliance with Product Standards for Firms in Developing Countries : An Econometric Study

Maskus, Keith E.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Standards and technical regulations exist to protect consumer safety or to achieve other goals, such as ensuring the interoperability of telecommunications systems, for example. Standards and technical regulations can, however, raise substantially both start-up and production costs for firms. Maskus, Otsuki, and Wilson develop econometric models to provide the first estimates of the incremental production costs for firms in developing nations in conforming to standards imposed by major importing countries. They use firm-level data generated from 16 developing countries in the World Bank Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Survey Database. Their findings indicate that standards do increase short-run production costs by requiring additional inputs of labor and capital. A 1 percent increase in investment to meet compliance costs in importing countries raises variable production costs by between 0.06 and 0.13 percent, a statistically significant increase. The authors also find that the fixed costs of compliance are nontrivial-approximately $425,000 per firm, or about 4.7 percent of value added on average. The results may be interpreted as one indication of the extent to which standards and technical regulations might constitute barriers to trade. While the relative impact on costs of compliance is relatively small...

The Environment as a Factor of Production

Considine, Timothy J.; Larson, Donald F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The authors develop a model of environmental resource use in production with an empirical analysis of how electric power companies consume and bank sulfur dioxide pollution permits. The model considers emissions, fuels, and labor as variable inputs with quasi-fixed inputs of permits and capital. Incorporating information from permit markets allows the authors to distinguish between user costs and asset shadow values. Their findings indicate that firms are holding stocks of pollution permits for reasons other than short-term cost savings. The results also reveal substantial substitution possibilities between emissions, permits stocks, and other factors of production. The authors speculate that anticipated secondary markets for carbon-offset inventories related to the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol will have similar effects for greenhouse-gas emitting firms.

Are Biofuels Economically Competitive with Their Petroleum Counterparts? Production Cost Analysis for Zambia

Sinkala, Thomson; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Ekanayake, Indira J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
With increased global interest in biofuels, Zambia, a Sub- Saharan African country that entirely depends on imports for its petroleum supply, is planning to implement blending mandates for biofuels. But, a large number of issues—including production costs of biofuels, land requirements to meet the mandates, and environmental benefits—have not yet been explored. This study aims to contribute in filling this gap. It finds that depending on feedstock type, costs of ethanol production range from US$0.360 a liter to US$0.680 a liter while the costs for biodiesel production range from US$0.612 a liter to US$0.952 a liter. Even if lower energy contents of biofuels are taken into account, the analysis shows that biofuels are cheaper than their petroleum counterparts. Considering the cost advantage of these biofuels over petroleum products and the availability of surplus agricultural land, Zambia is likely to benefit from the development of a biofuel industry. Biofuels is expected to reduce Zambia’s petroleum import bill, which currently stands at more than US$700 million, enhance food security by providing incentives to increase yields, and increase affordability and accessibility to modern energy in the country where 77 percent of the population still lacks access to modern energy. It could also stimulate rural employment and development.

The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and Deforestation

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
Livestock systems globally are changing rapidly in response to human population growth, urbanization, and growing incomes. This paper discusses the linkages between burgeoning demand for livestock products, growth in livestock production, and the impacts this may have on natural resources, and how these may both affect and be affected by climate change in the coming decades. Water and land scarcity will increasingly have the potential to constrain food production growth, with adverse impacts on food security and human well-being. Climate change will exacerbate many of these trends, with direct effects on agricultural yields, water availability, and production risk. In the transition to a carbon-constrained economy, livestock systems will have a key role to play in mitigating future emissions. At the same time, appropriate pricing of greenhouse gas emissions will modify livestock production costs and patterns. Health and ethical considerations can also be expected to play an increasing role in modifying consumption patterns of livestock products...

Firm Productivity and Infrastructure Costs in East Africa

Iimi, Atsushi; Humphrey, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Infrastructure is an important driving force for economic growth. It reduces trade and transaction costs and stimulates the productivity of the economy. Africa has been lagging behind in the global manufacturing market. Among others, infrastructure is an important constraint in many African countries. Using firm-level data for East Africa, the paper reexamines the relationship between firm performance and infrastructure. It is shown that labor costs are by far the most important to stimulate firm production. Among the infrastructure sectors, electricity costs have the highest output elasticity, followed by transport costs. In addition, the paper shows that the quality of infrastructure is important to increase firm production. In particular, quality transport infrastructure seems to be essential. The paper also finds that agglomeration economies can reduce firm costs. The agglomeration elasticity is estimated at 0.03–0.04.

Sustainability and Production Costs in the Global Farming Sector: Comparative Analysis and Methodologies

LANGRELL Stephen; CIAIAN PAVEL; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio; CUNNINGHAM Dan L.; GARNIER Jean-François; ISERMEYER Folkhard; MISHRA Ashok K.
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This report constitutes a comprehensive compilation and synthesis of the principle issues and outcomes of the joint Institute for prospective Technological Studies / Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development workshop on "Sustainability and Production Costs in the Global Farming Sector: Comparative Analysis and Methodologies" held in Brussels between 21-22 June 2011. Gathering a range of international experts and specialists in the field of production costs analysis and development, covering a range of strategic agricultural sectors of global importance, the workshop aimed to review methodologies and approaches to calculating production costs used in various sectors nationally and globally, with emphasis on exploring the applicability for effective international comparisons. A special attention was given to the methodologies and approaches for data collection and processing, factor market structure and policy inter-linkages, sectoral coverage, horizontal technical issues, and the implications for global agricultural markets. Based on the participant deliberations and discussions, a number of practically based policy recommendations towards achieving such comparisons were highlighted. The production of this report...

Managing Quantity, Quality, and Timing in Indian Cane Sugar Production : Ex Post Marketing Permits or Ex Ante Production Contracts?

Patlolla, Sandhyarani; Goodhue, Rachael E.; Sexton, Richard J.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Private sugar processors in Andhra Pradesh, India use an unusual form of vertical coordination. They issue 'permits' to selected cane growers a few weeks before harvest. These permits specify the amount of cane to be delivered during a narrow time period. This article investigates why processors create uncertainty among farmers using ex post permits instead of ex ante production contracts. The theoretical model predicts that ex post permits are more profitable than ex ante contracts or the spot market under existing government regulations in the sugar sector, which include a binding price floor for cane and the designation of a reserve area for each processor wherein it has a legal monopsony for cane. The use of ex post permits creates competition among farmers to increase cane quality, which increases processor profits and farmer costs. Empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that farmers operating in private factory areas have higher unit production costs than do their counterparts who patronize cooperatives.

Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders would need to be reduced but even more attention should be paid to domestic marketing costs. Policy makers in East Africa should not be misled that encouraging greater regional trade is solely a diplomatic matter. Instead, concerted public investments and policy actions at local, national, and regional levels are required. Reduced marketing costs would allow a reduction in input prices and thus production costs. This report aims to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind the marketing costs for maize in East African countries. While a number of studies have recognized major barriers to trade in the region, few have actually quantified their relative importance or the magnitudes of these constraints on grain trade. Since much past research has been inconclusive...

The Role of Trade Costs in Global Production Networks : Evidence from China’s Processing Trade Regime

Ma, Alyson C.; Van Assche, Ari
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
In a seminal contribution, Yi (2003) has shown that vertically specialized trade should be more sensitive to changes in trade costs than regular trade. Yet empirical evidence of this remains remarkably scant. This paper uses data from China's processing trade regime to analyze the role of trade costs on trade within global production networks (GPNs). Under this regime, firms are granted duty exemptions on imported inputs as long as they are used solely for export purposes. As a result, the data provide information on trade between three sequential nodes of a global supply chain: the location of input production, the location of processing (in China) and the location of further consumption. This makes it possible to examine the role of both trade costs related to the import of inputs (upstream trade costs) and trade costs related to the export of final goods (downstream trade costs) on intra-GPN trade. The authors show that intra-GPN trade differs from regular trade in that it not only depends on downstream trade costs...

Leveling the Field for Renewables : Mexico's New Policy Framework for Incorporating External Costs of Electricity Generation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Mexico has started a number of efforts to develop adequate policy frameworks in several areas including the energy sector, transportation and industrial policies, and forestry and natural resources management. Its Climate Change Law and the National Strategy on Climate Change envision is changing the upward trend of its carbon dioxide emissions towards a total decline of emission of thirty percent by 2020, and fifty percent by 2050. Achieving these ambitious policy goals is challenging for the country and will require many distinct efforts to mainstream climate change in policy design. Careful economic analysis will be critical to effectively reduce emissions while allowing for sustainable development. The policy evaluated in the study is part of Mexico's policy framework to promote renewable energy. The Ministry of Energy in Mexico, SENER, has issued a Methodology to incorporate external costs of electricity generation. While external costs are not privative of fossil energy, the Mexican government has started this process by focusing on the external costs on health and climate change...