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A crise económica e financeira na Europa e o seu reflexo na política de segurança coletiva : as novas iniciativas desenvolvidas no âmbito da OTAN e UE : “Smart Defence” e “Pooling and Sharing”

Lobão, Sofia Morais Vieira da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 16/07/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.22%
Sendo a Segurança e Defesa um dos pilares necessários ao normal funcionamento de uma qualquer sociedade, é fundamental nos dias de hoje dar a conhecer todos os aspetos relativos ao funcionamento e aos custos incorridos com a defesa, particularmente com as Forças Armadas. Pois os custos da defesa são elevados, mas os custos da sua inexistência são de longe muito superiores. Considerando a crise económica e financeira que afeta a Europa desde 2008, a qual levou a situações extremas de alguns países não conseguirem financiar as suas economias nos mercados financeiros, tendo necessidade de recorrer a ajuda externa através da assinatura de memorandos de entendimento com a Troika (Comissão Europeia, Banco Central Europeu e Fundo Monetário Internacional), procedeu-se no presente trabalho à análise dos indicadores da crise, indicadores que caracterizam o défice excessivo, relativamente aos países que constituem a Aliança Atlântica e os Estados-Membros da União Europeia. Para os países referidos foi feita uma análise exaustiva da despesa pública na área da defesa, quer a preços correntes, quer constantes, passando pelos diversos orçamentos. De seguida foram identificadas as várias soluções/iniciativas desenvolvidas pela OTAN e UE...

Sovereignty in European Context: how the European Union Reinforces National Sovereignty

Ferreira da Silva, Pedro
Fonte: Shanghai International Conference on Social Science Publicador: Shanghai International Conference on Social Science
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /08/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
This paper aims to give a new perspective on the issue of sovereignty in the European context. In this context, we argue that the EU can contribute to increase Member States sovereignty. Many academic circles have advocated that the EU limits State’s sovereignty. This is why we intend to present a new approach to sovereignty in the European context. In order to present our argument we will discuss and debate the concept of sovereignty, both in the internal and external dimensions, which are associated with the concept of power. Then we will check if European states have the necessary means that enables them to project their power. We’ll also argue that there are real limitations, in current capabilities, and in resources availability needed to develop them in the future. We’ll also present the concept of politics of scale, arguing that we can apply this concept to develop state’s capabilities, which allow the necessary power projection, which enhances state’s sovereignty. This found that pooling and sharing will increase EU member states sovereignty, since it will allow a greater ability to project power, which is essential to support the external dimension of sovereignty. Thus, through a process of sharing and pooling member states will have the ability to defend their interests on a global scale...

Análise de um projeto de investimento em ativo fixo tangível de aplicação militar: Estudo de caso de aviões militares de transporte tático.

Andrade, João
Fonte: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino Publicador: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 01/09/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
O presente Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada encontra-se subordinado ao tema ”ANÁLISE DE UM PROJECTO DE INVESTIMENTO EM ACTIVO FIXO TANGÍVEL DE APLICAÇÃO MILITAR: Estudo de caso de Aviões Militares de Transporte Tático”. Esta Investigação visa realizar uma análise de um projeto de investimento em ativo fixo tangível de aplicação militar atendendo ao contexto atual do País tendo como estudo o modelo da EMBRAER Kc-390. A análise ao referido Projeto de Investimento é feita com base no contexto em que Portugal se encontra neste momento e também com aquilo que é emanado pelo atual Conceito Estratégico de Defesa Nacional e a conjuntura da defesa a nível Internacional. A metodologia adotada na realização deste trabalho teve por consulta a obra de Marie-Fabienne Fortin e Yin sendo composta por uma recolha bibliográfica e documental exaustiva, a utilização de entrevistas e por fim atendendo ao caráter atual do estudo uma pesquisa e observação das Noticias avançadas por diversos órgãos e agentes. O Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada é composto por Três partes e seis capítulos organizados e esquematizados de forma planeada e objetiva. Na primeira parte/etapa é feita uma abordagem teórica sobre a análise de investimentos introduzindo conceitos como o Pooling and Sharing...

Europe and Central Asia - Health insurance and competition

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
Health financing systems in some Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries are undergoing some major reforms. In parallel with the transition from central planning to develop market-based economies, countries in Central Europe have moved within a relatively short period of time from having health systems that were government managed and funded by taxes to single health insurance systems that are payroll-funded. The next chapter (chapter two) describes the insurance context in Austria, the Netherlands, Slovakia, and Switzerland. Chapter three examines risk selection in a multiple insurance system. Risk-adjusters and equalization schemes in different countries are discussed as well as the resulting incentives for insurance companies to develop cost containment strategies. Chapter four discusses whether and how insurers compete for providers, including the different forms of managed care contracts that have evolved under multiple insurance and the impact of such contracts on policy goals. Chapter five describes consumer choice in different health financing systems and whether consumers are exercising their choice to switch insurers and plans. Chapter six presents an overview of the different options for insurance reforms. The final chapter will identify the main lessons drawn from the preceding chapters and will present potential policy solutions for increasing the effectiveness of insurance systems...

Risk Pooling in Health Care Financing : The Implications for Health System Performance

Smith, Peter C.; Witter, Sopie N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
Pooling is the health system function whereby collected health revenues are transferred to purchasing organizations. Pooling ensures that the risk related to financing health interventions is borne by all the members of the pool and not by each contributor individually. Its main purpose is to share the financial risk associated with health interventions for which there is uncertain need. The arguments in favor of risk pooling in health care embody equity and efficiency considerations. The equity arguments reflect the view that society does not consider it to be fair that individuals should assume all the risk associated with their health care expenditure needs. The efficiency arguments arise because pooling can lead to major improvements in population health, can increase productivity, and reduces uncertainty associated with health care expenditure. The report considers four classes of risk pooling: no risk pool, under which all expenditure liability lies with the individual; unitary risk pool, under which all expenditure liability is transferred to a single national pool; fragmented risk pools...

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Philippines - The Insurance Sector, A Market and Risk Based Review

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.65%
This note summarizes the conclusions of the review of the insurance sector in the Philippines as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The main objectives of the assessment are to review the performance and structure of the insurance sector in the Philippines with respect to: a) the potential exposure of the sector to vulnerabilities, either generated from the sector or in response to other circumstances outside the sector that could either be magnified or dampened by the sector; b) the potential for the sector to grow and develop, in its own context and also to contribute to the overall long term growth and development of the economy and the well-being of the Philippines people; and c) the relationship between the oversight and regulatory arrangements for the sector against international norms and best practices. In summary, the key conclusions of this analysis are: i) the financial performance of the sector has been particularly stable although the outlook is less sanguine; ii) financial vulnerabilities are present but the challenges would appear to be manageable with careful and vigilant oversight and some targeted policy measures; and iii) opportunities for growth in the sector are wide ranging.

Literature Review : Family Formation and Fertility as Risk-Coping Mechanisms

Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
This report reviews the role of family as an institution that helps individuals manage risk, specifically, how family formation and fertility impact risk management, by (1) presenting the literature on family formation and risk management, (2) reviewing the role of fertility, and (3) reviewing policy implications. Both family formation and fertility determine the size of the family network and, therefore, the gains from pooling risk within this network, while changes in the risk environment alter the gains from network size, which in turn influences family arrangements and fertility. The mechanisms available to cope with risk, along with the magnitude and the consequences of risk, vary widely with level of development, and as more individuals become involved in managing risk, the cost of these strategies should fall. Understanding the determinants of family formation and fertility thus remains critical to understanding how effectively households in the developing world are able to cope with risk.

Catastrophe Risk Management : Using Alternative Risk Financing and Insurance Pooling Mechanisms

Pollner, John D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Residual stochastic risks from catastrophic natural events can be addressed through insurance pooling and risk transfer mechanisms that provide the basis for financial protection and instill strong incentives for reducing vulnerability. To reduce the economic stress after disasters, the author shows, World Bank instruments could be used to support initiaitves to help correct market imperfections in catastrophe insurance. He takes a step-by-step approach to showing how both risk pooling structures and alternative catastrophe coverage mechanisms (long-maturity risk financing facilities, weather-indexed contracts, and capital market instruments) can achieve better risk protection and financing terms--enough to allow the expansion of insurance coverage of public assets and private property. The author examines the insurable assets (private and public) in eight countries in the easternmost part of the Caribbean and, by quantifying the portion of the premium and risk used to fund catastrophe losses, shows that through pooling and the use of credit-type instruments for catastrophe coverage...

Less is More: Pooling and Sharing of European Military Capabilities in the Past and Present

Overhage, Thomas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This thesis analyzes the policy implications of the pooling and sharing of forces and weapons as a feasible way to strengthen European military power in an era of scarcity. This thesis argues that pooling and sharing is likely to be successful only if states enhance their emphasis on collective defense by mutual aid and self help and reduce particularist and parochial interests of local gain. Pooling and sharing could improve European military capabilities significantly and for the long term if differences in location factors are taken into account and all states concentrate on their respective strengths. Pooling of money in the form of common funding can set incentives, and is easier than pooling of established military structures. The analysis of NATOs experiences proves that pooling and sharing is a painstaking process that has to be organized in a way that accounts for national specifics. More competition and less concentration are the key to ensuring guaranteed access to military assets. The behavior of the United States and its bilateral relationship to European states has an important influence on pooling and sharing in Europe.

Can Smart Defense Work? A Suggested Approach to Increasing Risk- and burden-sharing within NATO

Richter, Anke; Webb, Natalie J.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2126205; NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen proposes “Smart Defense,” as NATO’s new approach to risk- and burden-sharing that “ensur[es] greater security, for less money, by working together with more flexibility.” As part of this approach, he promotes the pooling and sharing of defense capabilities based on the “right” priorities and better coordination of efforts. In effect, Smart Defense seeks to address the issue of burden sharing in a climate of economic downturn by encouraging closer alignment and even interdependencies of defense spending and acquisitions among member nations. This is another attempt to address a chronic problem. The issues surrounding alignment among member nations’ forces, the interoperability of NATO forces, and the notion of burden sharing have been present in the alliance since its inception, and scholarly articles are available dating back to the 1950s: In this paper, we offer a possible strategy for making at least some of NATO’s Smart Defense initiative more likely to succeed. Similar initiatives were tried as early as 1952 – “In 1952, NATO leaders meeting in Lisbon agreed that the alliance needed military capabilities equal to those of the Soviet bloc and that national contributions should be based on a specialization of effort.”

A Política Comum de Segurança e Defesa; Linhas de força após o Tratado de Lisboa e implicações para Portugal

Lopes, Pedro
Fonte: IESM Publicador: IESM
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
O Conselho Europeu de Defesa realizado em 19 e 20 de dezembro de 2013, dedicado à Política Comum de Segurança e Defesa (PCSD), o debate que o antecedeu e as decisões resultantes, demonstraram a importância que o tema assume. Por um lado, suscita a análise do percurso, progressos e constrangimentos da PCSD e por outro, uma visão dos desafios e linhas de atuação para o futuro, para os Estados-membros e por consequência, para Portugal. Este Conselho Europeu constituiu, claramente, uma oportunidade para analisar as tendências estratégicas internacionais em matéria de segurança e defesa e, paralelamente, relevar a importância que os subtemas inscritos na PCSD assumirão no futuro próximo para a União Europeia, dentro e além-fronteiras. Perante estes factos, a investigação incidiu, inicialmente, na análise e reflexão sobre a evolução da PCSD após a sua implementação com o Tratado de Lisboa. Esta evolução foi notória no domínio conceptual, mas ficou aquém do esperado no que se refere à operacionalização de medidas de cooperação militar entre Estados-membros, em particular a “cooperação estruturada permanente” e o “pooling and sharing”. Numa fase subsequente, foram analisadas as principais implicações para Portugal resultantes da entrada em vigor do Tratado de Lisboa. Constatámos que Portugal deve continuar a ser parceiro ativo e empenhado em aprofundar a sua participação no âmbito da PCSD. Analisámos as tendências atuais e futuras da insegurança internacional...

Pooling and Sharing entre Portugal e Espanha; Contributos para a definição de uma estratégia

Maio, Hermínio
Fonte: IESM Publicador: IESM
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.12%
O conceito de Pooling and Sharing (P&S), à semelhança da Smart Defence, tem sido apresentado como uma solução para os efeitos da crise económica e financeira nos orçamentos de defesa e nas capacidades militares da União Europeia, visando a eliminação de duplicações e a edificação de capacidades integradas. Parece possível aplicá-lo bilateralmente com Espanha atendendo à proximidade geográfica. Contudo, levantam-se questões relativas à História, às realidades geopolíticas, à especificidade das relações peninsulares e aos interesses nacionais. O Trabalho investiga a temática da mutualização de capacidades militares através do P&S, com o intuito de contribuir para uma estratégia de relacionamento com Espanha. A investigação iniciou-se pelo enquadramento do problema e a conceptualização do P&S multilateral. Seguiu-se a caracterização das relações luso-espanholas no passado recente, assim como as suas realidades geopolíticas e as condições para a implementação de iniciativas de P&S. Desenvolveu-se um racional para identificação das Funções Essenciais das Forças Armadas e a definição das Capacidades de Ação Militar Crítica, vedadas a qualquer iniciativa de P&S, tendo em vista a posterior identificação de iniciativas de P&S com Espanha...

Risk Sharing Opportunities and Macroeconomic Factors in Latin American and Caribbean Countries : A Consumption Insurance Assessment

Ventura, Luigi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
This paper evaluates the degree of consumption insurance enjoyed by Latin American and Caribbean countries, with respect to various reference areas, by estimating a parameter expressing the sensitivity of a country's consumption growth to a measure of idiosyncratic shocks to income. The paper surveys common econometric implementations of "consumption insurance tests." The author proposes some econometric procedures in order to detect the actual presence of international risk sharing, as well as to assess the relative impact of idiosyncratic versus aggregate shocks. The evidence suggests that Latin American and Caribbean economies have been hit by non-diversifiable income shocks, that idiosyncratic risk is relatively more important than aggregate risk, and that some countries in the region appear to enjoy a certain amount of international risk diversification. The paper also identifies some macroeconomic factors that may be responsible for a higher or lower degree of risk pooling (such as international openness...

Changing small group interaction through visual reflections of social behavior

DiMicco, Joan Morris
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 141 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
People collaborating in groups have potential to produce higher-quality output than individuals working alone, due to the pooling of resources, information, and skills. Yet social psychologists have determined that groups rarely harness this potential. This thesis proposes that technology in face-to-face settings can be used to address the social factors that have damaging influence on group decision-making processes. While there is much work in the area of collaborative software and groupware, this work differentiates itself with its specific aim to influence the way a group shares information without mediating the group's communication. By presenting visualizations to the group of individual levels of participation and turn-taking behavior, the technology aims to augment the group's communication ability, by making it more aware of imbalances. A series of dynamic displays positioned peripherally to a discussion were developed and used by a variety of groups during face-to-face meetings. Both observational and experimental results indicate that these displays influence individual participation levels and the process of information sharing used during a decision-making discussion. A display revealing real-time participation levels caused those at the highest levels of participation to decrease the amount they spoke. Viewing a visualization of previous turn-taking patterns caused those who spoke the least to increase the amount they spoke in a subsequent discussion; real-time feedback did not produce this change. Additionally...

Truthful Prioritization Schemes for Spectrum Sharing

Shnayder, Victor; Parkes, David C.; Kawadia, Vikas; Hoon, Jeremy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
We design a protocol for dynamic prioritization of data on shared routers such as untethered 3G/4G devices. The mechanism prioritizes bandwidth in favor of users with the highest value, and is incentive compatible, so that users can simply report their true values for network access. A revenue pooling mechanism also aligns incentives for sellers, so that they will choose to use prioritization methods that retain the incentive properties on the buy-side. In this way, the design allows for an open architecture. In addition to revenue pooling, the technical contribution is to identify a class of stochastic demand models and a prioritization scheme that provides allocation monotonicity. Simulation results confirm efficiency gains from dynamic prioritization relative to prior methods, as well as the effectiveness of revenue pooling.; Comment: This report is an extended version of our paper in ACM MOBIHOC 2014

Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks

Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad-hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting towards a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast...

The evolutionary advantage of cooperation

Peters, Ole; Adamou, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The present study asks how cooperation and consequently structure can emerge in many different evolutionary contexts. Cooperation, here, is a persistent behavioural pattern of individual entities pooling and sharing resources. Examples are: individual cells forming multicellular systems whose various parts pool and share nutrients; pack animals pooling and sharing prey; families firms, or modern nation states pooling and sharing financial resources. In these examples, each atomistic decision, at a point in time, of the better-off entity to cooperate poses a puzzle: the better-off entity will book an immediate net loss -- why should it cooperate? For each example, specific explanations have been put forward. Here we point out a very general mechanism -- a sufficient null model -- whereby cooperation can evolve. The mechanism is based the following insight: natural growth processes tend to be multiplicative. In multiplicative growth, ergodicity is broken in such a way that fluctuations have a net-negative effect on the time-average growth rate, although they have no effect on the growth rate of the ensemble average. Pooling and sharing resources reduces fluctuations, which leaves ensemble averages unchanged but -- contrary to common perception -- increases the time-average growth rate for each cooperator.; Comment: 7 pages...

Space-efficient Verifiable Secret Sharing Using Polynomial Interpolation

Cafaro, Massimo; Pellè, Piergiuseppe
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Preserving data confidentiality in clouds is a key issue. Secret Sharing, a cryptographic primitive for the distribution of a secret among a group of $n$ participants designed so that only subsets of shareholders of cardinality $0 < t \leq n$ are allowed to reconstruct the secret by pooling their shares, can help mitigating and minimizing the problem. A desirable feature of Secret Sharing schemes is cheater detection, i.e. the ability to detect one or more malicious shareholders trying to reconstruct the secret by obtaining legal shares from the other shareholders while providing them with fake shares. Verifiable Secret Sharing schemes solve this problem by allowing shareholders verifying the others' shares. We present new verification algorithms providing arbitrary secret sharing schemes with cheater detection capabilities, and prove their space efficiency with regard to other schemes appeared in the literature. We also introduce, in one of our schemes, the Exponentiating Polynomial Root Problem (EPRP), which is believed to be NP-Intermediate and therefore difficult.; Comment: Accepted for publication. To appear in IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing

The debt crisis has dealt a severe blow to the European project. But it may also prompt more European defense cooperation, as debt-ridden governments are getting serious about pooling and sharing their military capabilities.

Möckli, Daniel
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/04/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
The European debt crisis is forcing governments to cut their budgets. Daniel Möckli argues that the net effect of this crisis will be a strategic weakening of Europe. But he also points out that the current age of austerity may turn into an opportunity for more defence cooperation in Europe. Governments are beginning to implement ‘smart defence strategies’; the pooling and sharing of their military capabilities.

Bridging the divide: firms and institutional variety in Italy

Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The underperformance of Italy’s macroeconomy is common knowledge, yet empirical evidence has shown that a high quality segment of Italian export oriented firms has outperformed international competitors although the country lacks practically all attributes of a coordinated market economy. This thesis shows that the ability of firms to produce high quality goods in Italy is linked to the practice of "capital skill asset pooling" within a novel model of production organisation, "disintegrated hierarchy". "Capital-skill asset pooling" follows from the vertical disintegration of production functions across firms and entails the sharing of production assets between firms governed by heterogeneous institutional frameworks. Through the comparisons of firm-level case studies across three industries, the thesis shows that two simultaneous conditions are necessary for "capitalskill asset pooling" to develop: 1) the presence of lead firms endowed with patient capital, and 2) the presence small suppliers endowed with firm-, industry- and product-specific skills. This finding complements the Varieties of Capitalism literature by showing that firms can produce high or diversified quality goods in the absence of the necessary institutional preconditions by developing functional substitutes to coordinated market economy assets through "capital-skill asset pooling".