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Requisitos e critérios de desempenho para sistema de água não potável de edifícios residenciais.; Requirements and performance criteria for non-potable water system of residential buildings.

Peixoto, Luciana de Melo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2008 PT
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66.74%
A utilização de fonte alternativa de água em edifícios residenciais vem sendo praticada de forma mais constante nos últimos anos, com objetivo de reduzir a demanda de água potável. No entanto, a utilização de água não potável exige critérios que devem ser respeitados, para preservar a saúde dos usuários, tendo em vista a possibilidade de contaminação da água potável fornecida pela concessionária. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar requisitos e critérios de desempenho que devem ser aplicados nas fases de projeto, execução e manutenção do sistema predial de água não potável. Para apoiar os projetistas, executores e gestores na tomada de decisão das diferentes etapas do processo foi também desenvolvida e aplicada uma ferramenta para análise de modo e efeito de falha (FMEA) dos requisitos desenvolvidos para o sistema de água não potável. Os resultados obtidos com a aplicação da ferramenta em edifício comprovaram a sua aplicabilidade e eficiência no sistema predial de água não potável.; The use of alternative source of water in residential buildings has been practiced in more constant in recent years aiming to reduce the demand for potable water (drinking water). However, the use of non-potable water requires criteria that must be respected to preserve the health of users...

Influência do gradiente médio de velocidade na zona de contato na eficiência de clarificação de água para abastecimento por flotação; Influence of the velocity gradient in the contact zone in the efficiency of clarification of potable water by flotation

Souza, Irene Monteiro da Franca
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2012 PT
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56.36%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência do gradiente médio de velocidade (Gzc), associado ao tempo de detenção hidráulico (tzc) e à taxa de aplicação superficial (TASzc), na zona de contato, na eficiência de clarificação de uma unidade retangular de flotação por ar dissolvido, em escala piloto, tratando água para abastecimento. Foram estudadas duas configurações da Unidade Piloto de Flotação por Ar Dissolvido (UPFAD) (A e B), as quais diferem no comprimento da zona de contato A (90 mm) e B (140 mm). A TASzc - A (133 ± 3 m/h) e B (86 ± 1 m/h) - e o tzc - A (54 ± 1s) e B (84 ± 1 s) - são diferentes. Foram avaliados três valores do Gzc A (1,8; 6,5;10,2) e B (0,9; 4,7; 6,3), através da inserção de telas com características diferentes no interior da zona de contato. E, Para cada valor de Gzc, foram investigados três valores de A/V (3,73; 4,90; 6,41). Em todos os ensaios realizados, foram fixados os seguintes parâmetros: vazão da água bruta preparada (5,4 m³/h); temperatura da água bruta preparada (26 ± 1ºC); pH de coagulação (6,5 ± 0,1); tempo de floculação (17,2 min); gradiente médio de velocidade de floculação (110 s-1); vazão de descarte após a floculação (0,8 m³/h); vazão de entrada para a flotação (Qe) (4...

Efficiency removal of copper from potable water using a pine bark

Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Machado, João M. D.; Ramísio, Paulo J.
Fonte: WSEAS Press Publicador: WSEAS Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2012 ENG
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56.38%
All over the world the presence of heavy metals in water supply sources has been raising great concern in terms of public health since many epidemiologic studies confirm the potential carcinogenic effect of these pollutants at concentrations above acceptable standards. Because copper removal is the most frequent option to achieve a safe drinking water, the development of more efficient and sustainable water treatment technologies is extremely relevant. Reactive filtration using natural sorbent materials constitutes a promising and suitable process for drinking water treatment as a sustainable alternative to the conventional sand porous media, due to the their additional sorptive. Additionally, the use of natural materials abundant in the region as a by-product from regional industrial activity enhances the sustainability of these emerging treatment solutions. This work presents results and a few conclusions based on a laboratorial study performed to evaluate the efficiency of copper removal from potable water using a pine bark porous media under different experimental conditions for relevant hydraulic and physic-chemical parameters. Langmuir and linear isotherms were used to describe the sorption equilibrium data. The obtained lab-scale results allowed to establish sorption kinetics and showed removal efficiencies higher than 90%.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil

Moura,AN; Dantas,EW; Oliveira,HSB; Bittencourt-Oliveira,MC
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column...

Republic of Yemen Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank report Republic of Yemen country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS). The preparation of a CWRAS is timely, given the rising pressure placed on water resources by the rapidly growing population and the emergence of lessons learned from a recent review of World Bank water projects in Yemen. This section reviews the current situation in Yemen, focusing on the following five key challenges facing the water sector: (i) over-extraction of groundwater; (ii) equitable and efficient valuation and allocation of water; (iii) meeting the millennium development goals (MDG) in potable water and sanitation; (iv) the need to protect water sources and the quality of water; and (v) building institutional capacity in the public sector.

How Access to Urban Potable Water and Sewerage Connections Affects Child Mortality

Shi, Anqing
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.55%
Using a city-level database of global Urban Indicators, the author finds that: 1) Improved access to urban potable water and sewerage connections is consistently associated with low child mortality. 2) Government involvement in providing water services, especially locally, significantly reduces child mortality. 3) Private or parastatal participation in providing sewerage connections is associated with low child mortality. $) Rapid urban growth and high levels of poverty within the city are correlated with high child mortality.

Ultraviolet disinfection kinetics for potable water production.

Amos, Steve A.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water, and in the treatment of selected wastewaters. However, efficacy of UV disinfection is limited by the combined effect of suspended solids concentration and UV absorbance. Limited published UV disinfection data are available that account for the combined effects of UV dose, suspended solids concentration and UV absorbance. This present lack of a rigorous quantitative understanding of the kinetics of UV disinfection limits process optimisation and wider application of UV treatment. The development and validation of an adequate model to describe UV disinfection kinetics presented in this thesis can therefore be justified by an increased confidence of reliability of design for UV disinfection. Using the published data of Nguyen (1999), four established model forms were assessed to account for the combined effect of suspended solids and/or soluble UV absorbing compounds, and UV dose on the efficacy of disinfection. The four model forms were: a log-linear form, Davey Linear-Arrhenius (DL-A), Square-Root (or Ratkowsky- Belehradek) and a general nth order Polynomial (nOP) form that was limited to a third order. Criteria for assessment of an adequate predictive model were established including: accuracy of predicted against observed values...

Friday 13th failure modelling: a new quantitative risk assessment of UV irradiation for potable water

Davey, K.; Abdul Halim, N.; Lewis, D.
Fonte: Engineers Australia; online Publicador: Engineers Australia; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
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56.54%
UV irradiation is an alternative to widely used chemical disinfection to produce potable water. Failure of a well-run, well-maintained UV plant can lead to catastrophic and enduring public health effects, with or without fatalities. Failure is defined as the unexpected survival of levels of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Friday 13th failure modelling (Fr 13) is an emerging method for new quantitative risk assessments of unexpected failure in process plant due to "within system" chance (stochastic) changes. In this original research a new Fr 13 risk assessment of a simplified unit-operations model for UV irradiation for potable water is presented for the first time. A comparison is made between the predictions from a traditional, single point assessment and Fr 13 model using established UV inactivation kinetics for E. coli. A process risk factor (p) is synthesised in the Fr 13 model and is solved using a refined Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube sampling. Results reveal that 47 in every 10,000 continuous UV operations can fail unexpectedly with a tolerance of 10% on the design level of reduction in E. coli. This translates, on average, to an unexpected survival of E. coli each 0.58 years of continuous operation. This new insight is not available from traditional assessments...

H2G o or H2Slow? planned potable urban water recycling: a response to Australia's water shortages

Deutscher, Charles
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report explores one of the most pressing national and international problems of our age, that of water shortages. It does this via an analysis of the feasibility of implementing planned, potable water recycling schemes in Australia's urban areas. The report adopts the theoretical foundation that water is a basic human right, a view endorsed by the United Nations and enshrined in Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. On this basis, it traces recent attempts by the international community to address the world's 'water problem,' most notably through the Millennium Development Goals, and proposes that solving the problem should be a top priority for all nations. Such a mission takes on particular importance in Australia because of the erratic rate and distribution of our annual rainfall. Developed nations like Australia have a special duty to lead by example and set responsible environmental precedents for other nations to follow. Australia is a world leader in water recycling, but is also the third-highest per capita water consumer after the USA and Canada among OECD countries. Part of a proactive response to water shortages compels investigation of potable urban water recycling...

Delivering potable water to metropolitan Adelaide: infrastructure options in an environment of water scarcity

Rae, Samuel
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Declining availability in water resources from the Murray-Darling Basin, coupled with increasing demand for potable water from metropolitan Adelaide, has created a situation of potable water scarcity. Adelaide's traditional demand for water resources from the MurrayDarling Basin system is discussed in the context of drought and increasing upstream extraction and interception. The result is decreased water availability in the lower parts of the system that Adelaide relies upon. The South Australian Government has committed to addressing these issues with investment in technology and infrastructure designed to access non-conventional potable water sources. The large-scale desalination plant at Port Stanvac, Adelaide is the first in what will have to be an ongoing process of securing suitable water resources now, and into the future. However these technologies and infrastructures have inherently large energy demands and these must be met in the immediately short term using sustainable and reliable technologies. Advanced generation nuclear technologies are discussed as being a potential part of this solution however there remains much work to be done in order to ascertain the true viability of this option.

Output-Based Aid in Morocco (Part 2) : Expanding Water Supply Service in Rural Areas; L'aide basee sur les resultats au Maroc (partie 2) : extension des services d'approvisionnement en eau en zones rurales

Beauchêne, Xavier Chauvot de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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56.64%
Since the mid-1990s, Morocco has made big strides in developing access to potable water in rural areas. The National Water Supply Company, Office national de l' eau potable (ONEP), has developed an important network of standpipes in rural communities and over 87 percent of the rural population has access to a source of drinking water. Many households are now asking for domestic connections, but ONEP's fixed costs make service provision to smaller communities through the development of domestic connections a loss-making business. To serve these populations better, ONEP is piloting Morocco's first public-private partnership to subcontract water service provision and management in rural areas, using an affermage-type contract. During the first years of the ten-year contract, the private operator will receive performance-based subsidies from ONEP under an output-based aid (OBA) approach. This will allow the operator to break even early enough to develop a profitable business within the existing tariff structure. If successful...

Mali - Public Expenditures Review : Rural Water and Sanitation Sector; Mali - Secteur de l'eau et de l'assainissement en milieu rural : revue de depenses publiques

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
The review of public expenditure in the sector of potable water and sanitation in rural and semi urban areas aims at supporting the Government of Mali. The review highlighted many sector accomplishments and challenges such as: (i) achieving objectives of the government of passing from 50 percent of access to potable water to 82 percent is difficult but probable; (ii) budget allocations to the sector in real terms increase for more than twice during the last 6 years; (iii) expenditure's increase in the sector has translate into an increase of facilities carried out; (iv) development of the sector is limited by a weak budgetary performance and not by a lack of financing; (v) the weakness of operating budgets hampers the sector's effectiveness; (vi) the traditional systems of facilities management have to be absolutely reconsidered on the basis of lesson learned and the new systems developed with the collaboration of stakeholders; (vii) the sector is well engaged in the approach-program with regard to harmonization and alignment in accordance with the declaration of Paris; (viii) sanitation is neglected. The coverage in family latrines is weak; and (ix) mobilization of resources beyond the state is essential to keep pace with the sector's growth.

Senegal - Successful Innovation in the Water Sector; Senegal : innovations heureuses dans le secteur de l'eau

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
The water sector project's overall development objectives were to address: (a) sustainability, by improving the management, pricing and cost recovery and reducing government subsidies for industrial, domestic and irrigation water; (b) poverty alleviation and health, by increasing access to safe potable water and adequate and more affordable sanitation for the urban poor; and (c) private sector participation, by engaging a private company to manage urban water supply. Implemented over the period 1996-2004, with a credit of US$100 million, the project design and implementation were regarded as highly satisfactory. Donors such as Agence Francaise de Developpement, the European Union and the Banque Ouest Africaine de Developpement (the West African Development Bank) actively participated in the design of the project.

Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil; Dinâmica vertical e temporal de cianobactérias no reservatório de Carpina de abastecimento de água no nordeste do Brasil

MOURA, AN; DANTAS, EW; OLIVEIRA, HSB; BITTENCOURT-OLIVEIRA, MC
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column...

Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the Harare area, Zimbabwe

Chirenda,Tatenda G; Srinivas,Sunitha C; Tandlich,Roman
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding Harare. This study investigated microbial water quality and the impact of microbial water quality related disasters in the area supplied by the Morton Jaffray Treatment Plant. Questionnaires were distributed to household owners in Harare who receive their water from the Municipality and those who use alternate water supplies. Candidates were randomly selected from their workplace. The raw water quality of Manyame River and its tributaries was assessed. Treated water in households was assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and heterotrophic bacteria plate count. Raw water sources were found to be contaminated by faecal matter. Household water sources tested negative for faecal contamination but positive for heterotrophic bacteria. CFU quantities ranged from 1 to 452 CFU/ml for all samples. The WHO guidelines for domestic water sources state that water used for domestic purposes should not be contain than 100 CFU/ml. Public perceptions of water quality ranged from 'unsafe' to 'highly contaminated'. A decrease in the level of aesthetic appeal resulted in residents resorting to alternative sources such as wells and rivers for their domestic water. The current state of treated water was suitable for domestic use. Pathogen monitoring of domestic water is recommended using the hydrogen sulphide test and R2A agar test.

Environmental life cycle assessments for water treatment processes a South African case study of an urban water cycle

Friedrich,E; Pillay,S; Buckley,CA
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
The objective of this study was to generate information on the environmental profile of the life cycle of water, including treatment, distribution and collection and disposal (including recycling), in an urban context. As a case study the eThekwini Municipality (with its main city Durban) in South Africa was used. Another aim of the study was to compare the environmental consequences for the provision of normal, virgin potable water vs. recycled water to industry in Durban. Therefore, a series of environmental life cycle assessments (LCAs) were performed and environmental scores were calculated for the processes involved in the treatment, recycling and disposal of water and wastewater. In order to enable the addition of these scores the same approach was adopted and the same methodology was used and a final environmental profile was produced. This study shows that a system approach as well as a process approach is needed for the integral assessment of the environmental performance in the provision of water and wastewater services. From the LCAs of individual processes involved in the provision of water and wastewater in the eThekwini Municipality, it emerged that the process with the highest contribution is the activated sludge process - used in the treatment of wastewater. However...

Development of emergency response plans for community water systems

Jack,U; de Souza,Philip; Kalebaila,N
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
All water services systems, irrespective of size, location etc., should have emergency response plans (ERPs) to guide officials, stakeholders and consumers through emergencies, as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural disasters, equipment failure, human error and intentional acts (e.g. vandalism). Simply put, an ERP prepares the organisation for emergencies and gives specific instructions about what to do if there is an emergency situation that may affect the water system. To assist water services institutions (WSIs), the Water Research Commission project 'Water Safety and Security: Emergency Response Plans' aimed to develop a generic ERP guide for community water systems (CWS). A CWS in this study was defined as a potable water service provided to a rural community where municipal constraints exist and there is either 'no supply' or water is provided up to a communal standpipe. Emergencies considered in this study include (i) unavailability of water or (ii) excess of water (e.g. flood) and (iii) water quality or pollution/contamination. CWS in 3 provinces in South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Northern Cape), were visited to (i) identify the water service delivery status...

Conductivity as an indicator of surface water quality in the proximity of ferrochrome smelters in South Africa

Loock,MM; Beukes,JP; van Zyl,PG
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
South Africa is one of the leading ferrochrome (FeCr) producing countries. One of the main environmental and health-related issues associated with FeCr production is the possible generation of Cr(VI). However, Cr(VI) is not the only potential pollutant that has to be considered during FeCr production. Various water-soluble species are present in FeCr waste materials and in process water. Considering the size of the South African FeCr industry and its global importance, it is essential to assess the extent of potential surface water pollution in the proximity of FeCr smelters by such water-soluble species. In this study water conductivity was measured as a proxy of general water quality. Although deposition was not measured, comparison of surface water results indicated that atmospheric deposition of pollutants originating from FeCr smelting did not significantly impact surface water quality, but that surface run-off and/or groundwater leaching were the main contributors. At two FeCr smelters it was observed that these smelters did not impact surface water quality negatively. In contrast, surface water pollution originating from at least four FeCr smelters was apparent. However, only at one smelter did pollution result in surface water conductivity that indicated a water quality not fit for human consumption. No correlations could be made between potable water quality and possible pollution from FeCr smelters. Notwithstanding this limitation...

Framework for assessing the viability of implementing dual water reticulation systems in South Africa

Ilemobade,AA; Adewumi,JR; van Zyl,JE
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.76%
In many settlements across the world (e.g. Pimpama Coomera and Mawson Lakes - Australia, Hong Kong - China, Majuro - Marshall Islands, Tarawa - Kiribati, and Windhoek - Namibia), dual water reticulation systems have been implemented in response to increasing water demands and decreasing freshwater availability. A dual water reticulation system comprises separate pipes that supply different water qualities to the end consumer. A set of pipes supply potable water while another set of pipes supply non-potable water. The non-potable water is targeted at meeting water requirements traditionally met using potable water (e.g. toilet and urinal flushing, landscaping irrigation, and industrial cooling). This therefore frees potable water to be used for previously unmet or increasing potable water requirements. For several reasons including the dearth of relevant national regulatory and guideline documents, consumer and decision-maker perceptions, ignorance, and appropriate decision-making tools, the use of dual water reticulation systems in South Africa has been limited. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a decision-making framework, using robust criteria, for assessing the viability of implementing dual systems in South Africa. This aim was achieved through undertaking literature reviews on the subject...

Evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene education intervention on diarrhoea in northern Pakistan

Nanan,D.; White,F.; Azam,I.; Afsar,H.; Hozhabri,S.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
OBJECTIVE: Inadequate water and sanitation services adversely affect the health and socioeconomic development of communities. The Water and Sanitation Extension Programme (WASEP) project, undertaken in selected villages in northern Pakistan between 1997 and 2001, was designed to deliver an integrated package of activities to improve potable water supply at village and household levels, sanitation facilities and their use, and awareness and practices about hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted during July-September 2001 to evaluate whether, after selected confounders were controlled for, children aged <6 years with diarrhoea were more or less likely to reside in villages that participated in the project than in villages that did not participate. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. FINDINGS: Children not living in WASEP villages had a 33% higher adjusted odds ratio for having diarrhoea than children living in WASEP villages (adjusted odds ratio, 1.331; P<0.049). Boys had 25% lower odds of having diarrhoea than girls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.748; P<0.049). A 2.6% decrease was found in the odds of diarrhoea for every yearly increase in the mother's age (adjusted odds ratio, 0.974; P<0.044) and a 1.4% decrease for every monthly increase in the child's age (adjusted odds ratio...