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A escola primária no Estado do Pará (1920 - 1940); The primary school in Pará (1920-1940)

Coelho, Maricilde Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
A tese A escola primária no Estado do Pará (1920- 1940) analisa a cultura da escola primária no Brasil, e em particular no Estado do Pará, local de interesse central desse estudo. Para isso, foi necessário a identificação do quadro social, político, cultural e econômico da sociedade brasileira em geral e, de modo mais particular, da sociedade paraense no desenrolar dessas décadas. A partir do conceito de cultura escolar desenvolvido por Dominique Julia, descrito como um conjunto de normas que definem conhecimentos a ensinar, condutas a inculcar e práticas que permitem a transmissão desses conhecimentos e a incorporação desses comportamentos, a tese analisa as normas e legislações para a educação primária; os saberes, gerais e específicos, ministrados aos alunos nas diferentes escolas primárias em diferentes localizações espaciais das cidades e vilarejos paraenses; a formação do professor primário, agente responsável em utilizar dispositivos pedagógicos para facilitar a aquisição de conhecimentos e habilidades, entre eles os rituais e as comemorações cívicas na escola primária, elementos de apoio na formação dos conceitos de nacionalidade e de civilidade. As fontes utilizadas para o trabalho foram: relatórios e mensagens dos governadores...

A formação dos saberes sobre Ciências e seu ensino : trajetórias de professores dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental; Teacher education for science teaching : education pathways of primary school teachers

Maína Bertagna Rocha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Muitas pesquisas apontam as dificuldades de professores para ensinar Ciências nos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental, devido à falta de domínio dos conteúdos específicos e dos fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos e práticos relativos a essa disciplina. Nos cursos de Pedagogia do país, em geral, cerca de 2% da carga horária total tem sido dedicada à formação específica para o Ensino de Ciências. Diante desse cenário, esta pesquisa trata das seguintes questões: quais as fontes de aquisição dos conhecimentos sobre Ciências e seu Ensino requeridas por professores dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental, como esses conhecimentos constituem sua prática pedagógica e quais as influências para essas práticas da formação para o Ensino de Ciências recebida no curso de Pedagogia? O trabalho analisa a trajetória de formação de três professores dos anos iniciais e a formação específica que receberam nos respectivos cursos de Pedagogia. Foram selecionadas três Instituições de Ensino Superior do estado de São Paulo, um docente formador da área de Ensino de Ciências no curso de Pedagogia de cada instituição e um professor egresso de cada curso. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas...

First images in primary school textbooks as didactical obstacles in the construction of science concepts : the example of digestion

Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Silva, Rui Manuel Correia da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /08/2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
School textbooks have been defined as printed instruments created with two main goals: to help teachers to prepare and implement theirs teaching activities and to help pupils to construct their learning (Gérard & Roegiers 1998). In our previous studies we found that primary school pupils (Carvalho, Silva & Clément 2003; Carvalho et al. 2004) as well as pre-service and in-service primary school teachers (Carvalho, Dantas & Clément 2004) show difficulties in three main concepts of the digestion process – (i) sequence of the digestive tube representation, (ii) absence of blood absorption, and (iii) lack of relationship between digestive, circulatory and urinary systems – suggesting didactical obstacles, such as the use of inadequate textbooks. In order to find out whether there might be some association between these three digestion misconceptions and textbook digestion approaches, we analysed this topic in 10 primary school textbooks.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - POCTI/CED/44187/2002). European Project FP6 Biohead-Citizen CIT2-CT-2004-506015.

Similarity in school textbooks on natural sciences for the primary school level : an analysis of teaching and apprenticeship of botany in the last century in Portugal (1900-2000)

Guimarães, Fernando
Fonte: International Association of Technology, Education and Development Publicador: International Association of Technology, Education and Development
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
By analyzing school textbooks, we evidenced that Botany contents used for the teaching of Sciences cannot be isolated from both educational and curricular policies adopted in Portugal during the 20th century. Within schools, textbooks are important tools to conform shapes and contents applied in the pedagogical knowledge. The articulation of aspects related to the sequence and pace of knowledge transmission has momentous pedagogical and didactic objectives, which are made possible through properly devised activities and evaluation mechanisms for such acquisitions. With this perspective in mind, such objectives can allow us to know the subjacent pedagogical and curricular ideology, as well as the way through which the learning and apprenticeship process is understood. Such process takes place within classrooms and plays an important role for teachers and students. The present study, based upon the PhD thesis on Children Studies (Botany within school textbooks for Primary and Basic teaching levels [1st cycle] in the 20th century in Portugal), aims to analyze the importance Botany is given in Portugal in school textbooks that cover Natural Sciences for Primary School students in the last century. Our attempt to know how botanical topics were differently adopted throughout time in the school textbooks relied on 11 principles: Shape; Kingdoms; Classification; Organs; Root; Stem; Leaf; Flower; Fruit; Reproduction; and Dimension. Such appreciation...

Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia

Wiguna, Tjhin; Setyawati WR, Noorhana; Kaligis, Fransiska; Belfer, Myron Lowell
Fonte: Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology Publicador: Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Objective: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children. There is growing evidence that many students identified as having learning difficulties have significant working memory deficits. To determine, in a sample of primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia, the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits. Methods: Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary schools. The first stage was a cross-sectional study of these students, while the second stage was a case-control study comparing all students with learning difficulties and working memory deficits with controls matched by school type, grade level, and gender. Results: Among the students, whose mean age was 9.34 years (1.78), 13.7% had a learning difficulty, while 8.04% had a learning difficulty with working memory deficit. The odds ratio of comorbid working memory deficit (in the face of a learning difficulty) was 7.0 (χ(^2)= 35.96, p<0.001). Conclusion: Learning difficulties and comorbid working memory deficits were relatively common among primary school students. Efforts should be made to identify these students and provide timely assistance, in order to optimize their educational success and mental health outcomes.

Snakes and Ladders : Factors Influencing Successful Primary School Completion for Children in Poverty Contexts

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The World Bank (New Delhi) commissioned this qualitative study in June 2002 with the objective of exploring various factors that facilitate or impede successful primary school completion, with special reference to children living in diverse poverty situations. The study looks at children from conception to 11 years - tracking key milestones of children in diverse poverty situations in one district each in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. It explores the synergy between health, education and nutritional inputs in the overall development of children in different poverty situations and reflects on whether the proximal and distal environment promotes a holistic development of the child. This study includes the following headings: executive summary; background; through the life cycle of children; emerging issues; and policy implications.

Exterior and playground of Ainslie Primary School, Braddon, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 8370780 bytes; b&w; 10.1cm x 15.2cm; image/tiff
EN_AU
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View looking towards Mount Ainslie of children engaged in various activities on the large grass areas at the back of Ainslie Primary School. On the near side of a wide path, girls in school uniform ring a woman teacher while further away are two long rows of boys. The main two-storeyed block of the building is symmetrically disposed either side of a central structure accentuated by two vertical piers. The school was built in 1938 to a design by Charles Whitley, an architect employed by the Department of Works. Architecturally, it is an example of Art Deco style as seen in the flat roof and fluted decoration on the piers. The school was the first in Australia to have incorporated into its planning a library, lecture room and needlework room. This photograph is from an album that was held at the London office of the Australian National University over the period 1949 to 1952. The album was used to inform prospective staff about Canberra. These images are part of the series produced by the Department of Information and kept at the National Archives of Australia in Canberra. National Archives holdings in this series have gaps and some images may be held only at the ANU Archives.; National Archives of Australia Number: L11157. Listed on NAA RecordSearch database at: http://www.naa.gov.au; Stamped on verso: AUSTRALIAN/OFFICIAL/PHOTOGRAPH/ DEPT. OF INFORMATION; Inscribed in pencil on verso: 3; Typed on caption to right of image: Ainslie Primary School - Canberra./School and Playground.

A class at work at Ainslie Primary School, Braddon, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 8400320 bytes; b&w; 10.1cm x 15.2cm; image/tiff
EN_AU
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Photograph of girls and boys sitting at double desks and writing with pencils while a male teacher attends to a student at the back. Many of the children are in school uniform which includes tunics for girls and ties for boys. Most girls wear ribbons in their hair.The wooden desks have holes to hold ink wells and decorative corner supports. On the walls are some landscape painting reproductions and maps of Tasmania. Through the windows can be glimpsed the slope of Mount Ainslie and the dome of the Australian War Memorial. Ainslie Primary School was built in 1938 to a design by Charles Whitley, an architect employed by the Department of Works. It was the first primary school in Australia to have incorporated into its planning a library, lecture room and needlework room. This photograph is from an album that was held at the London office of the Australian National University over the period 1949 to 1952. The album was used to inform prospective staff about Canberra. These images are part of the series produced by the Department of Information and kept at the National Archives of Australia in Canberra. National Archives holdings in this series have gaps and some images may be held only at the ANU Archives.; National Archives of Australia Number: L11152. Listed on NAA RecordSearch database at: http://www.naa.gov.au; Stamped on verso: AUSTRALIAN/OFFICIAL/PHOTOGRAPH/ DEPT. OF INFORMATION; Inscribed in pencil on verso: 2; Typed on caption to right of image: Ainslie Primary School - A Class at work.

The visual room at Ainslie Primary School, Braddon, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 8452036 bytes; b&w; 10.1cm x 15.2cm; image/tiff
EN_AU
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Photograph of a classroom equipped for special use. The equipment includes a film projector, screen and blackout curtains as well as a radio and sheets of music.The room is lined with column heaters, is decorated with boldly patterned textiles and has both bench and chair seating. Ainslie Primary School was built in 1938 to a design by Charles Whitley, an architect employed by the Department of Works. It was the first primary school in Australia to have incorporated into its planning a library, lecture room and needlework room. This photograph is from an album that was held at the London office of the Australian National University over the period 1949 to 1952. The album was used to inform prospective staff about Canberra. These images are part of the series produced by the Department of Information and kept at the National Archives of Australia in Canberra. National Archives holdings in this series have gaps and some images may be held only at the ANU Archives.; National Archives of Australia Number: L11158. Listed on NAA RecordSearch database at: http://www.naa.gov.au; Stamped on verso: AUSTRALIAN/OFFICIAL/PHOTOGRAPH/ DEPT. OF INFORMATION; Inscribed in pencil on verso: 3; Typed on caption to left of image: Ainslie Primary School. The "visual" room.

Perspectives of primary school children of Filipino immigrants on their home and school experiences in South Australia.

Yu, Marizon Guillermo
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This thesis contributes to the understanding of socialisation of children by examining the perspectives of primary school children of Filipino immigrants in South Australia on their experiences at home, in school, with peers, and with media. Philippineborn children, aged 8-12, were interviewed on how they learnt the skills, attitudes, and values that enabled them to cope with their new environment. Research on the socialisation experiences of primary school children of immigrants is scarce. What there is focuses on economic status and academic success. Little is known about children’s perspectives and adaptive strategies following immigration. This thesis fills a research gap in the complexity of children’s experiences by investigating the perspectives of thirty primary school children of Filipino immigrants living in South Australia. A qualitative methodological approach grounded the children’s perspectives in symbolic interactionism (SI). Recognising the development of children’s selves through socialisation, SI sees children as active participants in human group life. Through interaction, children define their situations, take perspectives, and adjust their behaviour in line with that of others. The study concludes by generating substantive propositions regarding the socialisation experiences of children of Filipino immigrants. These support formal theoretical implications on selves...

The library at Ainslie Primary School, Braddon, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 8464260 bytes; b&w; 10.1cm x 15.2cm; image/tiff
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Scene with schoolchildren reading books in a room lined with book shelves on one wall and timber panelling on another. The room features Art Deco decorative details such as arrow-like ventilators and a fluted light fitting. A model sailing ship is displayed on top of the bookshelf and there are also hanging three paintings by Mrs J. L. Neilson. The pictures were inspired by children's books that were popular at the time and include the mad hatter's teaparty from Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Ainslie Primary School was built in 1938 to a design by Charles Whitley, an architect employed by the Department of Works. It was the first primary school in Australia to have incorporated into its planning a library, lecture room and needlework room. This photograph is from an album that was held at the London office of the Australian National University over the period 1949 to 1952. The album was used to inform prospective staff about Canberra. These images are part of the series produced by the Department of Information and kept at the National Archives of Australia in Canberra. National Archives holdings in this series have gaps and some images may be held only at the ANU Archives.; National Archives of Australia Number: L11151. Listed on NAA RecordSearch database at: http://www.naa.gov.au; Stamped on verso: AUSTRALIAN/OFFICIAL/PHOTOGRAPH/ DEPT. OF INFORMATION; Inscribed in pencil on verso: 1; Typed on caption to left of image: Ainslie Primary School - Canberra./One corner of the Library.

Language Teacher Education for Primary School English Teachers in Indonesia: Policy Recommendations

Zein, Mochamad Subhan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This study examines the needs of teachers of English at primary level in terms of knowledge and skills; the delivery of teacher education at pre- and in-service levels and the design of learning-teaching options; and the interplay of these aspects for the creation of policy recommendations on teacher education for primary school English teachers. Data were generated from teachers, teacher educators, members of educational board, school principals, and educational consultants using semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. The data were analyzed using grounded theory based on classification of initial codes and identification of sub-categories as generated from constant comparisons between data presented in NViVo9 and meticulous readings of interview transcriptions. The first major finding of the study is that teachers’ needs and profile are inextricably linked. Teachers’ specific needs are influenced by factors such as pedagogy preparation, length of experience, and multilingual skill, which all must form comprehensive needs analysis prior to designing teacher education programs at both pre-service and in-service levels. The second major finding shows that pre-service education has not been adequate to prepare student teachers to teach English at primary level due to the lack of specificity and practical components...

Families, Schools, and Primary-School Learning : Evidence for Argentina and Colombia in an International Perspective

Woessmann, Ludger; Fuchs, Thomas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This paper estimates the relationship between family background, school characteristics, and student achievement in primary school in two Latin American countries, Argentina and Colombia, as well as several comparison countries. The database used is the student-level international achievement data of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), which tested the reading performance of fourth-grade students in 2001. The nationally representative samples have 3,300 students in Argentina and 5,131 students in Colombia. The emerging general pattern of results is that educational performance is strongly related to students' family background, weakly to some institutional school features, and hardly to schools' resource endowments. In an international perspective, estimated family background effects are relatively large in Argentina, and relatively small in Colombia. A specific Argentine feature is the lack of performance differences between rural and urban areas. A specific Colombian feature is the lack of significant differences between gender performance. Nonnative students and students not speaking Spanish at home have particularly weak performance in both countries. But there are no differences by parental occupation and no positive effects of kindergarten attendance. In Argentina...

An examination of the implementation of ICT teaching methodologies in the 5th and 6th class primary school curriculum

Treacy, Eilis
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Master thesis (taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
non-peer-reviewed; The Primary School Curriculum (1999) is taught in all primary schools in Ireland. Using Information and Communication Technologies is recognised as a teaching methodology in the teacher guideline documents of the Primary School Curriculum. This case study on 20 schools in the environs of a large town in the west of Ireland, examined the implementation of ICT teaching methodologies in the primary school curriculum in 5th and 6th class. Pupil to computer ratio varied widely depending on single class settings and multi-class settings. Pupils‟ use of computers ranged from everyday to rarely. Lack of infrastructure and class size was a major factor in the lack of integration of ICT methodologies in classroom teaching. Teachers surveyed and interviewed called for professional development in this area and a clear practical ICT curriculum for primary schools. Lack of time and support were further impediments to successful ICT integration. The abolition of the ICT advisory service added additional responsibility to the schools ICT post holders and principal. Recommendations drawn from this study include an interactive e-portal in conjunction with pedagogically appropriate ICT teaching resources, in-service days for ICT and a system to maintain existing ICT infrastructure in schools.

Achievement gap in the highly selective German school system : a critical analysis of strategies for equitable education in a primary school

Mueller, Tessa
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 492019 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Germany has historically been a country where peoples from various countries have worked and settled, and diverse cultures have existed. Yet, German schools still adhere to what could be described as assimilative and deficit-oriented practices (Gogolin & Krüger-Potratz, 2006; Schanz, 2006). In addition, the German education system has a high degree of social selection (Auernheimer, 2006a) that creates severe educational inequities between German and immigrant students. After four years of primary school, students are streamed into one of the three major secondary school types Gymnasium, Realschule, and Hauptschule, based on achievement. Since these schools provide education of varying quality, students are denied equal opportunities. The purpose of this study is to explore and critically analyze possible ways to alleviate the existing inequities in the German school system, which are reflected in the achievement gap between immigrant and German mainstream students (Hormel & Scherr, 2004; Schofield, 2006). Using a case study approach, I analyze the educational work of the award-winning German primary school “Kleine Kielstraße” located in Dortmund with a culturally and linguistically diverse student population, situated in a socially disadvantaged district. My purpose was to gain insight into the school’s practices and strategies for recognizing diverse students and for striving to provide equitable education for all students. Despite the strategic steps taken by this school based on the competence and the enthusiasm of the principal and staff...

Identidades em jogo: duplo mal-estar das professoras e das coordenadoras pedagógicas do Ensino Fundamental I na constante construção de seus papéis; Identities at stake: double ill-feeling of Primary School teachers and pedagogic coordinators in the construction of their roles

Horta, Patricia Rossi Torralba
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
O objetivo do presente estudo, de cunho teórico-analítico, configura-se como uma tentativa de compreensão da forma pela qual se estabeleceram, no Brasil, as identidades profissionais das professoras de primeiras letras e das coordenadoras pedagógicas, mutuamente referidas, e o mal-estar decorrente das modalidades pelas quais se instituíram, com as reformas educacionais, suas competências desejáveis mediante diferentes descrições das respectivas funções. Na busca de entender teoricamente como se produzem essas identidades nas estruturas hierárquicas das instituições escolares, os aportes teóricos de Foucault forneceram ferramentas úteis para problematizar os saberes vigentes e compreender como certos saberes são desqualificados nas relações de poder. A compreensão de Foucault acerca da relação entre saber e poder, principalmente, possibilita outras leituras dos discursos pedagógicos, acumulados e veiculados como verdades, que permeiam a construção das identidades dessas profissionais. A análise sociológica de Bauman, por sua vez, ajuda a elucidar o presente em que estamos imersos, que ele chama de modernidade \"leve\" e \"líquida\" e, assim, torna possível entender as redistribuições e realocações dos poderes e os novos padrões de dependência na instituição escolar...

A questão ambiental nas séries iniciais: práticas de professoras do distrito Anhanguera - São Paulo; The environmental issues in the primary school: the teachers´work in Anhangüera district (São Paulo, Brazil)

Pinesso, Denise Cristina Christov
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar práticas de professoras das séries iniciais relacionadas às questões ambientais. As escolas participantes estão situadas no distrito Anhanguera, região noroeste da cidade de São Paulo. Para compreender como ocorrem estas práticas, aplicamos questionários de perguntas abertas e fechadas que versavam sobre: a) o contexto em que as escolas se inserem; b) os temas desenvolvidos relacionados às questões ambientais; c) os objetivos estabelecidos para o trabalho; d) as estratégias estabelecidas e materiais utilizados; e) avaliação. Num segundo momento, trabalhamos com a metodologia do grupo focal, buscando aprofundar aspectos surgidos a partir dos questionários. Concluímos que as professoras das séries iniciais desenvolvem projetos envolvendo as questões ambientais e que a consciência sobre a importância deste trabalho é uma realidade presente, embora existam lacunas no que se refere ao fazer pedagógico - relacionadas ao planejamento e reflexão sobre a prática - e às concepções sobre natureza e educação ambiental. Apesar destas dificuldades, o trabalho das professoras é relevante e significativo, pois se insere no movimento de construção dos saberes ambientais no ensino formal; The objective of this research was to investigate the actual work of primary school teachers on environmental issues. The participant schools are located on the Anhangüera district...

Portuguese primary school teachers' conceptions and obstacles to sex education in classroom

Anastácio, Zélia; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Clément, Pierre
Fonte: University of London. Institute of Education Publicador: University of London. Institute of Education
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This research intends to identify primary school teachers’ conceptions and obstacles to teach sex education, more precisely, teachers’ opinions and perceptions of difficulties, fears and supports and the contextual factors that can influence their conceptions. The research starting point was the construction and validation of the questionnaire. This instrument was applied to a large sample with 486 primary school teachers from the northern region of Portugal. A database was constructed and statistical tests were applied. Results suggest that: teachers are little favourable to sex education in primary school; the most difficult area to teach is the expressions of sexuality; the most difficult topics to approach are related to sexual pleasure; teachers prefer the participation of parents, health professionals and psychologists; the reactions and mentalities of parents and conservative milieu are the strongest fears; teachers consider colleagues, school director and school group president supporting them; the teachers’ training expressed needs are scientific knowledge, to help them to respond easily to children's unpredictable questions and to prepare them to develop values awareness. The factors which reflect the strongest influence on teachers’ conceptions are: academic qualifications...

Including the Excluded: Recommendations for Improving the Enrollment of Disabled Children in Primary School in the United Republic of Tanzania

Wilson, Victoria
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 22/04/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Policy Question What social, economic and environmental factors hinder the enrollment of disabled, primary school-aged children in the United Republic of Tanzania, and how can the government turn the country’s existing educational system into an inclusive one that overcomes these barriers? Background The definition of disability has changed over the past few decades so that the root of the cause is not an individual’s impairment but the social, environmental and attitudinal barriers established by society. This new definition of disability, called the social model, explains the cycle of impairment and poverty seen around the world, including the United States. Once an individual becomes impaired, he becomes socially excluded from society. If he is young, he is often excluded from a country’s education system because it lacks the ability to accommodate him or because he is actively discriminated against due to the stigma of disability. Lack of education leads to limited employment choices, or no employment choices, which in turn leads to poverty. Poverty leads to living in unsanitary, crowded conditions that can either lead to an exasperation of an existing impairment or an increased chance of disability amongst those living with the impaired person. The vicious cycle then starts all over again. Although statistics about disability worldwide are unreliable...

Comparison of three school feeding strategies for primary school chidren in an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa

Napier,Carin; Oldewage-Theron,Wilna; Kearney,Jeanette
Fonte: Health SA Gesondheid (Online) Publicador: Health SA Gesondheid (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this study was to compare the impact of three school feeding strategies on the nutritional status of primary school children aged six to 13 in an informal settlement in Gauteng. The methods included dietary surveys and anthropometric and biochemical measurements of a sample of 160 primary school children allocated to three different school feeding intervention groups. One group (n=60) received a whole wheat pilchard and spinach vetkoek , a second received food according to the Government Primary School Nutrition Programme (PSNP) (n=60), and a third (n=40) received fruit. The children were given these items every day for seven months, except during school holidays and weekends. The baseline anthropometric measurements indicated that 13.6%, 20.9% and 10.8% of the children in the vetkoek, PSNP and fruit groups respectively were underweight (<5th percentile for weight-for-age) and 17.3%, 23.6% and 5.2% were stunted (<5th percentile for height-for-age). The post-intervention results indicated that the children in all three groups had improved significantly in weight and height, and in dietary intakes of zinc and iron. The results of this study indicated that all three feeding strategies contributed to an improved nutritional status. Providing fruit as a school feeding strategy may be the most affordable and easy to implement. More research is recommended to measure the impact of these strategies on a longterm basis.