Dissertação de mestrado em Psicologia (área de especialização em Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde); Partindo de uma perspetiva positiva da psicologia, este estudo lança um olhar sobre o
fenómeno do consumo de álcool entre os jovens. Teve como objetivo compreender os padrões
de afeto positivo e negativo ao longo de uma semana de um grupo de adolescentes que
relataram consumir álcool (consumidores) e não consumir álcool (não-consumidores). 142
estudantes a frequentarem a escola secundária (10º, 11º e 12º ano), de ambos os sexos
(rapazes=65; raparigas=77), com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 23 anos, participaram
no estudo. Os dados foram recolhidos fazendo uso do Experience Sampling Method e de um
questionário de avaliação dos padrões de consumos. Olhámos para as diferenças significativas
no afeto de consumidores e não consumidores nos diversos dias da semana e do impacto do
fim de semana na sua experiência afetiva.
Os resultados apontam para a existência de diferenças significativas ao nível do afeto
positivo e negativo entre dias da semana vs fim de semana. Os não consumidores mostram
níveis de afeto negativo menores ao fim de semana e níveis de afeto positivo maiores quando
comparados com os seus pares consumidores. Não foram encontrados resultados
significativos entre os grupos ou os dias da semana quando analisada a semana como um
todo. Os resultados são discutidos em termos da importância de promover trajetórias positivas
e contribui para o desenvolvimento de estilos de vida saudáveis e comportamentos
preventivos.; Drawing from a positive perspective on psychology...
Projecto de Mestrado em Gestão / Classificação JEL: M1 - Business Administration (M12 - Personnel Management; Executive
Compensation); M5 - Personnel Economics (M51 - Firm Employment Decisions;
Promotions); J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor (J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational
Choice; Labor Productivity); Para gerir é preciso decidir e numa empresa, normalmente, os colaboradores têm de decidir
perante as mais variadas situações com um grau maior ou menor de risco e complexidade,
possuindo mais ou menos conhecimento sobre elas.
O nosso problema centra-se numa vertente mais psicológica, mais concretamente na maneira
como os indivíduos se sentem e de como esses sentimentos, mais especificamente os Afectos,
podem influenciar as suas expectativas em relação ao futuro. Neste sentido, estudámos não só
as variáveis Afectos (Positivo e Negativo), Optimismo Disposicional e Optimismo Irrealista
per si, mas também a relação entre os Afectos e o Optimismo e ainda a relação dos Afectos e
do Optimismo com algumas variáveis preditoras: sexo, tipo de função (chefia ou não) e
categoria profissional (sales&services e support&operations).
Tendo em conta os resultados obtidos, os colaboradores da Cisco Portugal da nossa amostra
possuem mais Afecto Positivo do que Afecto Negativo...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive/protective role of negative affect/positive affect in late pregnancy on the outcome of postpartum depression. METHODS: A total of 491 pregnant women participated in the study. The participants were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires, which included the Profile of Mood States, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, psychosocial variables and socio-demographic characteristics and were asked to participate in a psychiatric interview. After delivery, 272 mothers participated again in the study and filled out a similar series of questionnaires. RESULTS: Negative affect was associated with more intense depressive symptomatology, more self-perceived stress, lower self-reported social support, lower quality of life and perception of having a more difficult infant. By contrast, positive affect was negatively associated with these variables. Negative affect in late pregnancy increased the likelihood of experiencing postpartum depression (DSM-IV/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.3-3.4, p = .003; ICD-10/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.5-3.0, p < .001), while positive affect increased the odds of not having this condition (DSM-IV/OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.5-2.7, p = .042). CONCLUSION: In pregnancy, negative affect was a predictor of postpartum depression...
A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both directly and in interaction with pain and stress. Finally, increases in weekly negative affect and higher average negative affect related to greater levels of pain in subsequent weeks. In contrast, higher levels of overall positive affect predicted lower levels of pain in subsequent weeks.
Infection commonly triggers nonspecific psychological and behavioral changes including fatigue and malaise, anhedonia, inability to concentrate, and disturbed sleep that collectively are termed “sickness behaviors”. Converging evidence from several lines of research implicate the activities of proinflammatory cytokines as a cause of sickness behaviors. Here we elaborate upon the findings of previous research by examining whether infection-associated elevations in local proinflammatory cytokines are associated with increased negative mood and decreased positive mood. 189 healthy adults were experimentally exposed to rhinovirus or influenza virus during a 6-day period of quarantine. Infection, objective signs of illness, nasal IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and self-reported affect were assessed at baseline and on each of the 5 post-challenge quarantine days. In the 153 persons who became infected following exposure to the challenge virus, daily production of IL-6, but not IL-1β or TNF-α, was associated with reduced concurrent daily positive affect. One-day lagged analyses showed that daily production of all 3 cytokines was related to lower positive affect on the next day. All lagged associations were independent of previous day positive affect and objective signs of illness (mucus production...
Rumination in response to negative affect has been found to predict the onset, severity, and duration of depressive symptoms. Few researchers, however, have considered rumination within bipolar disorder, nor have studies considered parallel responses that might intensify positive affect. The current study examined self-reported rumination in response to both negative and positive affect among people diagnosed via the SCID with BPD (n = 28), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 35), or no mood disorder (n = 44). Participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale and the Responses to Positive Affect Questionnaire about their dispositional tendencies. Results indicated that compared to control participants, people with BPD and MDD endorsed heightened rumination in response to negative affect, but only those with BPD endorsed elevated rumination in response to positive affect. Within BPD, ruminative responses to negative affect were explained by depressive symptoms. Goals for understanding responses to negative and positive affect in BPD are suggested.
Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes are independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes.
There is growing evidence that positive affect may influence health and immune function, although few studies have examined links between positive affect and immune processes in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive affect is associated with changes in proinflammatory cytokines in cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. Subjects were 50 individuals with early-stage breast and prostate cancer who completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided blood samples at seven time points before, during, and after radiation treatment. Positive affect was assessed before treatment onset using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). Blood samples were assayed for serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Patients with higher levels of positive affect before treatment exhibited higher mean levels of IL-1β and IL-6 during radiation treatment (all ps < .05). Results suggest that positive affect enhances the acute inflammatory response to radiation treatment, perhaps facilitating tissue repair processes.
While insomnia is a well-established risk factor for the initial onset, recurrence or relapse of affective disorders, the specific characteristics of insomnia that confer risk remain unclear. Insomnia patients with an evening chronotype may be one particularly high-risk group, perhaps due to alterations in positive affect and its related affective circuitry. We explored this possibility by comparing diurnal patterns of positive affect and the activity of positive affect-related brain regions in morning- and evening-types with insomnia. We assessed diurnal variation in brain activity via the relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography during morning and evening wakefulness. We focused on regions in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have been consistently linked with positive affect and reward processing. As predicted, chronotypes differed in their daily patterns in both self-reported positive affect and associated brain regions. Evening-types displayed diurnal patterns of positive affect characterized by phase delay and smaller amplitude compared to those of morning-types with insomnia. In parallel, evening-types showed a reduced degree of diurnal variation in the metabolism of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the striatum...
An example of proactive control is the usage of informative cues to prepare for an upcoming task. Here the authors will present data from a series of three experiments, showing that positive affect along with low arousal reduces proactive control in form of a reduced reliance on informative cues. In three affect groups, neutral or positive affective picture stimuli with low and high arousal preceded every trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, using a simple response cueing paradigm with informative cues (66% cue validity), a reduced cue validity effect (CVE) was found under positive affect with low arousal. To test the robustness of the effect and to see whether reactive control is also modulated by positive affect, Experiment 3 used a cued task switching paradigm with predicitive cues (75% cue validity). As expected, a reduced CVE was again found specifically in the positive affect condition with low arousal, but only for task repetitions. Furthermore, there was no difference in switch costs between affect groups (with and without task cues). Taken together, the reduced CVE indicates that positive affect with low arousal reduces proactive control, while comparable switch costs suggest that there is no influence of positive affect on reactive control.
Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions.
Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 781 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone...
Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. Additionally, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission...
The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a “concrete/imagery” vs. “abstract/verbal” processing style was compared. In Study 2, a “concrete/imagery,” “abstract/verbal,” and “comparative/verbal” processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery...
We examined the concurrent and prospective relations between response styles to positive affect and depression in a community sample. Participants (n = 345) completed self-report measures of current and past depressive episodes, depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and responses to positive affect (including dampening and positive rumination) at two time points, with a 5-month interval. Higher levels of dampening responses to positive affect were related to higher concurrent levels of depressive symptoms. The tendency to positively ruminate on positive affect was negatively related to concurrent anhedonic symptoms. When controlling for current depressive symptomatology, formerly depressed individuals had a higher tendency to dampen positive affect than never-depressed controls, and did not differ from a currently depressed group. Dampening responses did not predict depressive symptoms prospectively, but lower levels of (self-focused) positive rumination did predict higher levels of future anhedonic symptoms. Results indicate that not only currently but also formerly depressed individuals engage in dysfunctional (dampening) strategies in response to positive affect. It is possible that currently as well as formerly depressed individuals might benefit from interventions that are directed at the remediation of disturbed regulation of positive affect. However...
Subjective well-being (SWB) refers to how individuals evaluate and experience their lives in positive ways, and encompasses global judgments of life satisfaction (LS), as well as the frequency of positive and negative affect (PA and NA, respectively) in one’s life. To inform the current ambiguity concerning the structure of SWB, the aim of this Masters thesis was to evaluate the structure of SWB based on whether the three components of SWB change together or independently naturally, over time and following experimental manipulation. In Study 1, associations among changes in LS, PA, and NA were evaluated using a longitudinal approach tracking natural changes in the components over periods of three months and three years. Results indicated that change in one component was related to change in the other two components. In Study 2, an experimental design was used to manipulate each SWB component individually, and evaluate changes in all three components following each manipulation. Manipulation materials designed to target LS only were effective (i.e., led to heightened focus on LS, and not PA or NA) and created an increase in both LS and PA. Manipulation materials designed to target PA and NA only were not effective (i.e., led to heightened focus on the target component...
This study sought to replicate previous work concerning the impact of positive mental imagery on emotion. Previous experimental studies found that imagining positive events was superior to verbally processing the same events in producing positive affect, and further that field rather than observer perspective imagery had a more powerful impact (Holmes, Coughtrey, & Connor, 2008; Holmes, Mathews, Dalgleish, & Mackintosh, 2006). In the current study, 78 students listened to 100 positive events randomly allocated to one of three conditions (between-subjects): imagining them via a field or an observer perspective or listening to the same events while thinking about their verbal meaning. Positive affect was measured before and after the task. Positive affect change was greater after imagery (field and observer) than the verbal condition, replicating previous research. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant difference in affect change between the field and observer conditions. To explain the latter result, we reflect on methodological explanations. In conclusion, there was greater positive affect change after positive mental imagery than positive verbal thinking. If results can be translated from the lab to the clinic then imaging positive situations may help people feel more positive than only discussing them verbally in therapy.
Positive affect has been implicated in the phenomenological experience of various psychiatric disorders, vulnerability to develop psychopathology and overall socio-emotional functioning. However, developmental influences that may contribute to positive affect have been understudied. Here, we studied youths' 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing environment (degree of positive and supportive parenting) to investigate the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH) that youth carrying short alleles of 5-HTTLPR would be more influenced and responsive to supportive and unsupportive parenting, and would exhibit higher and lower positive affect, respectively. Three independent studies tested this gene–environment interaction (GxE) in children and adolescents (age range 9–15 years; total N=1874). In study 1 (N=307; 54% girls), positive/supportive parenting was assessed via parent report, in study 2 (N=197; 58% girls) via coded observations of parent–child interactions in the laboratory and in study 3 (N=1370; 53% girls) via self report. Results from all the three studies showed that youth homozygous for the functional short allele of 5-HTTLPR were more responsive to parenting as environmental context in a ‘for better and worse' manner. Specifically...
There are an unlimited number of ways a person may respond to someone sharing pain-related thoughts or feelings. Understanding what types of responses may result in positive outcomes for individuals with pain is important, yet limited research has been conducted in this area. The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how validation as a response to verbal disclosures about pain influences positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and pain tolerance as compared to other responses. To examine this question, an experimental design with best friend dyads was used. Participants engaged in a pain induction task and were asked to verbally share about their pain, and either their friend or a research assistant delivered validating, neutral, or invalidating responses. Results found that receiving validating was related to greater positive affect and reduced negative affect as compared to receiving in validating responses, and some group differences emerged between participants who received responses from friends as compared to research assistants.
It can be stated from the previous research that positive emotions should allow to better health outcomes in sick populations. The aim of the present work is to know the state-of-the-art of how positive affect (PA) relates with quality of life in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, as well as to give some guidelines to develop more efficacious psychological interventions in CRC patients to enhance positive affect. This review describes a search of published literature from January 2001 to March of 2012 on the Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Psycho Inf and Cochrane databases using publications that contain positive emotions, positive affect, health outcomes, quality of life, CRC and cancer. These articles were classified into two groups: a) "descriptive papers" b) "interventional studies". Results from "descriptive papers" suggest that positive affect (PA) was significantly associated with greater levels of general health, better social functioning, benefit finding, positive changes, low depression, less anxiety and greather psychological well-being. PA also increases when different activities are developed. The overall results from interventional studies suggest that the interventions described can be recommended for improving patient's levels of positive affect. The present review offers some suggestions which could be useful for CRC patients.