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Aprendizado motor em escolares: comparação entre prática mental, prática física e prática combinada; Motor Learning in scholl children: comparision physical, mental and combined practice.

Mazzitelli, Carla
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
A compreensão do processo de aprendizagem motora é de real importância para a atividade fisioterapêutica, visto que as abordagens e técnicas visam à mudança e o aperfeiçoamento de uma atividade motora ou mesmo a aquisição de uma nova habilidade. Neste processo a prática realizada tem implicação direta na aprendizagem motora. Objetivo: comparar os efeitos da prática combinada (iniciada pelo treino mental, seguido pelo treino físico, com distribuição proporcionada entre os mesmos), com os efeitos da prática mental e física isoladas, sobre aquisição, retenção, transferência inter tarefa e inter manual em crianças de 9 a 10 anos. Método: participaram do estudo 36 crianças, divididas em 3 grupos de acordo com o tipo de prática realizada: o grupo PM está composto 12 crianças, o PF por 12 crianças e o PC por 12 crianças. O treinamento foi realizado em sessão única e constituiu da repetição de 2400 movimentos de uma sequência de movimentos de oposição dos dedos. Todos os grupos foram submetidos às mesmas avaliações antes do treinamento, depois do treinamento, 4, 7, e 28 dias após o treinamento. A aquisição, a retenção e a transferência foram avaliados por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA). Para todas as interações que alcançaram nível de significância (p<0...

Noção de Knowing-in-practice : um estudo etnográfico em um ambiente de desenvolvimento de software

Ávila, Vinicius Porto de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Ao longo das últimas décadas, um crescente número de autores tem enfatizado a centralidade e a importância estratégica do conhecimento dentro das organizações. Apesar dos esforços significativos de pesquisadores de vários domínios, a tarefa de compreender o conhecimento organizacional permanece controversa. Duas escolas de pensamento contrastantes desempenham funções importantes na formação do discurso dominante, tanto na esfera acadêmica quanto no mundo gerencial: a visão tecno-racional da gestão do conhecimento (knowledge management) e a perspectiva social construtivista do conhecimento na prática (knowing-in-practice). O conceito de knowing-in-practice está situado dentro de dois grandes eixos teóricos: aprendizagem organizacional e teorias baseadas em prática. Meu objetivo nesse estudo foi identificar e compreender o knowing-in-practice dos indivíduos organizacionais pesquisados a partir das práticas de trabalho. Para isso, além de identificar e descrever as práticas de trabalho do grupo, também foi preciso descrever e analisar as relações estabelecidas entre os integrantes da equipe. Para viabilizar a pesquisa, desenvolvi um estudo etnográfico, realizado entre os meses de setembro de 2011 e dezembro de 2012...

A dimensão prática na preparação profissional em educação física : concepção e organização acadêmica; The dimension practice in professional preparation in physical education : academic organization and conception

Alfredo Cesar Antunes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
As atuais diretrizes curriculares apresentam uma atenção especial para a relação entre teoria e prática no processo de preparação profissional ao apresentar a "prática como componente curricular". O objetivo geral desta pesquisa é identificar a concepção e organização da "prática como componente curricular" (PCC) nas Diretrizes Curriculares e nas IES em Educação Física do Município de Campinas/SP. Objetivos específicos: descrever como as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais de Educação Física identificam a PCC; examinar como as IES de Educação Física interpretam e organizam a PCC; identificar a compreensão de prática e de relação da prática com a teoria dos docentes e discentes de graduação em Educação Física. Pressupostos: identidade acadêmica da área; mercado de trabalho; atuais diretrizes curriculares nacionais para a formação de professores (licenciatura- Resolução CNE/CP nº 01/2002, Parecer CNE/CP nº 09/2001, Resolução CNE/CP nº 02/2002, Parecer CNE/CP nº 28/2001) e graduados (bacharelado- Resolução CNE/CES nº 07/2004 e Parecer CNE/CES nº 58/2004) em Educação Física. Foi realizado um levantamento descritivo e uma análise documental das diretrizes curriculares específicas para os cursos de graduação em Educação Física atuais e também na legislação anterior que definia essa graduação (Resolução MEC/CFE nº 03 de 1987 e o Parecer MEC/CFE nº 215 de 1987). Para a realização da análise dos documentos foi utilizado a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Também foi utilizado o questionário como instrumento de coleta de informações dos docentes e discentes do último ano de graduação dos cursos de graduação (bacharelado) e licenciatura em Educação Física do município de Campinas/SP. Para desenvolver a presente pesquisa...

Preparing occupational therapy students for the realities of practice

McGettigan, Lousie
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
non-peer-reviewed; Background: Practice Education inductions are designed to prepare students for practice education, although little research is available on their effectiveness or perceived value. Studies into the effectiveness of practice education have shown students to be lacking critical skills, with students and practice educators calling for better preparation for practice (Rodger et al 2011). Objectives: The purpose of this research was to discover occupational therapy students’ views on different aspects of the practice education induction in one university, to assist with improving induction programmes in future. Methods: This qualitative study explored the practice education induction experiences of four occupational therapy students from the University of Limerick, through a focus group. Results: Two themes were identified in the findings. The first was Enhancing Confidence: Positive outcomes of practice education induction; including the subthemes of practical knowledge, supportive atmosphere, positive expectations, and previous professional experience. The second theme identified was Continuing Uncertainty: Tailoring induction content to meet identified needs; which included the subthemes of reflective practice...

Can the 2:1 model be implemented effectively into practice placements across allied health disciplines?

Cullinan, Maeve
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
non-peer-reviewed; Practice education is a crucial component in the education of health professionals as it provides the development and practice of expert skills. In supporting this professional development, practice education models are utilised within placements. The 2:1 model is one such education model that has been investigated and utilised on an international level within practice placement across allied health disciplines. It comprises of one practice educator supervising two students on a practice placement. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine the qualities of the 2:1 model and to establish its application across allied health practice placements. A computer- based literature search was conducted using the electronic databases CINAHL, AMED, Medline; secondary sources included Google scholar, hand search of relevant journals and reference lists. Twenty nine studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. The studies were analysed using the McMaster qualitative and quantitative critiquing tool. Much of the literature was observed to identify advantages and disadvantages of the model, and appeared consistent across the disciplines. However, the representation of various allied health disciplines in the literature was limited and therefore interpretation of the findings should be taken with caution. Overall...

The Paisley pattern: IT and legal practice in Scotland

Barton, Karen; Duncan, Peter; McKellar, Patricia; Maharg, Paul
Fonte: Scottish Law & Practice Quarterly Publicador: Scottish Law & Practice Quarterly
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
A number of influential authors such as Susskind and Katsh have highlighted the extent to which information technology (IT) has significantly altered, and will continue to affect, the provision of legal services at a fundamental level. While a number of studies have been carried out on the extent and use to which solicitors make use of IT in their legal practice in England and Wales, little research has been done with Scottish law firms. At a time when Scots lawyers are under increasing pressure to consider IT solutions in legal practice, it is important to know how they are presently using IT in their day-to-day legal practice. The research described in this article had two main aims, therefore. First, we set out to identify the IT actually in use by solicitors in their day-to-day practice. Second, we wanted to discover how IT is currently changing the role and function of legal practice within our chosen jurisdiction. The different data collection methods we used provided a multi-dimensional case study, the outcomes of which have implications for the education of law students (at both undergraduate and vocational level), as well as the continuing professional development of solicitors.

Management of asthma in Australian general practice: Care is still not in line with clinical practice guidelines

Barton, C.; Proudfoot, J.; Amoroso, C.; Ramsay, E.; Holton, C.; Bubner, T.; Harris, M.; Beilby, J.
Fonte: Strategic Medical Publishing Publicador: Strategic Medical Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: We investigated the quality of primary care asthma management in a sample of Australian general practices. METHODS: 247 general practitioners (GPs) from 97 practices completed a structured interview about management of asthma, diabetes and hypertension/heart disease. A further structured interview with the senior practice principal and practice manager was used to collect information about practice capacity for chronic disease management. RESULTS: Just under half of GPs (47%) had access to an asthma register and the majority (76%) had access to spirometry in their practice. In terms of routine management of asthma, 12% of GPs reported using spirometry routinely, 13% routinely reviewed written asthma action plans, 27% routinely provided education about trigger factors, 30% routinely reviewed inhaler technique, 24% routinely assessed asthma severity, and 29% routinely assessed physical activity. Practice characteristics such as practice size (p=1.0) and locality (rural/metropolitan) (p=0.7) did not predict quality of asthma management nor did indicators of practice capacity including Business maturity, IT/IM maturity, Multidisciplinary teamwork, and Clinical linkages. CONCLUSION: Gaps remain in the provision of evidence-based care for patients with asthma in general practice. Markers of practice capacity measured here were not associated with guideline-based respiratory care within practices.; Christopher Barton...

"Latte rural": the tangible and intangible factors important in the choice of a rural practice by recent GP graduates.

Laurence, C.; Williamson, V.; Sumner, K.; Fleming, J.
Fonte: Deakin University Publicador: Deakin University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
INTRODUCTION: A large of amount of literature exists on the factors that influence the recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia and other countries. The selection of a rural practice location is known to be influenced by professional, personal and family, community and economic factors. Most of this research has been undertaken on the either the baby boomer generation or their predecessors, and this is likely to have influenced the responses gained. Generation X and Y doctors are known to have a different perception regarding workload, lifestyle and the support required to practise. The aim of this study was to explore, from a Generation X perspective, factors deemed important by general practice graduates in selecting a rural practice at completion of their training. The study also aimed to identify the process general practice graduates use to identify a potential rural practice, and when they commence this process. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were held with 15 rural pathway general practice registrars in their final year of training with 2 regional training providers in South Australia. The interview topics included source of information on potential practices, their ideal rural practice and community...

Evaluations of the 45-49 year old health check program in Australian general practice.

Si, Si
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Background: A health check refers to the practice of comprehensive medical assessments to detect and manage risk factors and early chronic disease. Debate about the value of health checks has lasted for decades. A systematic review reported that general health checks in middle-aged populations did not reduce total mortality. Nevertheless, new government funded health check programs have recently been introduced in several developed countries. In 2006, Medicare Australia funded a 45-49 year old health check in Australian general practice for all people at risk of developing chronic disease. However, this program has not been fully evaluated. To date, research has taken the perspective of health care providers, investigating their perceptions about the feasibility and challenges in performing a heath check. No study has yet investigated important questions arising from the perspective of patients or the government. Such research would provide a better understanding of which patients participate and why, and also the potential benefits and costs of this health check program. Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of general practice-based health checks; to understand patients’ perceptions about general health checks and the psychological determinants of their attendance at a GP invited health check; to compare the demographic characteristics...

Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

Schenck, Tracey
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff...

Stability of practice beliefs and preferences for patients among private general dentists: a comparison of 1997 and 2007

Brennan, D.; Spencer, A.
Fonte: Australian Dental Assn Inc Publicador: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
BACKGROUND: Practice beliefs and dentist preferences for patients have been related to service rates and appropriateness of care. If practice beliefs and preferences for patients are stable then they could restrain long-term changes in practice styles and service rates. The aim of this paper was to assess the stability of practice beliefs and preferences for patients between 1997 and 2007. METHODS: Practice beliefs and dentist preferences for patients were recorded on a five-point Likert scale using mailed questionnaires from a random sample of dentists in 1997 (response rate = 60 per cent) and 2007 (response rate = 77 per cent). RESULTS: In both 1997 and 2007, n = 215 dentists provided data. For practice beliefs, 1 out of 8 items were significantly different (p < 0.05; McNemar's test) between the two observations (12.5 per cent of practice belief items) while 5 out of 37 dentist preferences for patient characteristics items were significantly different (13.5 per cent of items). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of items were not significantly different over time. This demonstrates a generally high degree of stability over time in the level of agreement with dentist practice beliefs and preferences for patients. Given that it may be difficult for clinicians to change practice beliefs and behaviours that have become established...

Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

Martis, R.; Ho, J.; Crowther, C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID) project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care information and health professionals' knowledge of evidence-based health care to assist in employing evidence base practice effectively.; Ruth Martis...

Effects of mental practice in motor skills acquisition in novice subjects; Efectos de la práctica mental en la adquisición de habilidades motoras en novatos; Efeitos da prática mental na aquisição de habilidades motoras em sujeitos novatos

Gomes, Thábata Viviane Brandão; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Marinho, Nádia Fernanda Schmitt; Benda, Rodolfo Novellino
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Studies of mental practice with novices pointed out its superiority when compared to no practice at all. However, pre-test as well as familiarization using physical practice can influence the effect from mental practice. This study investigated the effects of mental practice in novice in the practiced task, as well as the location of physical practice in relation to mental practice. Twenty five undergraduate volunteers performed a serial positioning task and they were distributed in five groups in accordance to the type of practice: Physical (GPF), mental (GPM), physical-mental (GPFM), mental-physical (GPMF), and control group (GC) which took part only in tests. A non parametrical Anova applied in tests showed superiority of groups with physical practice (GPF, GPFM, and GPMF) to control and mental practice groups. In considering the small sample, the results suggest that mental practice in novice subjects depends on physical practice to be effective, regardless its location (before or after).; Estudios de práctica mental con sujetos sin experiencia indican su superioridad en comparación a la ausencia de esa la práctica. Entre tanto, pre-test y familiarización usando práctica física pueden influenciar el efecto de la práctica mental. Este estudio investigó los efectos de la práctica mental en novatos en la tarea practicada...

Knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in South India

Prakasam,Arul; Nidamanuri,Anitha; Kumar,Senthil
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Pharmacovigilance has not progressed well in India and the concept is still in its infancy. India rates below 1% in pharmacovigilance as against the world rate of 5%. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among registered community pharmacists in Hyderabad, India. Methods: This was a prospective study to find out the knowledge, perception and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among community pharmacists. It was conducted by a face to face questionnaire and the convenience factor of the pharmacist was taken into consideration. Results: From the 650 questionnaire administered to community pharmacists, 347 (53.3%) were returned completely filled questionnaires. A number of 120 (34.6%) pharmacists could define the term -pharmacovigilance' to an acceptable extent and 119 (34.3%) knew about the National Pharmacovigilance Programme in India. 96 (27.7%) had good knowledge, 36(10.4%) had fair knowledge and 215(61.9%) had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. We have found that 196 (56.5%) had good perception, 94(27.1%) had fair perception and 57(16.4%) had poor perception. Only 41(11.8%) pharmacists ever reported an ADR and the other never reported ADR. The majority of pharmacists 223(64.3%) felt that the AE is very simple and non-serious and hence did not report. Pharmacists have poor knowledge...

Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings

Sen,Sanchita; Bowen,Jane F.; Ganetsky,Valerie S.; Hadley,Diane; Melody,Karleen; Otsuka,Shelley; Vanmali,Radha; Thomas,Tyan
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Objective: To introduce pharmacists to the process, challenges, and opportunities of creating transitions of care (TOC) models in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community practice settings. Methods: TOC literature and resources were obtained through searching PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. The pharmacist clinicians, who are the authors in this manuscript are reporting their experiences in the development, implementation of, and practice within the TOC models. Results: Pharmacists are an essential part of the multidisciplinary team and play a key role in providing care to patients as they move between health care settings or from a health care setting to home. Pharmacists can participate in many aspects of the inpatient, ambulatory care, and community pharmacy practice settings to implement and ensure optimal TOC processes. This article describes establishing the pharmacist´s TOC role and practicing within multiple health care settings. In these models, pharmacists focus on medication reconciliation, discharge counseling, and optimization of medications. Additionally, a checklist has been created to assist other pharmacists in developing the pharmacist´s TOC roles in a practice environment or incorporating more TOC elements in their practice setting. Conclusion: Optimizing the TOC process...

Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

Brandt,Mette; Hallas,Jesper; Graabæk,Trine; PottegÅrd,Anton
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Background: Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists' medication reviews are sparse. Objective: To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. Methods: A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart and clinical or laboratory data. The medication review focuses on the diagnoses of the patient instead of the individual drugs. Patient interviews are not part of the model. The model was tested in a pilot study by conducting medical reviews on 50 polypharmacy patients (i.e. receiving 7 or more drugs for regular use). Results: The model contained seven main steps. Information about the patient and current treatment was collected in the first three steps, followed by identification of possible interventions related to either diagnoses or drugs in the fourth and fifth step. The sixth and seventh step concerned the reporting of interventions and the considerations of the GPs. 208 interventions were proposed among the 50 patients. The acceptance rate among the GPs was 82%. The most common interventions were lack of clinical or laboratory data (n=57, 27%) and drugs that should be discontinued as they had no indication (n=47, 23%). Most interventions were aimed at cardiovascular drugs. Conclusion: We have provided a detailed description of a practical approach to pharmacists' medication review in a GP setting. The model was tested and found to be usable...

Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings [UPDATED]

Sen,Sanchita; Bowen,Jane F.; Ganetsky,Valerie S.; Hadley,Diane; Melody,Karleen; Otsuka,Shelley; Vanmali,Radha; Thomas,Tyan
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Objective: To introduce pharmacists to the process, challenges, and opportunities of creating transitions of care (TOC) models in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community practice settings. Methods: TOC literature and resources were obtained through searching PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. The pharmacist clinicians, who are the authors in this manuscript are reporting their experiences in the development, implementation of, and practice within the TOC models. Results: Pharmacists are an essential part of the multidisciplinary team and play a key role in providing care to patients as they move between health care settings or from a health care setting to home. Pharmacists can participate in many aspects of the inpatient, ambulatory care, and community pharmacy practice settings to implement and ensure optimal TOC processes. This article describes establishing the pharmacist's TOC role and practicing within multiple health care settings. In these models, pharmacists focus on medication reconciliation, discharge counseling, and optimization of medications. [a sentence was deleted] Conclusion: Optimizing the TOC process, reducing medication errors, and preventing adverse events are important focus areas in the current health care system...

Defining "elderly" in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy

Singh,Shamsher; Bajorek,Beata
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Objective: To identify how "elderly" patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar) and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council). Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of "elderly" persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined "elderly" by chronological age (i.e., years since birth) while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define "elderly" in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term "elderly", whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological)-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of "elderly", for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how "elderly" was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing "elderly" persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define "elderly" persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of "elderly" in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient´s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are specifically related to the use of pharmacotherapy...

Investigation of barriers to clinical practice guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy in the treatment of COPD

Price,Lea; Billups,Sarah J.; Rice,Melissa A.; Hartsfield,Cynthia
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Background: The adoption of clinical practice guideline recommendations for COPD is suboptimal. Determining the barriers to the implementation of these practice guidelines may help improve patient care. Objective: To determine whether barriers to the use of pharmacotherapy according to practice guidelines are related primarily to patient or prescriber factors. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Members of a health maintenance organization identified as having spirometry-defined COPD ranging from stage II to IV. Electronic medical records were reviewed for documentation of the following: 1) patient affordability issues, 2) history of an adverse drug reaction, 3) history of inefficacy to therapy, and 4) prescription history. Results: A total of 111 medical records were reviewed. There were 51% of patients who had not filled medications that had been prescribed in accordance with guidelines and 43% did not have the guideline recommended medications prescribed in the previous year. Only 4% and 2% of patients had documented inefficacy and affordability issues, respectively. There were no reported cases of adverse drug reactions. Conclusions: This study provides insight to the acceptance of COPD treatment recommendations by patients and providers. Further research is needed to design interventions to reduce barriers and optimize COPD treatment.

An assessment of community pharmacists’ attitudes towards professional practice in the Republic of Moldova

Cordina,Maria; Safta,Vladimir; Ciobanu,Ala; Sautenkova,Nina
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Pharmacy in Moldova is undergoing a period of transition. The professional practice is adjusting to a market-oriented economy from the previous Soviet system. The pharmaceutical sector has been liberalised giving rise to a significant increase in the number of community pharmacies. This has led to some adverse effects on the profession of pharmacy with pharmacists having considerable difficulties fulfilling their professional aspirations and possibly losing confidence in further developing their professional role. Objective: To assess community pharmacists’ attitudes towards their professional practice and to determine their perceived competence in various pharmaceutical activities. Methods: A questionnaire which addressed managerial activities, dispensing activities, pharmaceutical care activities, inter-professional relationships, public health and competence was mailed to 600 community pharmacists who were asked to score the importance and perceived competence for each activity on a scale ranging from 0-5. In the case of pharmaceutical care activities, pharmacists were asked to score their degree of agreement or disagreement as to whether it is the responsibility of the pharmacist to engage in specific pharmaceutical care activities. Results: A total of 370 valid questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 61.7%. Managerial and dispensing activities were scored the highest both in terms of perceived importance and competence. The more innovative pharmaceutical care activities scored relatively low. Overall scores relating to the importance of pharmacists engaging in public health activities appear to be the lowest of the entire questionnaire. Younger pharmacists between the ages of 22-30 obtained significantly higher scores with regards to the perceived pharmacist’s responsibility in engaging in various pharmaceutical care activities. Respondents who practiced in an accredited pharmacy scored higher in the majority of questions. Conclusion: Pharmacists in Moldova appear to be deeply rooted in the traditional approach to the practice of pharmacy pertaining mainly to distributive practice model and are somewhat distant from the other models of practice such as pharmaceutical care...