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Prevenção da nefrotoxicidade por contraste em pacientes oncológicos: comparação de hidratação com solução a base de cloreto de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio; Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in oncology patients. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride compared to sodium bicarbonate

Silva, Ricardo Gonçalves da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2009 PT
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35.69%
A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da utilização do uso de métodos radiológicos com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. Infelizmente, parcela significante dos profissionais da área da saúde desconhece a sua existência e mesmo aqueles que a identificam, algumas vezes, desconhecem os fatores de risco associados ao seu desenvolvimento. A incidência da nefropatia por contraste na população geral é baixa, porém se levarmos em conta os pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia, esta incidência aumenta exponencialmente. Várias estratégias tem sido utilizadas na tentativa de minimizar os efeitos da nefropatia por contraste sobre os indivíduos expostos ao seu uso. Entre elas, citamos o uso de drogas vasodilatadoras, de bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio, de antioxidantes, de solução fisiológica a 0,9% e a 0,45%, de solução de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3%, do uso de contraste de baixa osmolalidade e mesmo de contrates iso-osmolares. As estratégias que tem sido descritas como mais eficazes são a hidratação com solução fisiológica (0,9% ou 0,45%), uso de contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou isoosmolar e a infusão de bicarbonato de sódio. A N-acetilcisteína...

Uso de trastuzumabe para o tratamento de mulheres com câncer de mama HER2 positivo: um estudo farmacoepidemiológico; Trastuzumab use for the treatment of women with HER2-positive breast cancer: a pharmacoepidemiological study

Ayres, Lorena Rocha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
Introdução: O câncer de mama é o segundo tipo de câncer mais frequente no mundo, com cerca de 1,67 milhões de casos novos e 521 mil mortes a cada ano. O câncer de mama pode ser classificado em diferentes grupos, sendo o subtipo HER2 positivo um dos mais agressivos e relacionado a um mal prognóstico. No entanto novas terapias, tendo como alvo o receptor HER2, vem sendo desenvolvidas com a finalidade de melhorar as condições das pacientes. Dentre elas encontra-se o trastuzumabe, um anticorpo monoclonal recombinante humanizado do tipo IgG1, o qual se liga com alta afinidade ao domínio extracelular do receptor HER2. O uso do trastuzumabe está associado a um aumento da taxa de sobrevida de mulheres com câncer de mama HER2 positivo. O trastuzumabe é geralmente bem tolerado, porém pode apresentar alguns eventos adversos dentre eles, a cardiotoxicidade, a qual pode levar à interrupção do tratamento, fazendo com que as pacientes se privem dos benefícios desta terapia medicamentosa. Além desse efeito, outros podem afetar a satisfação da paciente tais como as reações imunes relacionadas à infusão do trastuzumabe, eventos gastrointestinais, fadiga, dentre outros. Com a finalidade de aprimorar os cuidados à saúde, faz-se necessário avaliar os eventos adversos ao tratamento...

Metabolic changes associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients

Almeida,Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Borges,Michele; Fiegenbaum,Marilu; Nunes,Cynara Carvalho; Rossetti,Maria Lucia Rosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.63%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolic changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients, and to identify risk factors associated. METHODS: Retrospective study that included 110 HIV-positive patients who where on HAART in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil) between January 2003 and March 2004. Data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy and HCV coinfection were collected. General linear models procedure for repeated measures was used to test the interaction between HAART and HCV coinfection or protease inhibitor treatment. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels significantly increased after receiving HAART (p<0.001 for all variables), but no interaction with protease inhibitors was seen for total cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels (interaction treatment*protease inhibitors p=0.741, p=0.784, and p=0.081, respectively). An association between total cholesterol levels and HCV coinfection was found both at baseline and follow-up (effect of HCV coinfection, p=0.011). Glucose levels were increased by HAART (treatment effect, p=0.036), but the effect was associated to HCV coinfection (treatment*HCV effect...

Setting policy priorities to address eating disorders and weight stigma: views from the field of eating disorders and the US general public

Puhl, Rebecca M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Austin, S Bryn; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: The prevalence and health consequences of eating disorders and weight stigmatization have prompted increasing discussion of potential policy actions to address these public health issues. The present study aimed to assess support for policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigmatization among the general public and relevant health professionals. Methods: An Internet survey was fielded to a national sample of 944 US adults and 1,420 members of professional organizations specializing in eating disorders to examine their support for 23 potential policy strategies to address eating disorders and weight stigma. Participants also rated policy actions according to their potential for positive impact and feasible implementation. Results: Support for the majority of health and social policies was high in both samples. For example, strategies to 1) improve school-based health curriculum to include content aimed at preventing eating disorders, 2) require training for educators and health providers on the prevention and early identification of eating disorders, and 3) implement school-based anti-bullying policies that that protect students from being bullied about their weight, were supported by over two-thirds of participants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both health and social policy actions will be important in broader policy initiatives to address eating disorders and weight stigma.

Mídia e teoria da pena: crítica à teoria da prevenção geral positiva para além da dogmática penal = Mass media and the theory of penalty: a critical approach on the theory of positive general prevention that goes much beyond criminal dogmatics

Budó, Marília de Nardin
Fonte: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil Publicador: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.53%

Prevenção geral positiva: análise crítica das teorias de Günther Jakobs e Winfried Hassemer

Silva, Lucas Santana
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Esta análise é o resultado de um estudo sobre os fundamentos teóricos dos autores Günther Jakobs e Winfried Hassemer, dois penalistas renomados no cenário da doutrina jurídico-penal, que sustentam a prevenção geral positiva como resposta para a teoria da pena. O processo de investigação compreende a esfera dogmática, situando-se na linha de pesquisa em Sistemas Jurídico-Penais Contemporâneos. Parte-se do estudo crítico da teoria da pena de Günther Jakobs, e da teoria da pena de Winfried Hassemer, para, após, uma exposição crítica sobre a estrutura comum das teorias e, finalmente, comparar as duas teorias em suas particularidades. A pesquisa possui como fim inferir sobre os aspectos positivos e negativos da prevenção geral positiva para a atual dogmática jurídico-penal, assim como averiguar se estão adequados ou apresentam alguma contribuição para o Direito Penal contemporâneo, uma vez que constitui um dos últimos discursos sobre a busca de uma finalidade da pena.; This analysis is the result of a study about the theoretical foundations of the authors Günther Jakobs e Winfried Hassemer, two renowned criminalists in the stage of the criminal Law doctrine that hold the positive general prevention theory as theory of punishment. The investigation process includes the dogmatic sphere...

An exploration of the experience of implementing the second step violence prevention curriculum in one primary general learning disabilities class /

Friesen, Marian Reimer.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.88%
Violence has always been a part of the human experience, and therefore, a popular topic for research. It is a controversial issue, mostly because the possible sources of violent behaviour are so varied, encompassing both biological and environmental factors. However, very little disagreement is found regarding the severity of this societal problem. Most researchers agree that the number and intensity of aggressive acts among adults and children is growing. Not surprisingly, many educational policies, programs, and curricula have been developed to address this concern. The research favours programs which address the root causes of violence and seek to prevent rather than provide consequences for the undesirable behaviour. But what makes a violence prevention program effective? How should educators choose among the many curricula on the market? After reviewing the literature surrounding violence prevention programs and their effectiveness, The Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum surfaced as unique in many ways. It was designed to address the root causes of violence in an active, student-centred way. Empathy training, anger management, interpersonal cognitive problem solving, and behavioural social skills form the basis of this program. Published in 1992...

HIV and AIDS in South Asia : An Economic Development Risk

Haacker, Markus; Claeson, Mariam
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This book offers an original perspective on HIV and AIDS as a development issue in South Asia, a region with a heterogeneous epidemic and estimated national HIV prevalence rates of up to 0.5 percent. The analysis challenges the common perception of HIV and AIDS, which has been shaped to a large extent by analysis of HIV and AIDS in regions with much higher prevalence rates. The chapters, most of which were commissioned specifically for this volume, can be grouped in three broad themes - the epidemiology of HIV and prevention strategies (chapters one and two), economic and development impacts of HIV and AIDS (chapters three and four), and the implications of HIV and AIDS for the health sector (chapters five and six). Within each theme, one chapter provides a more general discussion of the respective issues in the region (chapters one, three, and five), and one chapter highlights aspects of the respective issue in one particular country (with chapter two dealing with HIV in Afghanistan, and chapters four and six discus sing aspects of the impact of or the response to HIV and AIDS in India). Regarding the broad development themes identified by this book...

Antiretroviral Therapy Awareness and Risky Sexual Behaviors : Evidence from Mozambique

de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan; Over, Mead
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper studies the effect of increased access to antiretroviral therapy on risky sexual behavior, using data collected in Mozambique in 2007 and 2008. The survey sampled both households of randomly selected HIV positive individuals and households from the general population. Controlling for unobserved individual characteristics, the findings support the hypothesis of disinhibition behaviors, whereby risky sexual behaviors increase in response to the perceived changes in risk associated with increased access to antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, men and women respond differently to the perceived changes in risk. In particular, risky behaviors increase for men who believe, wrongly, that AIDS can be cured, while risky behaviors increase for women who believe, correctly, that antiretroviral therapy can treat AIDS but cannot cure it. The findings suggest that scaling up access to antiretroviral therapy without prevention programs may not be optimal if the objective is to contain the disease, since people would adjust their sexual behavior in response to the perceived changes in risk. Therefore...

HIV/AIDS in Georgia : Addressing the Crisis

Gotsadze, Tamar; Chawla, Mukesh; Chkatarashvili, Ketevan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.53%
Georgia is experiencing fast growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, although the prevalence remains at low level. The primary mode of transmission are injecting drug users representing 71 percent of cases, followed by 22 percent heterosexual contacts, 3.6 percent homo-bisexual contacts, 1.4 percent blood recipients, 1 percent of vertical transmission. From 1989 to 1998 the epidemic progressed slowly with sporadic occurrences. However, even at this low level of transmission, the infection had reached all administrative regions of the country. Since 1996 the situation has changed dramatically. The number of HIV cases increased nearly three fold in 1997 compared with the previous year and accounted for 21 cases. In 2001 alone, this number reached 93. From 1998 through 2001 more than half of newly-registered HIV infection cases have been attributed to IDUs. The reports indicate that the percentage of new cases attributed to heterosexual contacts have also increased, although the absolute numbers remain small. More people (mostly women) appear to be contracting HIV through sexual transmission...

Study to Assess Attitudes Towards Sensitive Messages in Pakistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The objective of this study is to comprehend decision making processes and attitudes related to discussion on television and other mass media of condoms and other sensitive issues, by performing comprehensive research including (i) a review of available literature; (ii) focus group meetings with decision-makers involved in behavior change communications in Pakistan (staff of the Ministry of Health, National and Provincial AIDS Control Programmes, Ministry of Population Welfare; officials working in television and radio, and censor board members); and (iii) focus group meetings with a sample of the general population in urban and rural areas of Pakistan. This paper includes the following headings: executive summary, background of the study literature review findings, focus group research findings, and recommendations.

Möglichkeiten und Bedingungen von HIV/AIDS-Prävention in einem afrikanischen Land am Beispiel Tansania; Capabilities and Conditions of HIV/AIDS Prevention in an African Country using the Example of Tanzania

Bittner, Eva
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Die Kraft des Sports kann Frieden stiften, Begegnung schaffen und Chancengleichheit herstellen. Es sind grundlegende Argumente politischer Legitimationen zur Instrumentalisierung des Sports für entwicklungspolitische Ziele. Politische Deklarationen sehen den Sport darüber hinaus als konkretes Mittel zur HIV/AIDS-Prävention. Ein persönlicher Projektbesuch der Leichtathletik-Trainerausbildung des Deutschen Olympischen Sportbundes in Tansania bestätigte die Notwendigkeit von HIV/AIDS-Präventionsangeboten in afrikanischen Entwicklungsländern wie Tansania. In der entwicklungstheoretischen Diskussion erscheint die Verbindung von HIV/AIDS und Sport erklärungsbedürftig. Doch der moderne Sport verkörpert in Industrieländern die Symbole moderner Gesellschaften und kann ein Katalysator zur Modernisierung von Gesellschaften und zur Erreichung von Entwicklungszielen wie der HIV/AIDS-Bekämpfung sein. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, (1) dass Sport in der HIV/AIDS-Prävention bei jungen Frauen in Tansania zur Bildung von Persönlichkeits-Eigenschaften einen Mehrwert bietet, die für ihr sexuelles Verhalten entscheidend sind. Ebenso eröffnet die Partizipation und die Gleichberechtigung als konstitutive Elemente des Sports eine Chance für Frauen zur Mitbestimmung. Es sind religiöse und traditionelle Hintergründe vor allem bei Frauen muslimischen Glaubens zu berücksichtigen. (2) dass bei jungen Männern Anreize zu schaffen sind...

HIV/AIDS in Southeastern Europe : Case Studies from Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania

Novotny, Thomas; Haazen, Dominic; Adeyi, Olusoji
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.71%
In June 2002, the countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE) recommitted themselves to scale up action on the prevention and treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Given the rapid increase in the rate of HIV infection in Eastern Europe in general, and the generally similar risk conditions for low HIV prevalence SEE populations, this commitment is timely in terms of preventing a more widespread epidemic. It should also be recognized by the World Bank as a call to action to support these countries through the application of its comparative advantage in both lending and non-lending activities. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of the AIDS epidemics in three countries of the Sub-region (Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania - which constitute the ECC05 Country Department of the World Bank), to evaluate the approaches and strategies currently being used in each country, and to make recommendations both for government strategies and for the Bank's current and potential future involvement in relation to these strategies. The current low levels of HIV infection in SEE present a challenge in gaining recognition of the potential impact of HIV/AIDS on health systems...

A randomized follow-up study of the general health and quality of life of an elderly edentulous population wearing either mandibular two-implant overdentures or conventional dentures

Emami, Elham
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.67%
L’augmentation de la population âgée dans la société indique que les systèmes de soins de la santé font face à de nouveaux défis. Les hauts niveaux d’incapacité qui en résultent peuvent être réduits par les nouvelles technologies, la promotion de la santé ainsi que des stratégies de prévention. Les écrits scientifiques récents soulignent la supériorité des prothèses dentaires implanto-portées par rapport aux prothèses conventionnelles en termes de satisfaction et de qualité de la vie des patients. Cependant, il n'est toujours pas clair si ces avantages ont des effets positifs à long terme sur la santé orale et générale ainsi que sur la qualité de vie des populations âgées. Objectifs, Hypothèses : Notre but était de mesurer l’impact des prothèses mandibulaires retenues par 2 implants sur la qualité de vie associée à la santé bucco-dentaire et générale ainsi que sur la santé orale et la qualité du sommeil des aînés édentés. Nous avons évalué les hypothèses nulles suivantes : il n'y a aucune différence entre les individus portants des prothèses mandibulaires retenues par 2 implants (IODs) et ceux qui portent des prothèses conventionnelles (CDs), par rapport à la qualité de vie reliée à la santé bucco-dentaire et générale...

Normative Misperceptions about Alcohol Use in a General Population Sample of Problem Drinkers from a Large Metropolitan City

Cunningham, John A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Wild, T. Cameron; Humphreys, Keith
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.63%
Aims: Heavy drinkers tend to overestimate how much others drink (normative fallacy), at least in college samples. Little research has been conducted to evaluate whether normative misperceptions about drinking extend beyond the college population. The present study explored normative misperceptions in an adult general population sample of drinkers. Methods: As part of a larger study, in Toronto, Canada, a random digit dialling telephone survey was conducted with 14,009 participants who drank alcohol at least once per month. Respondents with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test of eight or more (n = 2757) were asked to estimate what percent of Canadians of their same sex: (a) drank more than they do; (b) were abstinent and (c) drank seven or more drinks per week. Respondents' estimates of these population drinking norms were then compared with the actual levels of alcohol consumption in the Canadian population. Results: A substantial level of normative misperception was observed for estimates of levels of drinking in the general population. Estimates of the proportion of Canadians who were abstinent were fairly accurate. There was some evidence of a positive relationship between the respondents' own drinking severity and the extent of normative misperceptions. Little evidence was found of a relationship between degree of normative misperceptions and age. Conclusion: Normative misperceptions have been successfully targeted in social norms media campaigns as well as in personalized feedback interventions for problem drinkers. The present research solidifies the empirical bases for extending these interventions more widely into the general population.

Refounding Labor Criminal Law: a first approach; Refundando o direito penal do trabalho: primeiras aproximações

Feliciano, Guilherme Guimarães
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
No contexto brasileiro, o Direito Penal do Trabalho não tem recebido, da doutrina especializada, a atenção merecida, conquanto as estatísticas judiciais demonstrem que ― a despeito das inovações legislativas ensaiadas para otimizar a tutela jurídica dos direitos fundamentais dos trabalhadores e da organização geral do trabalho ― as condutas delinqüentes incrementam-se e sofisticam-se, tanto na esfera privada como na esfera pública. Da mesma forma, a jurisprudência a respeito do tema descobre-se parca e divergente. Nos demais países da América do Sul, o quadro não tende a ser mais promissor. Convivem, na dimensão legislativa, o anacronismo normativo e a resistência ideológica. Promover com máxima efetividade a sublimação constitucional do valor social do trabalho (art. 1º, IV, da CRFB) e reduzir os índices de violência nas relações trabalhistas são objetivos que reclamam, na perspectiva da prevenção penal positiva, a revisão dos pressupostos ideológicos que basearam o debate da tutela penal-laboral até a década de noventa.; In the Brazilian context, labor criminal law has not received the deserved attention by the specialized doctrine, although the judicial statistics demonstrates that delinquent behaviors has been increasing and sophisticating...

Pena e funcionalismo sistêmico: uma análise crítica da prevenção geral positiva; Pena e funcionalismo sistêmico: uma análise crítica da prevenção geral positiva

Cacicedo, Patrick Lemos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar criticamente a teoria da prevenção geral positiva da pena construída por Günther Jakobs. Nesse passo, após uma digressão sobre a crise das teorias tradicionais da pena, analisa-se descritivamente o funcionalismo sociológico desde sua inauguração com Durkheim até a moderna versão sistêmica de Niklas Luhmann. Com base no funcionalismo sistêmico, Jakobs elabora a teoria da prevenção geral positiva em um percurso teórico que é apresentado em três diferentes fases. A segunda parte do trabalho analisa criticamente as bases sociológicas e jurídicofilosóficas do pensamento de Jakobs a partir de um viés da sociologia do conflito e da teoria crítica do direito. Por fim, além das críticas enunciadas pela doutrina penal, a teoria da prevenção geral positiva é confrontada com a realidade do processo de criminalização, de modo a revelar seu viés legitimador da seletividade do sistema penal, suas relações com o papel da mídia no incremento do autoritarismo penal, além do significado material da pena como imposição de sofrimento ao ser humano. O cotejo com a realidade brasileira termina por revelar a inadequação do discurso da pena de Jakobs para sociedades em processo de democratização cuja defesa da liberdade e da dignidade humana assumem um papel de prioritária importância.; This research aims to critically analyze Günther Jakobs\' theory of the positive general prevention penalty. In this way...

A questão da mulher e a Aids: novos olhares e novas tecnologias de prevenção; The issue of the woman and Aids: new views and new technologies of prevention

Amaro, Sarita Teresinha Alves
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.66%
A aids cresce em cifras no Brasil e no mundo. No mundo todo, cerca de 42 milhões de pessoas são soropositivas. Desde o início da década de 80 até setembro de 2003, foram notificados 277.154 casos de aids no Brasil. Atrás desses índices está uma triste realidade: a epidemia cresce 9 vezes mais entre as mulheres. São, no geral, jovens ou mulheres casadas ou que têm relacionamento fixo, sem comportamento promíscuo e que contraíram o vírus dentro de "casa". Junto à descoberta da contaminação pelo vírus, vem a dolorosa verdade da traição do parceiro, a implacável confirmação da fragilidade da relação conjugal vivida, mas principalmente, a morte do mito do amor ideal, guardado numa aliança ou numa união estável. Cada vez mais, vidas femininas são ceifadas assim, com essa história de amor incondicional relativo ao parceiro e total ausência de amor próprio. Devoção de um lado e negligência de outro. Mais do que uma suposta questão filosófica, antropológica ou ontológica, creio que, diante dos números apresentados, o baixo auto-cuidado feminino trata-se de um problema de saúde pública. Mas o que temos feito em termos de prevenção a Aids diante do segmento feminino e suas demandas? Na oportunidade deste relato...

Factors associated with pregnancies among HIV-positive women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme

Bah'him,YM; Oguntibeju,OO; Lewis,HA; Mokoena,K
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
OBJECTIVE: This study identified factors contributing to pregnancies in HIV-positive women who were on a prevention of HIV from mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Letlhakeng Subdistrict, Botswana. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was employed using an interviewer administered (face-to-face) questionnaire to obtain information from 35 HIV-positive pregnant women registered for a PMTCT programme. Use was made of a non-probability sampling method to obtain information from all the pregnant women who sought antenatal care (ANC) during the survey period. RESULTS: The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 37 years with a modal age of 30 years and a mean of29.02 years (standard deviation of 5.29). The majority of the participants were single (66%) and had two or more children (74%). About half of the participants (49%) had secondary school education and a high proportion ofthem knew their HIV-positive status for more than one year prior to the interview day (77%) while the same number of them were unemployed. Pregnant participants seemed to know their HIV status prior to pregnancy. Sharing information about the HIV status of their partners and the participant's financial dependence on their partners did not show any significant association with their pregnancy status. However...

Metabolic changes associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients

Almeida,Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Borges,Michele; Fiegenbaum,Marilu; Nunes,Cynara Carvalho; Rossetti,Maria Lucia Rosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.63%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolic changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients, and to identify risk factors associated. METHODS: Retrospective study that included 110 HIV-positive patients who where on HAART in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil) between January 2003 and March 2004. Data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy and HCV coinfection were collected. General linear models procedure for repeated measures was used to test the interaction between HAART and HCV coinfection or protease inhibitor treatment. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels significantly increased after receiving HAART (p<0.001 for all variables), but no interaction with protease inhibitors was seen for total cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels (interaction treatment*protease inhibitors p=0.741, p=0.784, and p=0.081, respectively). An association between total cholesterol levels and HCV coinfection was found both at baseline and follow-up (effect of HCV coinfection, p=0.011). Glucose levels were increased by HAART (treatment effect, p=0.036), but the effect was associated to HCV coinfection (treatment*HCV effect...