Página 1 dos resultados de 223181 itens digitais encontrados em 0.075 segundos

Condições de saúde bucal dos idosos moradores no município de São Paulo; Oral heath conditions among the elderly population living in the City of São Paulo in 2006 [dissertation]

Teixeira, Doralice Severo da Cruz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Introdução - O envelhecimento da população tem implicações significativas para a organização da atenção odontológica. Objetivo - Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de idosos moradores na área urbana do município de São Paulo em 2006. Método - O Estudo SABE (Saúde Bem Estar e Envelhecimento) é um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo sete países da América Latina e Caribe cuja primeira fase teve início em 2000 e em 2006 transformou-se em um estudo longitudinal. Em 2006, foram examinadas 1.212 pessoas de 65 anos de idade e mais que representaram 515.040 idosos residentes na área urbana do município de São Paulo. Os exames foram realizados por 15 cirurgiões-dentistas calibrados segundo os critérios metodológicos recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Resultados - A média do Índice CPOD (número de dentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados) nas mulheres foi de 29,87 e entre os homens de 27,42. A freqüência do CPOD variou de 7 a 32 nas mulheres e de 8 a 32 nos homens. Não houve idosos com todos os dentes presentes. A necessidade de tratamento mais prevalente foi de exodontia. Em relação à condição periodontal, nas mulheres, 90,84% dos sextantes superiores e 84,56% dos sextantes inferiores eram edêntulos e...

Population Size, Concentration, and Civil War : A Geographically Disaggregated Analysis

Hegre, Håvard; Raleigh, Clionadh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Why do larger countries have more armed conflict? This paper surveys three sets of hypotheses forwarded in the conflict literature regarding the relationship between the size and location of population groups: Hypotheses based on pure population mass, on distances, on population concentrations, and some residual state-level characteristics. The hypotheses are tested on a new dataset-ACLED (Armed Conflict Location and Events Dataset)-which disaggregates internal conflicts into individual events. The analysis covers 14 countries in Central Africa. The conflict event data are juxtaposed with geographically disaggregated data on populations, distance to capitals, borders, and road networks. The paper develops a statistical method to analyze this type of data. The analysis confirms several of the hypotheses.

Population Issues in the 21st Century : The Role of the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. The paper consists of five sections. First, this section defines the scope of population as used in the HNP sector, and the areas that will be considered in this note are specified. This is followed by a description of recent trends in demographic indicators that have created the demographic backdrops for addressing development issues. The third section discusses the role the World Bank can play in population issues and places population within the context of economic growth...

Population, Poverty, and Climate Change

Das Gupta, Monica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
The literature is reviewed on the relationships between population, poverty, and climate change. While developed countries are largely responsible for global warming, the brunt of the fallout will be borne by the developing world, in lower agricultural output, poorer health, and more frequent natural disasters. Carbon emissions in the developed world have leveled off, but are projected to rise rapidly in the developing world due to their economic growth and population growth -- the latter most notably in the poorest countries. Lowering fertility has many benefits for the poorest countries. Studies indicate that, in high fertility settings, fertility decline facilitates economic growth and poverty reduction. It also reduces the pressure on livelihoods, and frees up resources to cope with climate change. And it helps avert some of the projected global warming, which will benefit these countries far more than those that lie at higher latitudes and/or have more resources to cope with climate change. Natural experiments indicate that family planning programs are effective in helping reduce fertility...

Policy Note on Population Growth and its Implications in Timor-Leste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The report offers a description of current demographics, including density, population structure, and the components of population change. It explains projection procedures and provides results, including some alternative projections. The report assesses consequences of population growth for key sectors of society such as education and employment and offers options for modifying future population trends, focusing on high fertility and the reasons behind it. A brief discussion of the health sector highlights problems of promoting family planning. Comparisons are made where appropriate with other developing countries, particularly within Southeast Asia.

The new international population movement: a framework for a constructive critique

Basu, Alaka Malwade
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 87767 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This paper suggests that the old (neo-Malthusian) ideological orthodoxy which informed much of the population policy debate until the mid-1980s is in danger of being replaced by a new orthodoxy which is also unduly one-sided and simplistic. In addition, this new ideology, which received such a boost at the Cairo conference, is under even less pressure to re-evaluate some of its premises because it is motivated by more obviously altruistic and egalitarian concerns, and a challenge to its premises runs the risk of being interpreted as a challenge to these humane goals. However, letting ideology inform research and policy can have self-defeating consequences when it ignores the complexity of the real world, the frequency of trade-offs, and the many ways in which there may be a conflict between policy-relevant empirical findings and these ideological goals. The paper explores some of these issues in the context of Cairo and presents a framework which may be used to develop a constructive critique of the new international population policy agenda.; no

Estimating the components of indigenous population change, 1996–2001

Kinfu, Yohannes; Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 279844 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Every five years, the national Census of Population and Housing provides a window on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of Australia’s Indigenous population. Of particular interest to demographers is the opportunity that this provides to benchmark intercensal population estimates and to estimate the components of intercensal population change. In line with each census count of Indigenous Australians since 1971, when a question on self-identified Indigenous origins was introduced, the 2001 count produced an intercensal change in numbers that cannot be explained by demographic processes alone. Unpredictability thus remains a hallmark of Indigenous population growth. In accounting for the unexplained component of population growth we refer to changes in census coverage rather than specifically to changes in propensity to identify. The former may include the latter, although to what extent is unknown. In truth, we still cannot determine the factors that contribute to non-demographic population growth, although it is possible to speculate. There is evidence of a highly systematic movement of people into the census-identified Indigenous population in 1996, and out of the population in 2001. This is suggestive of procedural or processing change...

Demographics of Developing Tasmania’s Population: Increasing Tasmania’s population to 600,000

Hanscamp, Taminka
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This report considers Tasmania’s population problem and the the viability of increasing its population from 515,000 to 600,000. Securing population growth is heralded as pivotal to ensuring a healthy economy, increasing workforce opportunities and establishing positive education outcomes. This report considers the extent to which population growth can achieve these ends. This report provides a synthesised analysis of the need for population growth in Tasmania and how this could be achieved through different policy areas. It considers how migration, education and industry could be utilised at the federal level to encourage population growth. A mixed method approach was used that relied on quantitative demographic data and statistics as well as qualitative commentaries and interviews. Tasmania is the smallest Australian state by population. It also has the slowest population growth rate and the highest median age in Australia. This demographic context means Tasmania has a significantly aged population. An ageing population presents challenges because it reduces the tax base whilst increasing demand for publicly funded services. Tasmania has struggled to achieve net migration gains as it often loses more people through emigration to the mainland than it gains through migrant arrivals. Further...

Changing patterns of population distribution in Australia

Hugo, G.
Fonte: Australian Population Association Publicador: Australian Population Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The spatial dimension of Australia's demography has received limited research attention. This is despite evidence of unprecedented concern among policy makers over perceived wide differentials in wellbeing between different parts of the country. This paper seeks to identify recent and emerging trends in Australia's population distribution, and argues that it is one of the most dynamic and policy-relevant dimensions of the contemporary demographic situation. The paper analyses first the changing distribution of population between the states, then the shifting balance between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Trends in areas classified according to their degree of remoteness are discussed next, the focus then moving to the changing population distributions within nonmetropolitan Australia and within metropolitan areas. It is argued that there is a growing dichotomization in both nonmetropolitan and metropolitan Australia between areas of growth and areas of decline. Some attention is also given to distributional aspects of social wellbeing.; Graeme Hugo; © Australian Population Association

Climate change and population growth: Australia's diabolical equation

Walters, Joe
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the relationship between population and climate change, and explore the viability of stabilising population levels as a means of mitigating Australia's future carbon emissions. The aim of the report was to provide to Mr Kelvin Thomson MP, the most useful discussion of the relationship between population and climate change in Australia, and the effect of population growth on the Government's greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation target. The analysis was based on appraising the future direction of Australia's population and emissions growth, examining the drivers of this growth, comparing methods for limiting the growth of both, and evaluating the likely impacts of these methods. Chapter I finds that immigration policy is the method by which the Australian Government can most influence future population. However, the formation of immigration policy, and thus population growth, has been influenced by interest groups that often have considerable national profiles, and often with conflicting agendas, and this factor has heavily influenced the creation of long-term policy. Chapter IT finds that Australia's GHG emissions are extremely high per capita and largely driven by substantial growth in stationary energy. Australia's GHG emissions will be abated...

Population futures for Australia: the policy alternatives

McDonald, Peter; Kippen, Rebecca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 209015 bytes; 15166 bytes; 12648 bytes; 10239 bytes; 14015 bytes; 14122 bytes; 12742 bytes; 14745 bytes; 15063 bytes; 8253 bytes; 7439 bytes; 13151 bytes; 14827 bytes; 3416 bytes; text/html; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
In recent years, there has been intense debate about the population size to which Australia should aim in the 21st century. Some argue for a much lower population than we have now. The environmentalist, Tim Flannery, for example, has suggested that Australians might opt for a future population of between 6 and 12 million people. Others argue for a considerably larger population. For example, former Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser, would like to see a population of 45 to 50 million people in the next 50 years. This paper shows that the targets specified by both Flannery and Fraser are unattainable in the next 50 years because such targets can only be reached through levels of immigration which are impossibly negative on one side or impossibly large on the other side. The demographic reality is that the options for Australia's future population size are much more limited than the options that are considered in popular debate. The limiting factor is our low, and falling, level of fertility. The powerful demographic effects of low fertility have been little appreciated. One of the aims of this paper is to provide such an appreciation. We show that with zero net migration, Australia's projected levels of fertility and mortality would lead to the population rising initially to 20 million and then falling slowly in the first half of next century and rapidly in the second half. The population would age dramatically and the size of the labour force would fall markedly. We argue that these are not desirable outcomes and that...

Australia's population futures

McDonald, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 248205 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
There are four components that go into the making of population projections: fertility, mortality, migration and the size and age structure of the base population. One of the central demographic lessons is that much of a population's future is contained in its present age structure, which, in turn, is primarily the result of its past fertility history. In broad terms, Australia's fertility was relatively low in the 1930s and 1940s, high in the 1950s and 1960s and very low in the 1980s and 1990s. This 70-year history of fertility is very much reflected in Australia&'s present age structure and is the central reason that we can be absolutely certain that Australia will experience substantial ageing of its population in the coming decades as the large number of births of the 1950s and 1960s replaces the small number born in the 1930s and 1940s at the older ages, while, at younger ages, there is no increase in the size of age cohorts. While it is often stated that post-war immigration has kept Australia's population young, it has been shown that in fact this immigration had no impact at all on the age distribution of the Australian population. Falling mortality rates, particularly in the past 25 years, however, have contributed to population ageing (to a lesser extent than past fertility) and variations in future mortality levels can have a significant impact on the extent of population ageing. The existing age structure is what gives population futures "aircraft carrier" nature...

Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?; Envejecimiento de la poblacion : esta preparada America Latina ?

Cotlear, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer...

Population, Poverty, and Sustainable Development : A Review of the Evidence

Das Gupta, Monica; Bongaarts, John; Cleland, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
There is a very large but scattered literature debating the economic implications of high fertility. This paper reviews the literature on three themes: (a) Does high fertility affect low-income countries' prospects for economic growth and poverty reduction? (b) Does population growth exacerbate pressure on natural resources? and (c) Are family planning programs effective at lowering fertility, and should they be publicly funded? The literature shows broad consensus that while policy and institutional settings are key in shaping the prospects of economic growth and poverty reduction, the rate of population growth also matters. Recent studies find that low dependency ratios (as fertility declines) create an opportunity for increasing productivity, savings and investment in future growth. They find that lower fertility is associated with better child health and schooling, and better health and greater labor-force participation for women. They also indicate that rapid population growth can constrain economic growth...

Sri Lankan Population Change and Demographic Bonus Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This paper examines the population changes and the related causative factors, namely fertility, mortality and international migration in Sri Lanka. During the past decades, the total size, as well as the age and sex structure of the population, was exposed to irreversible changes. The age structure transition has produced a demographic bonus conducive for an economic takeoff. During this period, the proportion of people of working age (15-59) is larger than the fraction in the dependent age categories. The paper includes a sector analysis of the employed population in the agriculture, industry and service sectors to identify the growth sectors of the economy and to reveal the potential patterns and levels of utilization of the demographic bonus. Finally, the social safety net implications of the emerging population, such as the dependency burden, aging, disability and the disintegration of traditional family system in Sri Lanka are examined. Sri Lanka's population has grown to 20 million in 2010, an almost eight-fold increase since the census of 1871. The population doubled 54 years after the first census (1925)...

Population Pressures, Migration, and the Returns to Human Capital and Land : Insights from Indonesia

Liu, Yanyan; Yamauchi, Futoshi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Rapid population growth in many developing countries has raised concerns regarding food security and household welfare. To understand the consequences of population growth in a general equilibrium setting, this paper examines the dynamics of population density and its impacts on household outcomes. The analysis uses panel data from Indonesia combined with district-level demographic data. Historically, Indonesia has adapted to land constraints through a mix of agricultural intensification, expansion of the land frontier, and nonfarm diversification, with public policies playing a role in catalyzing all of these responses. In contemporary Indonesia, the paper finds that human capital determines the effect of increased population density on per capita household consumption expenditure. On the one hand, the effect of population density is positive if the average educational attainment is high (above junior high school), while it is negative otherwise. On the other hand, farmers with larger holdings maintain their advantage in farming regardless of population density. The paper concludes with some potential lessons for African countries from Indonesia's more successful rural development experiences.

From Population Lending to HNP Results : The Evolution of the World Bank's Strategies in Health, Nutrition and Population

Fair, Mollie
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper reviews the evolution of the World Bank's strategies in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in relation to both internal and global events, as background for the forthcoming evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the Bank's support for HNP. It summarizes the objectives, priorities, and strategies in HNP as expressed in official documents and revealed implicitly by its lending and non-lending activities. Special emphasis is placed on analysis of the period since the release of the 1997 HNP Strategy, which has guided the sector over the last decade. However, the report also reviews the Bank's earlier experiences in HNP, so as to provide a context for understanding the World Bank's current strategies. Detailed timelines annexed to the paper help to put the Bank's strategies and actions in the context of the evolution of global HNP themes. It aimed to help client countries: (i) improve the HNP outcomes of the poor and protect the population from the impoverishing effects of illness...

The Global Family Planning Revolution : Three Decades of Population Policies and Programs; La revolucion mundial de la planificación familiar : tres decadas de politicas y programas de poblacion

Robinson, Warren C.; Ross, John A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This volume helps fill the gap left from insufficiently archived details of family planning programs carried out in many developing countries from the 1950s through the 1980s of their operations, their commonalities, and their differences, with much useful information and informed analysis. The programs were complex undertakings in difficult settings that had little prior experience to draw upon. Not surprisingly, as the case studies described here demonstrate, no single strategy was available that could be employed across these diverse situations, and procedures that were successful in one country did not necessarily function well in another. The case studies also indicate that developing a successful program was as much an art as a science. The key ingredient was being able to distinguish when a somewhat radical new approach was needed and when only some fine-tuning was necessary. While not a focus of this book, the family planning programs had several important, indirect effects on the field of population studies that merit attention as part of the record. First...

Modelos com variação de estrutura populacional no tempo e estudo de suas consequencias geneticas; Models with variation in population structure through time and study of genetic consequences

Flavia Fuchs de Jesus
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
A estrutura populacional é um dos principais fatores moldando os padrões de variabilidade genética no tempo e no espaço. Devido às flutuações climáticas que ocorreram durante o período Quaternário, muitas espécies podem ter sofrido redução e fragmentação populacional, ficando restritas a "refúgios" durante períodos glaciais e se expandindo novamente durante os interglaciais. Isto tem sido utilizado para explicar alguns padrões encontrados nas espécies atualmente. O presente trabalho consistiu no desenvolvimento e estudo de modelos para auxiliar na compreensão das conseqüências genéticas de mudanças cíclicas na estruturação e tamanho populacionais, como as que teriam ocorrido ao longo das flutuações climáticas do Quaternário. A redução populacional é capaz de causar redução do tamanho efetivo populacional, do tempo médio de coalescência e da variabilidade genética, ao passo que um aumento na subdivisão populacional pode ter o efeito oposto. Para investigar estes efeitos opostos, foram estudados dois modelos, ambos com alternância de duas fases correspondendo aos períodos glaciais e interglaciais. Em ambos os modelos permitiram-se mudanças na estrutura populacional, além de mudanças no tamanho populacional...

Historical Population Estimates: Unraveling the Consensus

Caldwell, John; Schindlmayr, Thomas
Fonte: Population Council Publicador: Population Council
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
The mid-twentieth century witnessed the emergence of a remarkable consensus on quantitative estimates of world population growth after 1650. This was the achievement of Walter Willcox, supported and modified by Alexander Carr-Saunders and John Durand, and was endorsed by United Nations publications. It had its origin in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century work, largely carried out in Germany. Willcox was particularly interested in demonstrating seventeenth-century population growth as evidence of the global impact of European expansion, and this probably led to a too-ready acceptance of estimates with little real basis. More recent estimates do little to shake the consensus, but extend the historical series back over two millennia or further. The article examines the strength and influence of a consensus based in the earlier period on surprisingly insecure data. It then turns to the most suspect element in the consensus, the pre-twentieth-century estimates for Africa. Finally, little hope is expressed that future researchers will be able to establish reliable estimates, especially for dates earlier than the eighteenth century.