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Quando a violência política entra em cena; The mise-en-scène of the political violence

Tedeia, Gilberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2011 PT
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66.38%
Tendo como fio condutor o uso da violência política em sua relação com o poder soberano, a Tese decifra um percurso que leva da crítica ao terror ao esvaziamento da política. O temor da transformação de questões sociais em questões políticas inaugura a desqualificação da ação política que busque instaurar outra hierarquia de valores e outros lugares às categorias e grupos sociais vítimas de uma ordem instituída. Como se essa decisão de exclui-los fosse expressão da vontade da maioria, a abstração que permite excluir grupos humanos inteiros no pós-Primeira Guerra Mundial, ao transformar direito em privilégio de alguns como no caso em que apátridas e desnacionalizados foram vítimas, é encontrada também no movimento que transforma a política em gestão e administração, e criminaliza as tentativas de ruptura da ordem vigente. No termo desse percurso, os limites à liberdade prático-política são pensados tanto sob o registro da luta emancipatória radical quanto sob o da criminalização da ação violenta como terrorismo a ser neutralizado ou exterminado.; This Thesis main focus is the analysis of the ways in which political violence can be used and its relations with the Sovereign Power. I argue that there is a link build by the years between the Terrors critics and the emptying of politics...

Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

Pedersen,Duncan
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.

Political violence and mental health: a multi-disciplinary review of the literature on Nepal

Tol, Wietse A; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordan, Mark J.D; Thapa, Suraj B; Pettigrew, Judith; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; de Jong, Joop T.V.M
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
peer-reviewed; Implementation of current international consensus guidelines regarding mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies requires the consideration of findings from both the medical and social sciences. This paper presents a multi-disciplinary review of reported findings regarding the relations between political violence, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in Nepal. A systematic search of six data- bases resulted in the identification of 572 studies, of which 44 were included in the review. These studies investigated the influence of political violence on contextual variables that shape mental health and psychosocial wellbeing, and examined psychological distress and mental disorders in the context of political violence. The majority of studies addressed the mental health of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal and the impact of the Maoist People’s War. Based upon these results from Nepal, we discuss a number of issues of concern to international researchers and practitioners and present policy and research recommendations. Specifically, we consider (a) the need for longitudinal multi-disciplinary research into protective and risk factors, including agency, of psychological distress and mental disorders in situations of political violence...

Breaking the Waves? Does Education Mediate the Relationship Between Youth Bulges and Political Violence?

Barakat, Bilal; Urdal, Henrik
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Much of the developing world has experienced a decline in mortality, while fertility often has remained high. This has produced youthful populations in many countries, generally referred to as "youth bulges." Recent empirical research suggests that youth bulges may be associated with increased risks of political violence and conflict. This paper addresses ways that education may serve as a strategy to reduce the risk of political violence, particularly in the context of large cohorts of young males. The authors use a new education dataset measuring educational attainment. The dataset is constructed using demographic back-projection techniques, and offers uninterrupted time-series data for 120 countries. The empirical analysis finds evidence that large, young male population bulges are more likely to increase the risk of conflict in societies where male secondary education is low. The effect on conflict risk by low education and large youth populations is particularly strong in low and middle-income countries. This is especially challenging for Sub-Saharan Africa...

Urban Poor Perceptions of Violence and Exclusion in Colombia

Moser, Caroline; McIlwaine, Cathy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
The study documents how people living in poor urban communities in Colombia, perceive violence, and identifies, the categories of violence affecting communities, the costs of different types of violence, the effect of violence on social capital, and the causes, and effects of social exclusion. Social institutions were identified across the nine research communities, making the distinction between those institutions benefiting the community, i.e., those creating positive social capital, and those institutions benefiting their members, while hurting the community, i.e., creating perverse social capital. The first group, which included primarily schools, and health centers, were mostly trusted, whereas those institutions dealing with the prevention of violence, such as state security, and justice institutions, were the least trusted. Interestingly, perverse organizations were the most prevalent membership organizations, including guerrilla type, and paramilitary groups, perpetrating political violence, and exercising a dominant force. The study identified avoidance...

Research on Social Movements and Political Violence

DELLA PORTA, Donatella
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Attention to extreme forms of political violence in the social sciences has been episodic, and studies of different forms of political violence have followed different approaches, with breakdown theories mostly used for the analysis of right-wing radicalism, social movement theories sometimes adapted to research on left-wing radical groups, and area study specialists focusing on ethnic and religious forms. Some of the studies on extreme forms of political violence that have emerged within the social movement tradition have nevertheless been able to trace processes of conflict escalation through the detailed examination of historical cases. This article assesses some of the knowledge acquired in previous research approaching issues of political violence from the social movement perspective, as well as the challenges coming from new waves of debate on terrorist and counterterrorist action and discourses. In doing this, the article reviews contributions coming from research looking at violence as escalation of action repertoires within protest cycles; political opportunity and the state in escalation processes; resource mobilization and violent organizations; narratives of violence; and militant constructions of external reality.

The fracturing of China? ethnic separatism and political violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region

Hitchcock, Bradley D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 69 p.: col. map ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the wake of the September 11th terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, China began to tout its own terrorist problem in the predominantly Muslim-populated province of Xinjiang. Claims that the province's separatists and extremists threaten China's national security seem contrary to literature focusing on the region's ethnic minorities. Yet Xinjiang has historically been a restive, rebellious province, and only in recent years came fully under Beijing's sphere of control. Throughout the 1990s sporadic political violence occurred in Xinjiang, and as the geopolitical situation in Central Asia changed, Beijing's claim that Muslims were a threat to its national security became a legitimate question. An evaluation of the elements that produce an environment ripe for mass organized political violence on such a scale as to threaten China's sovereignty can provide a useful understanding of the current state of affairs within Xinjiang. This thesis concludes that, while each element exists and has existed in varying degrees since Chinese rule of the region began, all of the elements have not been simultaneously at a level to produce the level of violence that would threaten China's sovereignty.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author.

How can we escape from 'terrorism'? The disappearance of the political violence in France and West Germany in 1970-1990

REQUATE, Jörg; ZESSIN, Philipp
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Research on political violence and terrorism is usually focused on the origins and the dynamics of violence. This article attempts to overcome the neglect of ways of leaving terrorism. One important hypothesis of this article is that terrorism should be understood as a strategy of communication. How did states and societies face the `communicative challenge' posed by terrorism? This question will be applied to the cases of left-wing terrorism in 1970s and 1980s West Germany and France. In the 1970s, in West Germany, a political dialogue with the left-wing group RAF (Rote Armee Fraktion) seemed to be impossible, whereas in France violent groups engaged with the wider public through public communication. By this way an escalation of violence could be avoided, but in the 1980s French terrorist groups such as Action Directe modelled themselves on the West German RAF: as a consequence, any communication with the state or society was interrupted. At the same time, in West Germany, the question of whether a dialogue with the RAF should be started was at the core of public discussion. Some stated that it would be the only possibility to make them give up, while others rejected any idea of communicating with terrorists. The West German and French cases show us that the communicational situation...

Political Violence and Underdevelopment; Journal of African Economies

Bodea, Cristina; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
This paper analyses the economic growth impact of organised political violence. First, we identify the various manifestations of political violence (riots, coups and civil war) and their risk of occurrence by using a multinomial model. Second, we use predicted probabilities of aggregate violence and its three manifestations to identify their growth effects in an encompassing growth model. The results of Generalised Method of Moments dynamic panel regressions suggest that organised political violence, especially civil war, significantly lowers long-term economic growth. Moreover, unlike most previous studies, we also find ethnic fractionalisation to have a negative and direct effect on growth, though its effect is substantially ameliorated by the institutions specific to a non-factional democratic society. Third, we find that Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been disproportionately impacted by civil war, which explains a substantial share of its economic decline, including the widening income gap relative to East Asia. Civil wars have also been very costly for SSA. For the case of Sudan, a typical large African country experiencing a long-duration conflict, war cost amounts to $46 billion (in 2000 fixed prices), which is roughly double the country's current stock of external debt. Fourth...

Political Violence and Economic Growth

Bodea, Cristina; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
This paper analyzes the economic growth impact of organized political violence. First, the authors articulate the theoretical underpinnings of the growth impact of political violence in a popular model of growth under uncertainty. The authors show that, under plausible assumptions regarding attitudes toward risk, the overall effects of organized political violence are likely to be much higher than its direct capital destruction impact. Second, using a quantitative model of violence that distinguishes between three levels of political violence (riots, coups, and civil war), the authors use predicted probabilities of aggregate violence and its three manifestations to identify their growth effects in an encompassing growth model. Panel regressions suggest that organized political violence, especially civil war, significantly lowers long-term economic growth. Moreover, unlike most previous studies, the authors also find ethnic fractionalization to have a negative and direct effect on growth, though its effect is substantially ameliorated by the institutions specific to a non-factional partial democracy. Third...

Political conflict: how social identity processes influence individuals' experience of political violence

McCombe, Geoff
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
peer-reviewed; The thesis examines how social identity processes influence individuals’ experience of political violence. It argues that individual experience is shaped by the groups the individual belongs to. In particular it examines the importance of social identity to understanding prejudice and conflict. The thesis explores extant experimental research which illustrates the importance of social settings in mediating attitudes and behaviour. This includes empirical evidence of the relationships between social identity and social influence, social identity and social support, and the importance of experience of political violence in shaping social identity. The thesis then outlines a brief history of the conflict in Northern Ireland and reviews extant social identity research specific to Northern Ireland. A qualitative methodology was used to extend the literature of quantitative studies carried out within psychology on the conflict in Northern Ireland. In effect, the predominant use of student and random population samples has ignored the broader social context within which participants are located, and has often failed to examine the experiences of those most affected by the conflict. As such the thesis highlights how the positivist scientific method as the sole basis for understanding human behaviour is severely limited. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 32 individuals...

Correlates of intergenerational mobility and political violence

Grácio, Matilde
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
This work project aims at exploring the role of intergenerational immobility in political violence. A cross-country macro-level analysis is done where no significant results are found. Additionally, an individual micro-level analysis is done where intergenerational mobility (measured through a proxy variable) has a negative significant effect in political violence

Impact de la violence politique sur la santé mentale des jeunes adolescents en Colombie. Analyse des facteurs de risque et de protection; Impact of the political violence on mental health of young adolescents in Colombia. Analysis of risk and protective factors

SABATIER, COLETTE; PALACIO SAÑUDO, JORGE ENRIQUE; TOUSIGNANT, MICHEL
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/01/2011 SPA
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66.42%
El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar desde una perspectiva ecológica la salud mental de los adolescentes desplazados por la violencia política en Colombia. Se tomó como base el modelo ecológico integrado del impacto del trauma de Elbedour, ten Bensel y Bastien (1993), que estipula la influencia combinada de diferentes niveles de factores unidos a la experiencia traumática, factores individuales y factores proximales que vienen de la familia, y de los factores sociales de la red social familiar. El estudio se realizó con 98 jóvenes en edades entre los 9 a 16 años (M= 12.5 años, dt= 2.18), habitantes de las afueras de Barranquilla, de los cuales 48 son desplazados por la violencia (26 de sexo masculino, 22 de sexo femenino) y 50 son sedentarios pobres (26 de sexo masculino, 24 de sexo femenino). Los cuestionarios se escogieron en función de su utilización en contextos de pobreza y/o violencia (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud & Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov & Raundalen, 1990). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes desplazados son más deprimidos y ansiosos que sus pares sedentarios. La ansiedad está unida al número total de eventos traumáticos, mientras que la depresión se explica más bien por la separación de los padres. Las competencias sociales y el ambiente social actúan como factores protectores. Entre los factores del ambiente social se observa el hecho de vivir en una familia extensa y de inscribirse en una red social que incluye a los amigos de la familia.  En su conjunto...

Material Witness: Doris Salcedo's Practice as an Address on Political Violence through Materiality

Schneider, Mary Emily
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Material Witness: Doris Salcedo's Practice as an Address on Political Violence through Materiality; History of Art and Architecture

For the peace process in the Basque Country to be successful, it is vital that authorities understand the discourses which have been used to legitimise ETA’s political violence

Martin-Peña, Javier; Varela-Ray, Ana
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
In October 2011, the Basque separatist group ETA announced the cessation of its armed activities. While studies of terrorism typically focus on the consequences of violent acts, Javier Martin-Peña and Ana Varela-Rey argue that the discourses used to legitimise political violence are just as important. Without this legitimation it would be impossible for groups like ETA to carry out violent acts without alienating their own supporters.

Understanding the legacies of political violence: an examination of political conflict in Mpumalanga Township, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Bonnin, Debby
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
This paper explores the severe rupture that occurred in the politics of KwaZulu-Natal in the mid 1980s. This rupture is captured in the violent form political conflict took as it griped the province during the latter 1980s and early 1990s. This broader process is examined through an investigation of local level political violence in Mpumalanga Township. During the 1980s, Mpumalanga Township (located about half way between Pietermaritzburg and Durban) was one of the areas most acutely affected by political violence. In order to understand how this rupture occurred and its consequences, it is necessary to look back at a complex set of processes that interlocked over space and time. Violence, it is argued, is embedded in the articulation between local, regional and national dynamics. There are complex relationships between, on the one hand, political interests, social groups and organisational forms, and on the other, the dynamics of gender and generation, with both feeding into political violence. A second dynamic that this paper explores is the form violence took. The legacies that remain ten years after peace was negotiated are a direct result of the modalities of the preceding violence. It is suggested that political violence exhibited a profoundly spatialised form in combination with gendered and generational forms. This can be seen at a number of levels. Firstly...

Book review: Gender, agency and political violence: rethinking political violence

O'Branski, Megan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/01/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Considering the conditions, maintenance, and interpretation of political violence, the authors contributing to Gender, Agency and Political Violence analyse the multiple ways in which acts of violence, strategies of resistance, and efforts at conflict resolution are gendered. Featuring chapters on emotion and masculinity alongside The Troubles, and the political rationality of female suicide bombers, Megan O’Branski finds an intriguing and thoughtful contribution to critical theory scholarship.

Book review: dynamics of political violence: a process-oriented perspective on radicalisation and the escalation of political conflict, edited by Lorenzo Bosi et al.

Kalpokas, Ignas
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/05/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
Dynamics of Political Violence examines how violence emerges and develops from episodes of contentious politics. Contributors consider a wide range of empirical cases, including anarchist movements, ethno-nationalist and left-wing militancy in Europe, contemporary Islamist violence, and insurgencies in South Africa and Latin America. This collection constitutes a very important contribution to the debate on radicalisation, writes Ignas Kalpokas. The ‘process-oriented’ approach to understanding violent movements not only dispels some false assumptions often prevalent in our understanding but is also capable of informing scientists and practitioners alike.

The biopolitical condition: re-thinking the ethics of political violence in life-politics

Schwarz, Elke
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
This project interrogates how the biopolitical rationale conditions our contemporary subjectivities, politics and ethics, in order to critique the ethical justifications of technology driven practices of political violence put forth in present counter-terrorism struggles. Employing the work of Hannah Arendt, and her insights into life-politics and technology to construct a biopolitical lens that adds to traditional Foucaultian analyses of biopolitics, my original contribution to knowledge is thus twofold in a) elaborating core aspects of an Arendtian theory of biopolitics, with which then to b) identify the theoretical underpinnings of biopolitically informed forms of ethics in emerging practices of technology-driven political violence. While a number of scholars have drawn on Arendt for the analysis of the biopolitical dimensions of contemporary violence, a systematic independent account of her work on biopolitical trajectories and technologies remains under-developed in current scholarship. In this work, I suggest that the Arendtian life-politics account allows us to recognise a duality at work in the biopolitical shaping of subjectivities: the politicisation and technologisation of zoe, on one hand...

Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

Pedersen,Duncan
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.