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Resolução de problemas e representações semióticas: uma experiência no ensino médio inspirada no rali matemático; Problem solving and semiotic representations: an experience at the secondary school based on mathematical rally

Prado, Marilia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Este trabalho tem como tema de estudo a Resolução de Problemas no ensino e aprendizagem da Matemática na Educação Básica e insere-se no projeto Ensino de Matemática na Escola Elementar, no âmbito do programa Observatório da Educação (OBEDUC/CAPES), desenvolvido no IME-USP. Seu objetivo é investigar de que maneira as práticas de Resolução de Problemas podem ser implementadas na sala de aula e como essas práticas são vivenciadas pelos alunos. Para tanto, propôs-se desenvolver realizar e analisar uma experiência em Resolução de Problemas com alunos da 1a série do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública de São Paulo/SP, inspirada na competição internacional Rali Matemático. Em geral, durante a busca da solução de um problema em Matemática, as ideias precisam ser organizadas a partir da representação de objetos matemáticos e de relações entre eles. Com isso, entendendo que diferentes tipos de representações matemáticas são ferramentas úteis na atividade de resolução de problemas, buscamos analisar o papel de diversas representações semióticas nos processos de resolução dos alunos. A estratégia metodológica envolveu um estudo experimental de intervenção, organizado em três fases, cuja análise dos dados coletados foi de natureza qualitativa...

Interação social de problemas aritmeticos nas series iniciais do ensino fundamental; Social interaction and arithmetic problem solving in the primary school

Marta Santana Comerio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a interação social em díade durante a solução de problemas aritméticos rotineiros e não-rotineiros. O estudo também examina os procedimentos de solução e a representação gráfica adotada pelos participantes na solução de problemas de estrutura aditiva e multiplicativa. Participaram deste estudo vinte e quatro alunos de uma quarta série municipal do Ensino Fundamental. O plano empírico da investigação foi composto por um pré-teste (tipo lápis e papel) contendo doze problemas aritméticos, quatro sessões deliberadas de interação social em díade e um pós-teste com as mesmas características do pré-teste. O resultado do pré-teste também foi considerado na formação das díades de acordo com os níveis de desempenho: alto, médio e baixo. Os resultados principais, interpretados conforme as proposições de Vergnaud e dos estudos de Vigotski, indicaram que a maioria dos estudantes, após trabalharem em díade, apresentou avanço no desempenho. Em consonância com diversos estudos na área, a interação social foi vista como um fator facilitador do desenvolvimento conceitual da aritmética elementar veiculada à solução de problemas. As recomendações deste estudo apontaram a interação social entre os estudantes...

Representação e solução de problemas aritmeticos de divisão : um estudo dos procedimentos empregados por alunos do ensino fundamental I; Arithmetic division problem-solving and representation : a study of procedures used by students in elementary school

Adriana Maria Corder Molinari
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar como as crianças de 4º e 5º anos representam graficamente procedimentos de solução de problemas aritméticos de divisão por quotas. Fundamentado na teoria de Jean Piaget, este estudo descreve o processo de construção da operação aritmética de divisão e foi realizado com vinte alunos matriculados no Ensino Fundamental I de uma escola privada, localizada no interior do estado de São Paulo. Participaram dez alunos do 4º ano e dez do 5º, com idade entre 9 e 11 anos. Para verificar as representações dos estudantes, aplicaram-se provas aritméticas de divisão, compostas de seis problemas de divisão por quotas no total, distribuídos em duas sessões: a Prova de Multiplicação e Divisão Aritmética, cuja meta foi avaliar o nível da psicogênese da noção de multiplicação e de divisão dos estudantes, e a Entrevista, cuja meta foi verificar a explicação dos educandos aos procedimentos de solução empregados, bem como a noção de divisão construída. Do ponto de vista da psicogênese da noção do operador multiplicativo, os estudantes incluíram-se nas condutas III, IV, ou em transição entre as condutas III e IV, revelando estarem bem desenvolvidos nessa noção; porém verificou-se que somente 4 dos 20 estudantes...

O future problem solving program internacional (FPSPI) como um possível instrumento interventivo na sobredotação : caracterização do programa

Azevedo, Ivete; Morais, Maria de Fátima; Cramond, Bonnie
Fonte: ANEIS Publicador: ANEIS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
O FPSPI- Future Problem Solving Program International é um programa educativo, internacionalmente validado, visando o desenvolvimento de competências de resolução de problemas (em crianças, jovens e nos aplicadores do programa), tais como o pensamento criativo, pensamento crítico e analítico, comunicação oral e escrita, trabalho em equipa, gestão emocional e tomada de decisão. Paralelamente, promove no contexto escolar a motivação para a aprendizagem, o rendimento escolar, o papel ativo do aluno e o envolvimento da (e na) comunidade. Em termos práticos, o desenvolvimento acontece dando aos participantes oportunidades de exercitar tais competências enquanto exploram temas relacionados com o futuro. Apesar de não ser um programa de intervenção especificamente dirigido a sobredotados, internacionalmente tem vindo a ser adotado como um dos instrumentos que vão ao encontro da necessidade formativa deste grupo. Pretende-se então contextualizar e apresentar tal programa, sumariamente, sensibilizando ainda para resultados positivos da sua aplicação.; Abstract The FPSPI-­‐Future Problem Solving Program International is an educational program with international validation and oriented to the development of creative problem solving skills in participants (pre-­‐adolescents and adolescents) and mentors (adults). These skills include creative...

FPSPI - Futur Problem Solving International : análise dos efeitos do programa em competências do pensamento criativo; FPSPI - Futur Problem Solving International : análisis de los efectos del programa en habilidades de pensamiento creativo; FPSPI - Futur Problem Solving International : analysis of the program effects in creative thinking skills

Azevedo, Ivete; Morais, Maria de Fátima; Martins, Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Amazonas Publicador: Universidade Federal do Amazonas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
O Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI) é um programa educativo que envolve crianças e jovens, internacionalmente validado. Tem como base teórica o modelo de Resolução Criativa de Problemas e o Pensamento Futurista. Direciona-se para a promoção de competências de pensamento criativo, pensamento crítico e analítico, recorrendo a uma abordagem futurista dos problemas. Nesta investigação, pretendeu-se avaliar os efeitos deste programa nas competências criativas avaliadas pelo Teste de Pensamento Criativo de Torrance, Versão Figurativa (Forma A), A intervenção foi feita em 51 adolescentes, durante sete meses e em contexto extracurricular. A avaliação dos efeitos do programa teve em conta dois momentos (pré e pós teste), assim como grupos experimental e de controlo semelhantes. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas em todas as competências avaliadas, indicando um impacto positivo do programa na amostra. Tais resultados são contextualizados, descritos e discutidos, sensibilizando-se para futuras aplicações e investigações do programa em Portugal.; El Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI) es un programa educativo, validado internacionalmente, que involucra niños y jóvenes. La base teórica es la resolución creativa de problemas y el pensamiento futurista. Estás preparado para promover las habilidades de pensamiento creativo ...

Creative problem solving method in organizational innovation

Sousa, Fernando; Monteiro, Ileana Pardal; Peñalver, Juan
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
This research focuses on the development of entrepreneurship projects, using the creative problem solving (CPS) methodology and aims at demonstrating its effectiveness in improving team commitment to entrepreneurship projects. The design follows an adaptation of the 8-step process of Basadur’s problem solving approach (Basadur, 1997), into a 5-step procedure, consisting of fact finding, problem definition, solution finding and action planning. These steps are carried out in two four-hour sessions, using specific techniques that link creative people and management in order to develop a plan of action, thus initiating a system of transformation of the individual and team creativity into organizational innovation. Forty M.A. students, organized in four groups (two in art education and two in tourist entrepreneurship) were submitted to a pre-post test regarding team commitment, prior and after two 4-hour problem solving sessions, following one objective provided by the course director. At the end of the sessions they were also required to fill in a form where they were asked to express their evaluation of the method. Each project designed is now under implementation, and each group is registering all the necessary data to allow for the following up of the project. Results indicated an improvement in individual attitude towards emotional team commitment...

18.S34 Problem Solving Seminar, Fall 2002; Problem Solving Seminar

Stanley, Richard P., 1944-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
This course is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning various techniques and background information useful for problem solving.

Naive Problem Solving and Naive Mathematics

Chapman, David
Fonte: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Publicador: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
AI problem solvers have almost always been given a complete and correct axiomatization of their problem domain and of the operators available to change it. Here I discuss a paradigm for problem solving in which the problem solver initially is given only a list of available operators, with no indication as to the structure of the world or the behavior of the operators. Thus, to begin it is "blind" and can only stagger about in the world tripping over things until it begins to understand what is going on. Eventually it will learn enough to solve problems in the world as well as if it the world had been explained to it initially. I call this paradigm naive problem solving. The difficulty of adequately formalizing all but the most constrained domains makes naive problem solving desirable. I have implemented a naive problem solver that learns to stack blocks and to use an elevator. It learns by finding instances of "naive mathematical cliches" which are common mental models that are likely to be useful in any domain.; MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes

Falkner, K.; Palmer, E.
Fonte: ACM; USA Publicador: ACM; USA
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach to introductory computer science education that addresses student engagement through integrating cooperative learning techniques and authentic problem solving processes throughout each aspect of the curriculum. Over a period of 4 years, the introductory computer science course at the University of Adelaide has been modified to support a cooperative learning style. A three-stage methodology has been implemented in place of traditional lectures to achieve this. The process focuses on observing the application of programming techniques, observing problem solving techniques and then applying cooperative problem solving exercises in the classroom. The results from this change in teaching methodology have been an increase in attendance rates at lectures and practical sessions as well as improved learning outcomes as measured by exam results. Student experience surveys show students have greater motivation for learning and believe they have a better understanding of concepts since the changes have occurred.; Katrina Falkner and Edward Palmer; Also cited as: SIGCSE Bulletin...

Developing authentic problem solving skills in introductory computing classes

Falkner, K.; Palmer, E.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The ability to solve problems is the key to developing software, and it is an ability that can be difficult to learn. Introductory Computer Science students are often taught syntax and semantics, along with simple problems designed to develop logical, structured thinking, but authentic problem-solving skills are rarely developed at these early stages. In this paper we describe an approach to introductory computer science education that addresses student engagement through integrating cooperative learning techniques and authentic problem solving processes throughout each aspect of the curriculum. Over a period of 4 years, the introductory computer science course at the University of Adelaide has been modified to support a cooperative learning style. A three-stage methodology has been implemented in place of traditional lectures to achieve this. The process focuses on observing the application of programming techniques, observing problem solving techniques and then applying cooperative problem solving exercises in the classroom. The results from this change in teaching methodology have been an increase in attendance rates at lectures and practical sessions as well as improved learning outcomes as measured by exam results. Student experience surveys show students have greater motivation for learning and believe they have a better understanding of concepts since the changes have occurred.; Katrina Falkner...

Problem solving and computer-assisted instruction in science education : analysis of research findings and the research process /

Skinner, Jennifer Anastasia.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The quantitative component of this study examined the effect of computerassisted instruction (CAI) on science problem-solving performance, as well as the significance of logical reasoning ability to this relationship. I had the dual role of researcher and teacher, as I conducted the study with 84 grade seven students to whom I simultaneously taught science on a rotary-basis. A two-treatment research design using this sample of convenience allowed for a comparison between the problem-solving performance of a CAI treatment group (n = 46) versus a laboratory-based control group (n = 38). Science problem-solving performance was measured by a pretest and posttest that I developed for this study. The validity of these tests was addressed through critical discussions with faculty members, colleagues, as well as through feedback gained in a pilot study. High reliability was revealed between the pretest and the posttest; in this way, students who tended to score high on the pretest also tended to score high on the posttest. Interrater reliability was found to be high for 30 randomly-selected test responses which were scored independently by two raters (i.e., myself and my faculty advisor). Results indicated that the form of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) used in this study did not significantly improve students' problem-solving performance. Logical reasoning ability was measured by an abbreviated version of the Group Assessment of Lx)gical Thinking (GALT). Logical reasoning ability was found to be correlated to problem-solving performance in that...

STUDENTS’ USE OF METACOGNITIVE SKILLS WHILE PROBLEM SOLVING IN HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY

DELVECCHIO, FRANCINE LISA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The purpose of this study was to investigate how purposeful metacognitive instruction affected students’ use of metacognitive skills and their abilities to solve complex chemistry problems. The pilot (n = 18 to 26) and study (n = 21) groups were enrolled in separate Ontario Grade 11 university preparation chemistry classes. A quasi-experimental intervention was implemented, using the pilot study as a control. A Metacognitive Framework that outlined metacognitive skills specific to problem solving in chemistry formed the foundation for the intervention. Pre- and post-test self report questionnaires measuring students’ use of metacognitive skills (MCAI) and the problem solving tasks (i.e., PSTs) were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Data about students’ metacognitive and problem solving processes were also collected for the study group from: (a) think aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) protocols, (b) an exit interview with the classroom teacher, (c) the students’ lab reports for two design labs, and (d) a survey of students’ use of the Metacognitive Framework. One way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the pre- and post-test MCAI scores were not significantly different within and between the pilot and study groups. A comparison of the higher and lower achievement subgroups within the study group revealed that over time...

Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation

Barber, Gerald
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 30 p.; 10140634 bytes; 1549445 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
This paper describes an approach to supporting work in the office. Using and extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) we describe office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called Omega is used to embed knowledge of the organization into an office worker's workstation in order to support the office worker in his or her problem solving. A particular approach to reasoning about change and contradiction is discussed. This approach uses Omega's viewpoint mechanism. Omega's viewpoint mechanism is a general contradiction handling facility. Unlike other Knowledge Representation systems, when a contradiction is reached the reasons for the contradiction can be analyzed by the deduction mechanism without having to resort to a backtracking mechanism. The Viewpoint mechanism is the heart of the Problem Solving Support Paradigm. This paradigm supplements the classical AI view of problem solving. Office workers are supported using the Problem Solving Support Paradigm. An example is presented where Omega's facilities are used to support an office worker's problem solving activities. The example illustrates the use of viewpoints and of Omega's capabilities to reason about it's own reasoning process.

IMPROVING THE PROBLEM SOLVING PERFORMANCE OF STRUGGLING LEARNERS IN MATHEMATICS

Palmay, ANDREA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention approach called Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) that was supported with the use of graphic organizers (GOs). The intention of the research was to determine if CSI with the use of GOs could help improve the word problem solving performance of Grade 8 students experiencing difficulties in mathematics. The CSI approach incorporated instructional elements and guidelines from a Cognitive Strategy program called Solve it! (Montague, 2003). This study was conducted over 18-weeks. Three, female students participated in a 13-week group instruction. Field observations were collected during instruction to examine students’ mannerisms, such as their positive and negative responses, as well as their understanding of the material. Data were also collected from pre- and post- measures to examine students’: (a) feelings toward math problem solving; (b) knowledge, use, and control of the seven cognitive strategies and processes; and (c) performance in solving math word problems. The students participated in pre- and post- individual interviews (based on the modified MPSA-SF; Montague, 1996), as well as a pre- and post-math word problem solving quiz (based on Grade 6 EQAO assessments). The results indicated that students’ participation on CSI training with the support of GOs may provide potential benefits to students who struggle in math. Two of the three students improved their performance in solving one-step math word problems on the post-intervention quiz. There was also a general improvement in students’ feelings toward math problem solving and an overall improvement in their knowledge and application of the problem solving strategies. In addition...

Deaf students and problem solving in mathematics

Maltzan, Heather
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project Formato: 12031135 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Currently, there exists a gap between findings in the research in mathematics education of deaf students and subsequent changes in educational settings for deaf students. Problem solving skills has become an area of particular concern. Deaf students' performance on problem solving tasks and word problems falls below that of their hearing counterparts. The research into the causes is organized into four broad categories: language and communication, semantic and conceptual understanding or cognition, the effects of educational environment or experience, and testing of proposed strategies. The implications of these research including reading, vocabulary, conceptual understanding, teacher preparation, incorporation of the Standards, technology, problem-solving skills strategies, and cognitive education are discussed as are recommendations for future research. The creation of an on-line resource to provide teachers with easy and fast access to research findings in the field of problem solving for deaf students as well as concrete ways to incorporate these findings in their instructional methods is suggested.

Ego-involvement manipulation via experimental para-instructions: effects on mood states and problem solving performance; Manipulação de envolvimento de ego via para-instruções experimentais: efeitos sobre estados de ânimo e desempenho edutivo em resolução de problemas

Capovilla, Fernando C.; Capovilla, Alessandra Gotuzo S.; Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho de; Costa, Carlos Eduardo; Duduchi, Marcelo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1996 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The present study focuses on some relationships holding among causal attribution, mood states, ego involvement, and cognitive performance, in the context of research artifacts. Experimental para-instructions were presented immediately before a problem-solving computerized task (Nomos), in order to produce high ego-involvement in one group, and low ego-involvement in another. The former attributed Nomos performance to the stable-internal attribute"intelligence"; whereas the latter attributed it to the unstable-external attribute"software quality". Cognitive performance effects were assessed via Nomos. Mood effects were assessed via List of Present Mood States (LPMS) applied both before and after para-instructions, as well as after Nomos. Re-assessment of problem-solving abilities, as an independent control, was obtained via Raven Progressive Matrices Test (RPMT) in the end. Para-instructions affected both LPMS ego-involvement and problem-solving performance in Nomos. Mood effects were restricted to Nomos, and did not affect RPMT performance. High ego-involvement para-instructions decreased task-disengagement mood; low ego-involvement ones decreased task-engagement mood. Task-engagement mood was significantly greater than task-disengagement mood as a consequence of high ego-involvement para-instruction. Problem-solving performance in Nomos under high ego-involvement was better than it was under low ego-involvement. Under high ego-involvement there was a positive correlation between Nomos and RPMT performances...

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process

Ke,C. K.
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how to obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

On the teaching and learning of physics problem solving

Rojas,S.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
This article presents a six-step problem-solving strategy, aimed at addressing three major problems in the learning and teaching of physics: 1) the demand by physics instructors for effective teaching strategies that could help in the teaching of intuitive conceptual and quantitative reasoning in physics, and how to teach both aspects holistically; 2) the students' need for suitable methodology that could help students to fill the gap in textbooks on enhancing their mathematical reasoning abilities, which are essential for reinforcing students' knowledge of conceptual physics; and 3) a deficiency in the teaching of physics leading to students not being taught a coherent physics problem-solving strategy that would enable them to engage in both mathematical and conceptual reasoning. After a review of publications made by the Physics Education Research group (PER), the importance of a structured, systemic methodology to solve physics problems is considered. Then a structured, systemic methodology for solving physics problems is described by extending the well-known problem-solving steps presented by Polya. The proposed strategy includes the following steps: 1. Understand the problem, 2. Provide a qualitative description of the problem...

The effects of problem-based learning on pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of problem-solving ability

Temel,Senar
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception ofproblem-solving ability ofpre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions andperceptions of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers, when implemented in the teaching of the acid-base topic. Participants for the study consisted of 49 pre-service teachers. A pre-test-post-test control group design was used. Data were obtained using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and Problem-Solving Inventory. It was generally determined that pre-service teachers exhibit low levels of critical thinking disposition and medium levels of perception of problem-solving ability. Also, while problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods did not have different effects on the critical thinking dispositions ofpre-service teachers, they had different effects on their perceptions of problem-solving ability.

Chemistry students' competence throughout their BSc course in some problem-solving strategies

Selvaratnam,Mailoo
Fonte: South African Journal of Chemistry Publicador: South African Journal of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
The main objective of the study was to test chemistry students' competence, in the first, second and final years of their BSc course, in some basic problem-solving strategies. Five strategies were tested: clarification and clear representation of problems; focusing sharply on the goal; identification and use of relevant principles; use of equations for calculations and deductions and use of a step-by-step procedure. The study method used was the analysis of students' solutions to questions that were carefully designed to test competence in problem-solving strategies. The study showed that performance was poor in all the problem-solving strategies tested and that there was no improvement in performance as students progressed from year to year. About a half of the students tested (average performance in all of the 11 questions used for testing) had difficulty in answering the questions. Possible reasons for students' difficulties are identified and suggestions are made for rectifying the difficulties. It is suggested that difficulties with the use of cognitive strategies are often not due to students' inability to understand and use them but to insufficient emphasis being placed on them in their courses. Since an increase in competence in cognitive strategies and cognitive skills canbe expected to lead to more efficient learning and problem-solving...