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Regional Effects of Port Infrastructure: A Spatial CGE Application to Brazil

HADDAD, Eduardo A.; HEWINGS, Geoffrey J. D.; PEROBELLI, Fernando S.; SANTOS, Raul A. C. dos
Fonte: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC Publicador: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This article attempts to elucidate one of the mechanisms that link trade barriers, in the form of port costs, and subsequent growth and regional inequality. Prior attention has focused on inland or link costs, but port costs can be considered as a further barrier to enhancing trade liberalization and growth. In contrast to a highway link, congestion at a port may have severe impacts that are spread over space and time whereas highway link congestion may be resolved within several hours. Since a port is part of the transportation network, any congestion/disruption is likely to ripple throughout the hinterland. In this sense, it is important to model properly the role nodal components play in the context of spatial models and international trade. In this article, a spatial computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that is integrated to a transport network system is presented to simulate the impacts of increases in port efficiency in Brazil. The role of ports of entry and ports of exit are explicitly considered to grasp the holistic picture in an integrated interregional system. Measures of efficiency for different port locations are incorporated in the calibration of the model and used as the benchmark in our simulations. Three scenarios are evaluated: (1) an overall increase in port efficiency in Brazil to achieve international standards; (2) efficiency gains associated with decentralization in port management in Brazil; and (3) regionally differentiated increases in port efficiency to reach the boundary of the national efficiency frontier.

Modelo de gestão e automação dos portos brasileiros.; Model of the management and automation of the Brazilian ports.

Vianna Júnior, Edison de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
O Título desta tese também poderia ser: elementos e subsídios a um modelo de gestão e automação dos portos brasileiros. Isto porque o objetivo inicial era propor um modelo de gestão e automação dos processos portuários e esperava-se que a implantação do sistema ocorresse em tempo curto. O modelo que se desejava só estaria pronto depois de implantado e em operação, validando-o. Esse novo cenário possibilitaria a redução de custos logísticos e a utilização racional da malha de transportes, com o incremento da cabotagem e navegação interior, utilizando a Tecnologia da Comunicação e Informação para racionalização dos processos e simplificação das atividades dos agentes públicos e privados. Tal modelo proposto pode ser explicado pela necessidade em se obter um modelo que alcance a melhoria das operações portuárias, considerando o cenário tecnológico internacional, com o incremento da automação, no qual a tendência é a disseminação da troca eletrônica de dados (EDI). Experiências bem sucedidas nesse sentido podem ser constatadas em território nacional, como o sistema Supervia Eletrônica de Dados (SED), utilizado nos Portos de Santos e Rio de Janeiro. Deve ser considerada a avaliação da proposta do modelo SISPORTOS...

Is the environmental policies procedures a barrier to development of inland navigation and port management? A case of study in Brazil

Kaiser, Ilza Machado; Bezerra, Barbara Stolte; Castro, Leslie Ivana Serino
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 78-86
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The main objective of this article is to discuss the Brazilian environmental legislation and policies towards the development of navigation and port management. The research illustrated some difficulties faced by the country and make suggestions to overcome it. The construction of the environmental legal framework began in the early 1960s and resulted in a very complex system, as a consequence of policies adopted by the country. Nowadays Brazilian environmental policies are developed in democratic and participative way, although with elevated degree of bureaucracy and lack of integration among the several governmental agencies, which makes the approval of environmental certifications demand several years for new port projects or improvements, which delays the economic development of the country. Efforts have been made to simplify the licensing process. As result of this research two flowchart for environmental licenses of ports installation are shown: The first shows the process until 2009 and the second shows the process nowadays. This become an important issue due the fact that inland navigation is one of the less pollutant modes of transportation, and although, the process of environmental certification was simplified, if compare with 2009...

Multiservice Infrastructure : Privatizing Port Services

Trujillo, Lourdes; Nombela, Gustavo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Ports have become increasingly capital intensive. Economies of scale have led to larger, more specialized ships, and, competition between ports has started to grow. As a result, governments are reorganizing the way ports are run, and permitting more private ownership, and service delivery. Because ports provide multiple services, if governments are to design an efficient legal, and regulatory framework for private participation, it is important to study all these activities to evaluate the best approach. Moreover, because these activities must take place in a small space, it is important to study how they are best coordinated. The note outlines privatization options, such as: full privatization, i.e., all assets and liabilities are transferred to the private sector; build, operate and own, i.e., parts of the port are sold to be developed; build or rehabilitate, on a concession basis; joint ventures; leasing, i.e., no investments, only commercial risks; licensing, (provision of equipment); and, management contract...

Private Participation in Port Facilities : Recent Trends

Sommer, Dirk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The private sector has become increasingly involved in the operation of common-user port facilities during the 1990s, following public sector dominance of the sector since the 1940s. During the past decade the reform of port administration has gained momentum in industrial and developing countries alike. Between 1990 and 1998, 112 port projects with private participation reached financial closure in twenty-eight developing countries, with investment commitments totaling more than US$9 billion. Most projects are in East Asia and Latin America, and most are long-term concessions. This Note provides an overview of the emerging trends in developing countries and outlines the main issues for the future. These issues include sustaining competition at a regional level, across networks, and with other transport sectors, such as road and rail.

Regulation of the Indian Port Sector

van Krimpen, Christiaan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This report sets out various options for regulatory reform of the Indian port sector. The terms of reference from The World Bank require the Author making recommendations to the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs) with respect to alternative institutional and legal options for regulation of the port sector in India as well as analysing key considerations in the regulation of this sector and the way they are being addressed in the Indian Ports (Consolidated) Act, 2010, which has been drafted recently. This report is solution-oriented and focuses on day-to-day problems of Indian port management. The problems of the Indian ports (including those of tariff regulation by TAMP) are well known, thoroughly analysed, described in detail and widely discussed in the port sector. A final solution for the restructuring of the sector has not yet been found. This report is written with a view to outlining various alternatives which may help the competent authorities to make final decisions on a new/revised port sector regulatory framework.

Port Reform Toolkit : Effective Decision Support for Policymakers, Module 1. Framework for Port Reform

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This Port Reform Toolkit, consisting of eight modules, presents background information, concrete examples, and specific tools and methods that public officials can use to make effective, sustainable reforms of public institutions that provide port services in developing countries. In particular it focuses on understanding the needs, challenges and risks for sector reform; choosing among options for private sector participation and analyzing their implications; preparing legislation, contracts and institutional charters to govern private sector participation; managing the transition to increased private sector involvement. The Toolkit presents "best international practices" in a manner that is relevant to decision-makers. The Toolkit is designed to be easily understood by non-specialists. Thus, it attempts to make general points with concrete examples. It is illustrated with experience drawn from recent port reform activities around the world.

A Multioutput Cost Function for Port Terminals : Some Guidelines for Regulation

Tovar, Beatriz; Jara-Díaz, Sergio; Trujillo, Lourdes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or noncontainerized general cargo. In this paper Tovar, Jara-D�, and Trujillo analyze the operation of port terminals through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three firms located at the Las Palmas port in Spain. This permits the calculation of product-specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm), and economies of scope, which are key tools to help the regulators in their task.

Gestión ambiental de sistemas acuáticos portuarios: aplicación al puerto de Tarragona; Environmental management of seaport water bodies: application to the port of Tarragona

García Gómez, Aina; Bravo Román, Estefanía; Sámano Celorio, María Luisa; Ondiviela Eizaguirre, Bárbara; Juanes de la Peña, Juan José; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio
Fonte: Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos Publicador: Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
RESUMEN. Puertos del Estado, tras la aprobación de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA), consideró esencial el proporcionar herramientas científica y técnicamente sólidas que pudieran contribuir a la gestión de las aguas portuarias. Fruto de esta inquietud, se desarrolló la ROM 5.1 “Calidad de aguas litorales en áreas portuarias”, procedimiento fácil de implementar dentro de los esquemas de gestión portuaria, y económicamente viable. La aplicación de la ROM 5.1 al Puerto de Tarragona ha permitido confirmar que dicha recomendación permite llevar a cabo una gestión integral de los sistemas acuáticos portuarios coherente con los principios establecidos por la Directiva Marco del Agua.; ABSTRACT. On the passing of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), Puertos del Estado, Spain’s national port agency, considered it essential to provide scientific and technically proven tools to contribute to the management of seaport waters. This led to the development of the ROM 5.1 (Recommendations for Maritime Works) “Quality of coastal waters in seaport areas”, an economically viable procedure that may be readily implemented within port management schemes. The application of the ROM 5.1 to the Port of Tarragona has confirmed the validity of these recommendations to ensure the integral management of port water bodies in accordance with the guidelines established by the Water Framework Directive.

Configuration management for expert system development: application to the MK92 prototype Maintenance Advisor Expert System

Metzler, Paul Gregory.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 187 p. :|bill.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The Naval Postgraduate School In conjunction with Port Hueneme Division (PHD), Naval Surface Warfare Center is developing a diagnostic expert system for troubleshooting casualties in the MK 92 MOD 2 fire control system deployed in US Navy Oliver Hazard class (FFG-7) guided missile frigates. The high turnover rate of student developers and the frequency with which changes are made to the expert system have highlighted a need for controlling the change process and the management of resources applied to implementing those changes to the expert system's knowledge base and software. This thesis develops a configuration management plan for the MK92 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MK92 MAES) to assist object members in the management of changes to software and domain knowledge. The concept of configuration management is examined in detail with specific emphasis on the challenges of its implementation to expert systems. Two automated configuration management tools, CCC/Manager and PVCS Version Control, are evaluated for suitability for application in an expert system development environment. Finally, specific recommendations are presented for establishing a configuration management process for MK92 MAES project.; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

Port Privatization and Competition in Colombia

Gaviria, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Most of Colombia's general cargo trade has been handled by four public ports: Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta on the Atlantic coast and Buenaventura on the Pacific coast. These four ports were concessioned in 1993 to regional port "societies" established under company law. These societies are responsible for contracting with port operators for the use of facilities and supervising the facilities' use - they do not provide services directly. New laws abolished restrictive labor practices and have allowed stevedoring services to compete freely at each port. The liberalization of labor practices along with the privatization of port services has resulted in large and rapid improvements in productivity, lower fees for port users, and very attractive returns for the concessionaires. Productivity levels are higher than in most newly privatized ports in other Latin American countries - where in many cases the ports have been privatized with limited competition. The improvements have been realized with low initial investments...

Study on Regulation of Private Operators in the Port of Djibouti

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Within a partnership framework with the Emirate of Dubai, the government of Djibouti has developed, during the last decade, an outstanding port and logistics hub with few precedents in other African countries. The objective of the present study is to strengthen the competitiveness of the ports of Djibouti (old port of Djibouti and new port of Doraleh) and ensure their medium-term and long-term development by designing a modern and efficient regulation system for private port operators, and specifically addressing issues related to the quality of service and pricing, in addition to institutional related issues. The port of Djibouti's competitiveness can be measured by its capacity to counter competition from other ports through the quality of its infrastructures and services, performance and port costs. Real or potential competition facing the port of Djibouti concerns non-captive traffic and its two components, transit and transshipment traffic. The port of Djibouti's natural competitors for Ethiopia's transit traffic are the ports of Berbera...

Port Reform in Nigeria : Upstream Policy Reforms Kick-Start One of the World's Largest Concession Programs

Leigland, James; Palsson, Gylfl
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Over a two-year period, beginning in late 2004, the Nigerian federal government implemented one of the most ambitious port concessioning programs ever attempted. The success of this program resulted from the government's vision and decisiveness, as well as the need to remedy massive shortcomings in the sector, which were sharply inhibiting economic development. But the program also benefited strongly from policy reform recommendations made by PPIAF-funded consultants in 2002. The role of these upstream policy and planning recommendations highlights the value of best practice steps for creating an enabling environment in which sustainable arrangements for the private participation in infrastructure can be concluded.

Port and Maritime Transport Challenges in West and Central Africa; Ports et transport maritime en Afrique de l'Ouest de du Centre

Pálsson, Gylfi; Harding, Alan; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This Working Paper presents the current trends in maritime transport and port sectors in West and Central Africa (WCA), and proposes several policy recommendations to improve maritime transport and port efficiency in order to enhance economic growth. West and Central African economies, which depend on maritime transport for an overwhelming proportion of their trade, rely on efficient maritime transport and port sectors to be competitive on world markets. This paper was prepared for the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP), in the overall context of the World Bank's efforts for trade facilitation in Sub- Saharan Africa2 as a follow-up to the 1997 Second Cotonou meeting of West and Central Africa (WCA) Ministers.

OECS Ports : An Efficiency and Performance Assessment

Cubas, Diana; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Handling charges in Caribbean ports are two to three times higher than in similar ports in other regions of the world. In some cases, it costs significantly less to ship a container to Hong Kong SAR, China, or Europe than it does to ship to a neighboring island no more than 100 miles away. The reasons for high port-handling costs are linked to procedural inefficiencies along the logistics chain, high freight rates that shipping lines attribute to empty backhauls, and the poor performance of port management and operations. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States shares the larger Caribbean region's advantages, challenges, and concerns related to the performance of port management and operations. Yet performance assessments have been difficult to make because of data constraints. This report seeks to provide such an assessment along four distinct policy dimensions: (i) traffic development, (ii) the institutional and regulatory framework, (iii) infrastructure development, and (iv) performance, including pricing and finance issues. The report concludes by benchmarking the efficiency of Organization of Eastern Caribbean States ports against other Latin American ports using a stochastic frontier approach...

Port Concessions in Chile : Contract Design to Promote Competition and Investment

Foxley, Juan; Mardones, José Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
The objective of Chile's port reform, is to encourage investments for improved port equipment, in the hope that this will lead to more efficient service, in part by attracting larger, more modern ships. The first four major concessions, under which integrated terminals are run exclusively by private companies, started operations in January 2000. The integrated approach to port services replaces a system of free entry of multiple stevedoring companies. This note reviews how the concessions were designed: the criteria for the winning bids, the rules to prevent concessionaires' abusing their monopoly power, the rules to encourage investment, and the provisions for redundant workers.

Mauritius - The Port Development and Environment Protection Project; Ile Maurice : le Projet d'Amenagement Portuaire et de Protection de l'Environnement

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The overall objective of the project (1996-2001) was to enhance the country's transport and trade effectiveness in the maritime sector in an environmentally sustainable manner. It aimed to help increase port productivity, efficiency and capacity to meet the demand of port users and operators at competitive rates through extension of facilities, mechanization and improved management of the Mauritius Port Authority (MPA), formerly the Mauritius Marine Authority, the Cargo Handling Corporation Ltd. (CHCL) and the Mauritius Freeport Authority (MFA), redefine the role of MPA as a landlord port authority working through as series of competitive concession contracts with performance indicators for port operations, support the development of MFA to promote Mauritius as an attractive tax-free base for regional trade, and support port development with sound environmental protection, including control of marine pollution, and port operations and vessels' safety enhancement.

Maritime Transport Costs and Port Efficiency

Clark, Ximena; Dollar, David; Micco, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Recent literature has emphasized the importance of transport costs and infrastructure in explaining trade, access to markets, and increases in per capita income. For most Latin American countries transport costs are a greater barrier to U.S. markets than import tariffs. The authors investigate the determinants of the costs of shipping to the United States using a large database (more than 300,000 observations a year) on shipments of products at the six-digit level of the Harmonized System of classification from different ports around the world. They find that distance and containerization matter. They find that the efficiency of ports is also important. Improving the efficiency of a port from the 25th to the 75th percentile reduces shipping costs by 12 percent. (On average, having bad ports is equivalent to being 60 percent farther away from markets.) Inefficient ports also increase handling costs, which are part of shipping costs. Finally, the authors try to explain variations in port efficiency. They find that the variations are linked to excessive regulation...

Best Practices in Port Management: An Assessment of Two Ports

Bacchioni, Abra
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 8952573 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Corporation X owns and operates Port Y in Indonesia and will begin using Port Z in Australia, a public port, in late 2008. The ports are used to export copper concentrate, while Port Y is also used to move commodities, cargo, and people. Analysis based on field observations and personnel interviews revealed strengths and weaknesses in best management practices at each location. As the Corporation aims to demonstrate best port practices, this assessment of environmental practices and protocols addresses handling of cargo, protocols for ships, environmental controls, monitoring, and general practices. Research found that Port Y could lessen environmental impacts by enclosing the copper concentrate conveyor system. Best practices at Port Y include ballast water management and monitoring practices. Port Z could improve its management practices by increasing environmental monitoring frequency; best practices include movement of copper concentrate and air quality maintenance.

UPnp Port Manipulation as a Covert Channel

Monette, Steven; Johnson, Daryl; Lutz, Peter; Yuan, Bo
Fonte: The 2012 International Conference on Security and Management Publicador: The 2012 International Conference on Security and Management
Tipo: Conference Proceeding
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Port knocking traditionally has been a technique used from external connections to convey information to or request services from an internal private network [1]. UPnP as a standard allows for devices and services to open ports on network devices in order to enable functionality [2]. By combining these two techniques it is possible to port knock internally, opening ports for an intended viewer on an external network device. This paper proposes a covert channel using this technique to exfiltrate data or broadcast messages from a system behind a UPnP device to any Internet connected system.