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The European Union and Organized Crime: The securitization of organized crime and its embedment in the construction of a risk-based security policy

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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In its current discourse, the European Union depicts organized crime as a growing threat to democracy, to the functioning of markets and to the safety of its citizens. The EU’s discourse presents this phenomenon as an external aggressor that is taking advantage of the free circulation and establishment entailed by the Single Market, of the globalization in general and of technological advances in particular. European societies, on the other hand, are understood as helpless victims, as their traditional responses are no longer able to cope with the recently acquired transnational dimension of organized crime. Following this reasoning, the EU has been developing protection mechanisms- in order to safeguard the citizens and the society in general against organized crime-, based on a so- called common understanding of this phenomenon. Because of this effort, it has been possible to witness the strengthening of police and judicial cooperation, the development of comprehensive strategies and programmes, and the creation of new bodies and working groups to face this problem, all in the name of a greater efficiency. This trend has gradually been accentuated through the introduction of new legislation and the pressure of particular events such as the Falcone and Borsellino assassinations in 1992 and the high- profile terrorist attacks of 2001...

Defensa preventiva de la democracia: la posición del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos; Preventive defense of the democracy: the position of the European Court of Human Rights

Solar Cayón, José Ignacio
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Bogotá Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Bogotá
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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RESUMEN. Las libertades de expresión y de asociación son esenciales para garantizar la apertura del sistema democrático, pero también pueden ser utilizadas para minar sus fundamentos. Por esta razón, el Consejo de Europa decidió establecer un sistema capaz de defenderse frente a posibles amenazas antidemocráticas. Y este espíritu quedó reflejado en el Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos. El Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, a la hora de evaluar si un determinado programa político puede tomar parte en el proceso democrático, ha establecido una doble exigencia: que los medios utilizados sean pacíficos y que el proyecto político propugnado sea democrático. Por tanto, puede excluirse legítimamente la defensa democrática de un proyecto antidemocrático. En virtud de ello, el Tribunal ha formulado en Refah Partisi v. Turkey una doctrina de la defensa preventiva de la democracia que suscita complejas y delicadas cuestiones.; ABSTRACT. Freedom of expression and association are essentials to guarantee the opening of the democratic system, but they can also be exercised to undermine its foundations. For this reason, the Council of Europe was determined to establish a system capable of defending itself from the antidemocratic threats. And this spirit is reflected in the European Convention on Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights...

Disarming Fears of Diversity : Ethnic Heterogeneity and State Militarization, 1988-2002

de Soysa, Indra; Neumayer, Eric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The authors address the question of state militarization under conditions of ethnic and other diversity. "Primordialist" claims about ancient hatreds, fear, and insecurity in such societies would lead one to expect that fractionalization, polarization, and ethno-nationalist exclusion would prompt governments to militarize heavily. But contrary to such expectations, the authors find that higher levels of ethnic diversity predict lower levels of militarization, whereas higher polarization and ethno-nationalist exclusion trigger neither lower nor higher levels of militarization. If fractionalization lowers the hazard of civil war, as many find, then it does not happen by way of a "garrison state" effect. The authors discuss two potential explanations for their findings, one drawing from the empirical conflict literature, the other stemming from economists' study of public goods provision under conditions of diversity. They argue that their findings are best seen as consistent with and complementary to the empirical literature on conflict onset and duration.

Risks, uncertainty and vulnerability: transgenics and challenges for science and governability; Artigo: Riscos, incertezas e vulnerabilidades: transgênicos e os desafios para a ciência e a governança

Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
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This article discusses some dilemmas and challenges for science and the contemporary societies in analyzing and facing technological risks that can be considered complex and uncertain. The conceptual references for this article come from the discussions on uncertainties and vulnerabilities. Complex and uncertain risks are those that, par excellence, raise the application of the precautionary principle. Such risks are propitiating extensive social and political debates in modern societies. However the theme of the uncertainties and vulnerabilities, central for the debate, is rarely explicit in the scientific argumentation. The article present some definitions related to the risks, their uncertainties and complexities, as well as the limits of classical preventive paradigm and the emergence of the precaucionary principle. Afterwards the case of GMO´s for agriculture is presented as a typical example of complex and uncertain risk. Finally the article pleads the development of a science for sustainability which incorporates the precautionary principle, as well as the defense of life and participative democracy as strategic elements. Keywords: environmental riskes; uncerteainties; vulnerability; precautionary principle; trangenics.; Este artigo discute alguns dilemas e desafios para a ciência e as sociedades contemporâneas...