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Scaling the information processing demands of occupations

Haase, Richard F.; Jome, LaRae M.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Connacher, Christopher C.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.07%
The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity evidence for a model of person–environment fit based on polychronicity, stimulus load, and information processing capacities. In this line of research the confluence of polychronicity and information processing (e.g., the ability of individuals to process stimuli from the environment along five dimensions of information load, interpersonal load, change load, time structure, and activity structure) is applied to the occupational environment. Using magnitude estimation scaling, college students in the United States and Portugal rated 42 occupations across five information processing demand characteristics. Results indicated that occupations could be differentiated by the information load conditions, thus producing a profile of information processing demand characteristics unique to each of the occupations tested. Additional findings provided evidence for the validity of the scaled occupational values; ratings differed reliably across Holland categories, were fairly consistent across the two cultural groups, and showed expected relationships with salary and educational level.

Media Multitasking Behavior: Concurrent Television and Computer Usage

Brasel, S. Adam; Gips, James
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.95%
Changes in the media landscape have made simultaneous usage of the computer and television increasingly commonplace, but little research has explored how individuals navigate this media multitasking environment. Prior work suggests that self-insight may be limited in media consumption and multitasking environments, reinforcing a rising need for direct observational research. A laboratory experiment recorded both younger and older individuals as they used a computer and television concurrently, multitasking across television and Internet content. Results show that individuals are attending primarily to the computer during media multitasking. Although gazes last longer on the computer when compared to the television, the overall distribution of gazes is strongly skewed toward very short gazes only a few seconds in duration. People switched between media at an extreme rate, averaging more than 4 switches per min and 120 switches over the 27.5-minute study exposure. Participants had little insight into their switching activity and recalled their switching behavior at an average of only 12 percent of their actual switching rate revealed in the objective data. Younger individuals switched more often than older individuals, but other individual differences such as stated multitasking preference and polychronicity had little effect on switching patterns or gaze duration. This overall pattern of results highlights the importance of exploring new media environments...

Enhanced polychronization in a spiking network with metaplasticity

Guise, Mira; Knott, Alistair; Benuskova, Lubica
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.69%
Computational models of metaplasticity have usually focused on the modeling of single synapses (Shouval et al., 2002). In this paper we study the effect of metaplasticity on network behavior. Our guiding assumption is that the primary purpose of metaplasticity is to regulate synaptic plasticity, by increasing it when input is low and decreasing it when input is high. For our experiments we adopt a model of metaplasticity that demonstrably has this effect for a single synapse; our primary interest is in how metaplasticity thus defined affects network-level phenomena. We focus on a network-level phenomenon called polychronicity, that has a potential role in representation and memory. A network with polychronicity has the ability to produce non-synchronous but precisely timed sequences of neural firing events that can arise from strongly connected groups of neurons called polychronous neural groups (Izhikevich et al., 2004). Polychronous groups (PNGs) develop readily when spiking networks are exposed to repeated spatio-temporal stimuli under the influence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), but are sensitive to changes in synaptic weight distribution. We use a technique we have recently developed called Response Fingerprinting to show that PNGs formed in the presence of metaplasticity are significantly larger than those with no metaplasticity. A potential mechanism for this enhancement is proposed that links an inherent property of integrator type neurons called spike latency to an increase in the tolerance of PNG neurons to jitter in their inputs.

The Role of the Environment in the Individual Difference and Creativity Relationship

Reaves, Angela C
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.07%
This study examined the relationship between several individual differences (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, creative self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and polychronicity) and creativity. It also examined how the organizational climate (support for creativity) moderated the relationship between the individual differences and creativity. All the individual differences except for polychronicity were positively correlated with creativity as well as support for creativity. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) found that the individual differences explained 58% of the variance in creativity and that support for creativity moderated the relationship between conscientiousness and creativity and between extraversion and creativity. Because of noticed similarity between creativity and creative self-efficacy items, a factor analysis was done which confirmed some overlap. Implications of the findings of this paper are discussed.

Time Orientation in Organizations: Polychronicity and Multitasking

Sanderson, Kristin R
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.84%
This dissertation consists of four studies examining two constructs related to time orientation in organizations: polychronicity and multitasking. The first study investigates the internal structure of polychronicity and its external correlates in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 732). Results converge to support a one-factor model and finds measures of polychronicity to be significantly related to extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience. The second study quantitatively reviews the existing research examining the relationship between polychronicity and the Big Five factors of personality. Results reveal a significant relationship between extraversion and openness to experience across studies. Studies three and four examine the usefulness of multitasking ability in the prediction of work related criteria using two organizational samples (N = 175 and 119, respectively). Multitasking ability demonstrated predictive validity, however the incremental validity over that of traditional predictors (i.e., cognitive ability and the Big Five factors of personality) was minimal. The relationships between multitasking ability, polychronicity, and other individual differences were also investigated. Polychronicity and multitasking ability proved to be distinct constructs demonstrating differential relationships with cognitive ability...

Time orientation in organizations: Polychronicity and multitasking

Sanderson, Kristin Ruth
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.8%
This dissertation consists of four studies examining two constructs related to time orientation in organizations: polychronicity and multitasking. The first study investigates the internal structure of polychronicity and its external correlates in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 732). Results converge to support a one-factor model and finds measures of polychronicity to be significantly related to extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience. The second study quantitatively reviews the existing research examining the relationship between polychronicity and the Big Five factors of personality. Results reveal a significant relationship between extraversion and openness to experience across studies. Studies three and four examine the usefulness of multitasking ability in the prediction of work related criteria using two organizational samples (N = 175 and 119, respectively). Multitasking ability demonstrated predictive validity, however the incremental validity over that of traditional predictors (i.e., cognitive ability and the Big Five factors of personality) was minimal. The relationships between multitasking ability, polychronicity, and other individual differences were also investigated. Polychronicity and multitasking ability proved to be distinct constructs demonstrating differential relationships with cognitive ability...

It's about time: investigating the temporal parameters of decision making in agile teams

O Riordan, Niamh; Acton, Thomas; Conboy, Kieran; Golden, Wilie
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.95%
peer-reviewed; The emergence and widespread adoption of agile methodologies is often explained by the need to improve time management in Information Systems Development (ISD). Indeed, a growing body of evidence supports the view that agile methodologies are an effective means of delivering productivity gains through time savings. That is to say, agile methodologies can be used to increase speed and efficiency in ISD projects. In addition, lightweight agile methodologies are designed, by definition, to minimise wastes in the design and delivery of Information Systems and can therefore be used to support sustainability in IS projects (cf. Schmidt et al., 2009). However, the impact of agile methodologies on ISD project outcomes is less clear. In addressing this question, this research-inprogress paper uses a combination of existing literature and empirical data to construct a conceptual framework to explain how three different temporal aspects of agile methodologies (time pressure, polychronicity and periodicity) impact upon decision quality, thereby affecting ISD project outcomes. It is envisaged that this framework will be used to shed light on how agile methodologies impact upon project effectiveness or velocity, which is defined in this context as movement in the ‘right’ direction.

Antecedentes organizacionais do desempenho profissional

Belchior, Gustavo Constantino Mascarenhas Lopes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.69%
Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas; A força de vendas ocupa um papel importante no desempenho das organizações. Representa os interesses organizacionais no mercado e defende os objetivos do cliente dentro da empresa. Cabe aos profissionais de vendas a correta execução dos desdobramentos estratégicos. No entanto, o contexto organizacional em que estão inseridos pode influenciar seu desempenho, como o alinhamento com a organização e seus objetivos e a tensão gerada pelas diversas tarefas ao longo de sua jornada. Através da análise de uma amostra de 39 vendedores de cerveja, esta investigação busca identificar através de um estudo correlacional dentro do comportamento organizacional, que fatores organizacionais antecedem o desempenho do profissional de vendas do cenário atual, incluindo: Comprometimento com Metas, Orientação Policrônica, Identificação Organizacional, Percepção de Liderança e Estresse. Foram utilizados como variáveis de controle os pré-requisitos de seleção e indicadores de controle individuais. O desempenho foi analisado sob quatro perspectivas: Desempenho Profissional Objetivo, Desempenho Profissional Autoreportado, Índice de Satisfação dos Clientes e Intenção de Saída. Com os resultados...

Temporal implications of electronically mediated business procedures on organisational work: EDI applications in trade.

Lee, Heejin
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.95%
The thesis begins with the sociological proposition that time is socially constructed. As such, time interacts with, and is affected by anything that makes up the social world. Information technologies have become an essential element of contemporary organisations. This is a study of how information technology affects the temporality of work in organisations. To address the question, we conducted case studies in organisations where temporal impacts of KTNET, an EDI application, were investigated and their sociological and organisational implications were analysed. Six dimensions of temporal order (duration, sequence, temporal location, deadline, cycle and rhythm) were employed to describe temporal changes in the work under study. Five major findings emerged from the case studies. - KTNET increased the flexibility in some export administrative work. - The distinction between internal and external flexibilities was more difficult to discern than expected. - KTNET increased the polychronicity of some workers in organising their work time, which contradicts the result of a previous study; close scrutiny of the two results leads to the theory of a temporal symmetry in which information technologies provide a temporal symmetry either between temporal behaviour of events/tasks and temporal behaviour of workers...