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Ex-post evaluation of the employment effects of a preferential trade agreement: methodological issues, illustrated with a reference to Chile

Gutiérrez, Gabriel
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Includes bibliography; This paper presents a discussion of the major methodological issues relating to some key studies assessing the employment effects of a particular PTA using different methodologies (General and Partial Equilibrium, Gravitational models, Micro simulations, Econometrics using panel data, etc.). In this line, the paper discusses an accounting model for decomposing the ex - post employment performance as related to Latin America Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs), proposing this method to evaluate the Chile - Mexico PTA as an illustration. The paper defines a research agenda using an Employment ex-post performance decomposition model, to disentangle the effects of different forces on changes in employment. Advantages from implementing this proposal include: a) Availability of a method that could be replicated to study the impacts of PTAs in other countries, both regarding output and employment; b) Development of improved databases for bilateral trade analysis and c) Estimation of sectoral capital stocks, which are an important subject of its own right, for development and growth analysis.

Entrepreneurship in Post-Conflict Transition : The Role of Informality and Access to Finance

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora F.; Panos, Georgios A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The authors examine the factors affecting the transition to self-employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using the World Bank Living Standard Measurement Survey panel household survey for the years 2001-2004. In the beginning of the sample, the country changed its legal framework, with the primary aim to promote labor market flexibility and to encourage entrepreneurial activity. The analysis identifies individuals that switched to self-employment (employers and own account) during the sample period and the viability of this transition, in terms of business survival for more than one year. The results suggest an important role for financing constraints. Specifically, wealthier households are more likely to become entrepreneurs and survive in self-employment. After controlling for household wealth, having an existing bank relationship increases the likelihood of starting a business with hired employees and increases the chances of survival for the new entrepreneur. By contrast, overseas - and in some cases domestic - remittances decrease the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur.

The Investment Climate in Post-Conflict Situations

Mills, Rob; Fan, Qimiao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This paper is a policy review of the role of investment climate in post-conflict situations. It summarizes the broad range of ways in which conflict negatively affects the investment climate, from macroeconomic instability to a degraded regulatory framework. It stresses that attention needs to be paid to the broader "enabling environment," including institutions, governance, capacity, and social capital. It suggests that a vibrant private sector underpinned by a good investment climate is particularly important in the post-conflict recovery phase for three reasons: it generates employment, provides public services where the state has retrenched, and builds social capital. By addressing these important "greed and grievance" factors, the private sector helps reduce the likelihood of a return to conflict. The paper concludes by distilling key lessons relating to the management of the post-conflict reform process. Despite the importance of a good investment climate, greater effort is needed to ensure that private sector development reforms are included in the first round of post-conflict policymaking. Local ownership of reforms and enhanced local capacity to implement them is key to sustainable improvements in the investment climate. Development partners have an important role to play in facilitating dialogue and promoting partnerships between public and private sector stakeholders. At the same time...

Female Wages in the Apparel Industry Post-MFA : The Cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka

Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
The end of the Multi-fiber Arrangement/Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005 was a major policy change that affected the allocation of global apparel productions well as the lives of workers involved in this sector. Since the apparel industry is often the major female employer in developing countries, this policy change was expected to have major implications for women. This paper analyzes the wages and working conditions of women in the apparel sector in Cambodia and Sri Lanka following the phase-out the Multi-fibre Arrangement. In both countries, apparel is a major source of exports, and women constitute 70 to 80 percent of the workers employed in the apparel industry. The paper finds that after the removal of the Multi-fibre Arrangement, apparel prices declined as a result of the increased competition. The theoretical model suggests that a decrease in prices would lead to a decrease in apparel wage premiums relative to other industries in the short run and the widening of the male-female wage gap in the long run. The empirical findings support these theoretical predictions. Wage premiums in the apparel sector relative to other industries went down post-Multi-fibre Arrangement in Cambodia and Sri Lanka and the male-female wage gap increased. The paper finds mixed results in terms of working conditions in Cambodia and Sri Lanka.

Enhancing the Employment Chances of Roma

Bodewig, Christian; Kureková, Lucia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Roma communities in central and southeastern Europe have a history of being excluded from the labor market and still face severe barriers to employment. Besides being marginalized socially, Roma were typically the first to lose their jobs at the outset of the post-communist transition. Many in their next generation grew up in unemployed households, with low educational attainments and limited job skills. The labor market exclusion of Roma persisted even through the years of buoyant economic growth and increasing employment levels prior to the economic slowdown triggered by the global financial crisis in 2008. Many governments in central and southeastern Europe are trying to address the unemployment problem of Roma and other disadvantaged groups by introducing measures to restrict or cut welfare benefit entitlements, so as to strengthen incentives to work. However, research by the World Bank and others shows that simply cutting benefits is unlikely to result in higher employment the labor market exclusion and social marginalization of Roma is a multifaceted issue...

Active Labor Market Programs for Youth : A Framework to Guide Youth Employment Interventions

Cunningham, Wendy; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Laura; Wuermli, Alice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults, even in economies with strong economic growth. This note is a tool to provide policymakers and youth-serving organizations with a framework to better diagnose short- to medium-run constraints facing the stock of unemployed youth and to design evidence based youth employment interventions. The note only addresses youth employment; strategies to affect wages, productivity, underemployment, or job quality are not directly discussed. This note presents youth-oriented Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs) that conform to one of two criteria. Each intervention either has been shown to have predominately positive impact, as measured by rigorous impact evaluations, or has weaker evidence of impact-rigorous evaluations with mixed evidence of impact or strong positive monitoring data-and is theoretically sound. Cost-effectiveness information is presented when available. The note focuses on programs that are appropriate to address constraints faced by youth from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Soft Skills or Hard Cash? The Impact of Training and Wage Subsidy Programs on Female Youth Employment in Jordan

Groh, Matthew; Krishnan, Nandini; McKenzie, David; Vishwanath, Tara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Throughout the Middle East, unemployment rates of educated youth have been persistently high and female labor force participation, low. This paper studies the impact of a randomized experiment in Jordan designed to assist female community college graduates find employment. One randomly chosen group of graduates was given a voucher that would pay an employer a subsidy equivalent to the minimum wage for up to 6 months if they hired the graduate; a second group was invited to attend 45 hours of employability skills training designed to provide them with the soft skills employers say graduates often lack; a third group was offered both interventions; and the fourth group forms the control group. The analysis finds that the job voucher led to a 40 percentage point increase in employment in the short-run, but that most of this employment is not formal, and that the average effect is much smaller and no longer statistically significant 4 months after the voucher period has ended. The voucher does appear to have persistent impacts outside the capital...

Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates : Evidence from a Randomized Trial In Tunisia

Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of licence appliquee were given the opportunity to graduate with a business plan instead of following the standard curriculum. This paper relies on randomized assignment of the entrepreneurship track to identify impacts on labor market outcomes one year after graduation. The analysis finds that the entrepreneurship track was effective in increasing self-employment among applicants, but that the effects are small in absolute terms. In addition, the employment rate among participants remains unchanged, pointing to a partial substitution from wage employment to self-employment. The evidence shows that the program fostered business skills...

Africa Development Indicators 2008-09 : Youth and Employment in Africa--The Potential, the Problem, the Promise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
The first part of the report presents stylized facts of youth and labor markets in Africa. The second part discusses past youth employment interventions in the region. It argues for the need of an integrated approach should governments want to tackle youth employment issues in a sustainable manner. Indeed, in African countries, with large informal sectors and dominance of rural population, solely reforming labor market institutions and implementing active labor market policies are likely to have limited impact. It argues that the most needed and well-rounded approaches are: expanding job and education alternatives in the rural areas, where most youth live; promoting and encouraging mobility; creating a conducive business environment; encouraging the private sector; improving the access and quality of skills formation; taking care of demographic issues that more directly affects the youth; and reducing child labor.

Africa Development Indicators 2008-09 : Youth and Employment in Africa--The Potential, the Problem, the Promise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
The first part of the report presents stylized facts of youth and labor markets in Africa. The second part discusses past youth employment interventions in the region. It argues for the need of an integrated approach should governments want to tackle youth employment issues in a sustainable manner. Indeed, in African countries, with large informal sectors and dominance of rural population, solely reforming labor market institutions and implementing active labor market policies are likely to have limited impact. It argues that the most needed and well-rounded approaches are: expanding job and education alternatives in the rural areas, where most youth live; promoting and encouraging mobility; creating a conducive business environment; encouraging the private sector; improving the access and quality of skills formation; taking care of demographic issues that more directly affects the youth; and reducing child labor.

Changing Wage Structure in India in the Post-Reform Era; 1993-2011

Jacoby, Hanan G.; Dasgupta, Basab
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This paper documents the changing structure of wages in India over the post-reform era, the roughly two-decade period since 1993. To investigate the factors underlying these changes, a supply-demand framework is applied at the level of the Indian state. While real wages have risen across India over the past two decades, the increase has been greater in rural areas and, especially, for unskilled workers. The analysis finds that, in rural areas, the changing wage structure has been driven largely by relative supply factors, such as increased overall education levels and falling female labor force participation. Relative wage changes between rural and urban areas have been driven largely by shifts in employment, notably into unskilled-intensive sectors like construction.

Youth Employment Programs : An Evaluation of World Bank and International Finance Corporation Support

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Youth employment issues are a major concern for many countries because they have negative effects on the welfare of young people, and may also adversely affect economic performance and social stability. This is the first Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation of the World Bank Group's support to countries trying to address youth employment issues. The World Bank lending portfolio for youth employment is relatively small, although components of programs appear in 57 countries. Most projects include interventions in skills development and school-to-work transition. Half of the projects include interventions to foster job creation and work opportunities for youth. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has a broad approach to job creation. Between FY01 and FY11 youth employment has not been specifically targeted, except in the Middle East and North Africa region and in a small number of other interventions. IFC invested $500 million to 50 investment operations and 18 advisory services to education. Although youth employment is addressed in the education...

Unlocking the Employment Potential in the Middle East and North Africa : Toward a New Social Contract

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The book focuses on the future prosperity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, which together with other companion volumes-on trade and investment, governance, and gender-contributes to ongoing debates, and dialogues about development in the region, and the development challenges that would allow it to unlock its rich potential for prosperity. Through an introduction to the labor market outcomes in the post-World War Two period, the book presents a comparative perspective on the evolution of State vs. labor relations in the region, defines the social contract within its characteristics, and the external factors that contribute to it. State regulations and interventions were extensive, and, it is stipulated the economic future of the region will largely be determined by the fate of its labor markets. The book provides a comprehensive account of recent employment outcomes, and, outlines the policy reforms required to improve the performance of the region's labor markets. But the book goes beyond a technical discussion of labor market outcomes...

Public Sector Size and Performance Management : A Case Study of Post-Revolution Tunisia

Brockmeyer, Anne; Khatrouch, Maha; Raballand, Gael
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
This paper examines public sector size and performance management in post-revolution Tunisia, drawing on macro-empirical, legal, and qualitative analyses. The paper first shows that public sector employment figures and the wage bill have increased significantly since the 2011 revolution, but that this represents merely an acceleration of the previous trend. The paper then examines de jure and de facto performance management in Tunisia's public sector, covering incentives through recruitment, evaluation, compensation, and promotion. The examination shows that Tunisia's legal framework is well-designed for recruiting the most skilled candidates into the public sector and promoting the most high-performing employees. De facto, the link between an employee's performance and evaluation, compensation, and promotion is weak. Performance evaluation is virtually nonexistent and promotions are automatic or awarded through a process that emphasizes seniority over performance. This is particularly true during the post-revolution period...

Weathering a Storm : Survey-Based Perspectives on Employment in China in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

Giles, John; Park, Albert; Cai, Fang; Du, Yang
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Evidence from a range of different sources suggests that Chinese workers lost 20-36 million jobs because of the global financial crisis. Most of these layoffs affected migrant workers, who have typically lacked employment protection, tend to be concentrated in export-oriented sectors, and were among the easiest to dismiss when the crisis hit. Although it was severe, the employment shock was short-lived. By mid-2009, the macroeconomic stimulus and other interventions had succeeded in boosting demand for migrant labor. By early 2010, abundant evidence pointed to scarcity in China's labor market, as labor demand was once again leading to brisk growth in wages.The paper reviews different available sources of evidence for the effects of the crisis, and notes the biases associated with alternative ex post efforts to measure the employment effects of the crisis. In particular, the paper highlights the usefulness of household surveys with employment histories relative to surveys based on sampling through firms.

Duration of Unemployment Benefits and Quality of Post-Unemployment Jobs: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

van Ours, Jan C.; Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
This paper investigates how the potential duration of unemployment benefits affects the quality of post-unemployment jobs. It takes advantage of a natural experiment introduced by a change in Slovenia's unemployment insurance law that substantially reduced the potential benefit duration. Although this reduction strongly increased job finding rates, the quality of the post-unemployment jobs remained unaffected. The paper finds that the law change had no effect on the type of contract (temporary versus permanent), the duration of the post-unemployment job, or the wage earned in the job.

Increasing Revenues for India Post through Expanding Channeling of Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This report analyzes possibilities for increasing revenues for India Post through expanding channeling of financial services. The Indian postal network is among the largest networks in the world in terms of area covered and population served, and constitutes an important mechanism of achieving transportation and communication. Within India Post, the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB) is one of the oldest and largest financial institutions (with largest deposit base) in the country. The key objective of POSB is to provide people living in rural, semi-urban, remote and inaccessible areas of the country with an easy and reliable means of making investments, making remittances and operating savings accounts. It is of strategic importance for POSB to increase market-based revenues so as to gain better control of its market orientation and revenue structure. In addition, though POSB still retains competitive advantages over commercial banks, it will not be long before the competition replicates these advantages. Hence...

INCLUSIVE POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION: STORIES OF SEVEN STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES ATTENDING COLLEGE IN ONTARIO, CANADA

Gallinger, Katherine R.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Post-secondary education is an aspiration for many students; however, students with intellectual disabilities are provided few opportunities to pursue this dream. Current practices in the Ontario system of education frequently segregate and exclude students with intellectual disabilities from participation in the educational opportunities that are provided to non-disabled students. These educational practices ultimately limit opportunities for students with intellectual disabilities, and as such, fail to provide sufficient credentials to these students so they can participate in post-secondary education or employment. In recent years, alternative routes through post-secondary education across Canada, and in Ontario, have been emerging for students with intellectual disabilities. Yet, these opportunities are not enshrined in government policies or post-secondary practice, and are only provided at the discretion of a handful of post-secondary institutions across Ontario. The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of the inclusive post-secondary education experience from the perspectives of students who were participating in inclusive college programs in Ontario. Seven participants were recruited from two colleges in Ontario that provide an inclusive post-secondary experience for students with intellectual disabilities. Through a disability studies framework...

Os pós-keynesianos e o pleno emprego : uma proposta e suas origens, limites e possibilidades; Post-keynesians and full employment : a proposal and its origins, limitations and possibilities

Marcelo Soares de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
O objetivo central deste estudo é a avaliação crítica da proposta pós-keynesiana de erradicação do desemprego conhecida como o empregador de última instância (employer of last resort, ELR). De acordo com esta proposta, o Estado deveria agir como empregador residual, contratando todos aqueles dispostos a trabalhar em troca de um salário básico do setor público (basic public sector wage, BPSW); ao fazê-lo, seria colocado em operação um mecanismo de estoque regulador de emprego, gerando desemprego zero e maior estabilidade de preços e salários. As raízes teóricas desta proposta - ao menos em seu formato mais recente - podem ser encontradas nos conceitos econômicos de moeda guiada por impostos e finança funcional. Longe de ser consensual mesmo dentre os próprios pós-keynesianos, a proposta do ELR tem estimulado muita discussão no meio acadêmico a respeito de seus méritos e limites. A avaliação da proposta acima referida ganha particular interesse no tocante à sua efetiva aplicabilidade no contexto das economias subdesenvolvidas, o que constitui exatamente a parte conclusiva deste estudo. De modo a obter um melhor entendimento acerca das razões pelas quais há falta de consenso em relação ao ELR entre os pós-keynesianos...

The liabilities of a post-retirement brazilian health plan according to IAS 19R

Polese, Flavio
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Mestrado em Ciências Actuariais; O objetivo desta dissertação é discutir o processo de avaliação de passivos pós-emprego de planos privados de assistência médica patrocinados por empresas. Passivos são obviamente ligados à despesas, mas no caso de planos de assistência médica para aposentados essas despesas continuam por longos períodos de tempo trazendo uma série de problemas complexos, nomeadamente de natureza contábil, e essenciais do ponto de vista da mensuração dos ganhos/perdas dos patrocinadores, ano após ano, com consequências no pagamento de impostos, distribuição de lucros, e no valor propriamente dito das corporações. O papel da contabilidade é às vezes subestimado, mas esta é de fato uma matéria de proeminência crítica para a sobrevivência das organizações, e aplicar as regras contábeis apropriadas, nacionais e internacionais, para garantir que o balanço contábil da empresa contempla essas regras, é de suma importância.; The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the evaluation process of post-employment liabilities in private health plans sponsored by employers. Liabilities are obviously linked to expenses but in the case of health plans these expenses continue for long periods of time...