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Three Papers in Political Methodology

Stewart, Brandon Michael
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
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This collection of three papers develops two statistical techniques for addressing canonical problems in applied computational social science: unsupervised text analysis and regression with dependent data. In both cases I provide a flexible framework that allows the analyst to leverage known structure within the data to improve inference. The first paper introduces the Structural Topic Model (STM) which generalizes and extends a broad class of probabilistic topic models developed in computer science. Crucially for applied social science, STM provides a framework for estimating the factors which drive topical frequency and content within documents. The second paper explores the challenge that non-convex likelihoods pose for applied research with topic models. The paper presents a series of diagnostics and discusses the under-appreciated role of initialization methods. The third paper introduces Latent Factor Regressions (LFR), a new set of tools for regression modeling in the presence of unobserved heterogeneity or dependence between observations. The approach uses interactive latent effects to provide a unified framework for modeling different data structures, including network, time-series cross-sectional and spatial data. Each of these methods is designed with a focus on applied work. Estimation algorithms are presented which are fast enough for applied work and software is either currently available (STM) or in development (LFR). The use of these techniques is illustrated with a range of applications from across political science.; Government

The American plan of government

Bacon, Charles W ( Charles William ), 1856-; Morse, Franklyn S ( Franklyn Stanley ), 1875-1936 ( author )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (xxi, 493 pages) : ;
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references (pages 481-482) and index.; (System Details) Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.; (Statement of Responsibility) by Charles W. Bacon, A.B., Harv., instructor in political science at the College of the City of New York, member of the New York Bar; assisted by Franklyn S. Morse, A.B., A.M., Harv., instructor in history in the Collegiate School of New York City; with an introduction by George Gordon Battle, M.A., Univ. of Va.

The second wave of digital era governance

Dunleavy, Patrick; Margetts, Helen
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN; EN
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Some of the most difficult issues in public management revolve around making strategic choices for the future in an era of rapid social, cultural and technological change. In previous work we drew a contrast between new public management (NPM) approaches, which predominated in the period 1980-­‐2002, and digital era governance (DEG) which grew fast in the 2000s. Since that time the rapid development of societal and technological uses of online processes has been matched by the seismic impact of the 2008 credit crunch and financial crisis, now mapping out as austerity regimes in many OECD countries. In this paper we review the current fortunes of NPM, which has not revived despite the pressure on public spending. By contrast, the first wave of digital-­‐era governance changes have flourished and the importance of key DEG themes has increased– specifically reintegrating government services, pushing towards holistic delivery to clients and responding to the digitalization wave in public services. We also argue for the emergence of an influential ‘second wave’ of digital-­‐era changes inside government, responding to the advent of the social web, cloud computing, apps development and many other recent phenomena moving advanced industrial societies further towards an online civilization.

After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: the contradictions of hegemony: the United States and the Arab Spring

Kitchen, Nicholas
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN; EN
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In the United State’s response to the events of the Arab Spring, the Obama administration has been consistently careful not to get ahead of fast-moving developments. Critics have decried the administration’s apparent lack of a coherent approach, and its willingness to talk the language of democratic ideals whilst acting to protect national interests. Supporters, on the other hand, have praised the blending of pragmatism and principle as evidence of a smarter approach to international affairs than that of Obama’s predecessor. The United States’ cautious and contradictory approach, which has at times amounted to the endorsement of the inevitable, reflects wider strategic tensions in the United States’ approach to the Middle East, and the reality that whilst the US may be the most important external power in the region, its ability to dictate outcomes is limited. Yet by ‘muddling through’ and insisting on keeping the United States on the right side of history throughout the course of the Arab revolutions, the Obama administration has ensured that the new regimes in the region will have to continue to work with the United States, and ensured that the US is not diverted from its overriding strategic reorientation towards the Asia-Pacific.

Decentralisation and inter-municipal competition: evidence from Serbia

Monastiriotis, Vassilis
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2011 EN; EN
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A process of administrative and fiscal decentralisation has been followed in virtually all Southeast European countries since their transition from communism. In Serbia this process, as with the process of transition itself, took off with some notable delay; but it has progressed rather fast since. Decentralisation is said to serve a multitude of objectives, from enhancing demographic representation and empowering local constituencies to raising the growth potential nationally and attaining higher levels of economic efficiency in the delivery of public policies...

Book review: assessing the new mantra of the War on Terror: “find the enemy, ensure that the enemy is fixed in that location, defeat the enemy”

Alif, Meor
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2012 EN; EN
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Two intelligence experts with unique access to inside sources reveal the story behind the evolution of America’s new approach to counter terrorism. On 9/11 the US had effectively no counterterrorism doctrine, but fast forward ten years and Osama bin Laden is dead, Al Qaeda is organizationally ruined and pinned in the tribal areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and there has been no major attack on American soil. Meor Alif thoroughly recommends the book, especially its use of case studies of those linked to Al Qaeda. Find, Fix, Finish: Inside the Counterterrorism Campaigns That Killed Bin Laden and Devastated Al Qaeda. Aki Peritz and Eric Rosenbach. Public Affairs. March 2012.

Restoring growth and confidence through resource-efficient innovation

Zenghelis, Dimitri
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2012 EN; EN
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Dimitri Zenghelis argues that the government can help stimulate growth by recognising the inevitable transition to a low-carbon economy. This could provide new business opportunities for investors while tapping into a fast-growing global market for resource-efficient activities.

There will be ghastly consequences for the United States and the wider world if Congress and the President do not come to an agreement about deficit reduction

Marmor, Theodore
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2012 EN; EN
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Earlier this month Barack Obama was re-elected as President of the United States, granting him four more years in office. But why did the 2012 election turn out the way it did and what does the result mean in policy terms? Professor Theodore Marmor FBA explains why the nature of American governance means political stalemate is the most likely outcome of the election, but that Congress and the President will have to work together to save America from the “fiscal cliff” that is fast approaching.

The United States needs to do more to reduce emissions and be a true leader in international climate policy

Ward, Bob
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2012 EN; EN
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Bob Ward looks at the prospects for international progress on climate policy. Despite President Obama being far better than his predecessor, the US is still one of the countries failing to reduce emissions fast enough.

Book review: Children, risk and safety on the Internet: research and policy challenges in comparative perspective

Jones, Lisa
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2013 EN; EN
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"Children, Risk and Safety on the Internet: Research and Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective." Sonia Livingstone, Leslie Haddon, and Anke Görzig (eds.) Policy Press. July 2012. --- This book examines the prospect of enhanced opportunities for learning, creativity and communication set against the fear of cyberbullying, pornography and invaded privacy by both strangers and peers. It argues that, in the main, children are gaining the digital skills, coping strategies and social support they need to navigate this fast-changing terrain; but it also identifies the struggles they encounter, pinpointing those for whom harm can follow from risky online encounters. Lisa Jones finds this book’s overall framework is a refreshing one, given the level of alarm that often surrounds discussions of youth internet safety.

Book review: The violent image: insurgent propaganda and the new revolutionaries

Alonso, Ana Polo
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2013 EN; EN
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"The Violent Image: Insurgent Propaganda and the New Revolutionaries." Neville Bolt. Hurst. May 2012. --- Fast-moving, self-propelled ‘violent images’ have radically changed the nature of insurgency in the modern world. The global media has revolutionised the way ideas, messages and images are disseminated, and the speed with which they travel. Neville Bolt investigates how today’s revolutionaries have rejuvenated the nineteenth century ‘propaganda of the deed’ so that terrorism no longer simply goads states into overreacting, thereby losing legitimacy. Ana Polo Alonso finds an elegantly-written and well-researched read, suitable for students of media studies and terrorism.

Book review: understanding the crisis in Greece: from boom to bust, by Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis

Halikiopoulou, Daphne
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2012 EN; EN
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The new book from Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis provides a good and honest account of the Greek economic crisis, focusing on issues that are both sensitive and critical: nepotism and corruption. At a time when elections are fast approaching, Daphne Halikiopoulou finds this book to be extremely relevant and topical.

Do small states get more federal monies?: myth and reality about the US Senate malapportionment

Larcinese, Valentino; Rizzo, Leonzio; Testa, Cecilia
Fonte: Suntory Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2009 EN; EN
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We analyze the relationship between senate malapportionment and the allocation of the US federal budget to the states during the period 1978-2002. A substantial literature originating from the influential paper by ?) finds that small and overrepresented states get significantly larger shares of federal funds. We show that these studies suffer from fundamental identification problems and grossly overestimate the impact of malapportionment. Most of the estimated impact is not a scale but a change effect. Rather than evidence of ”small state advantage", we find that states with fast growing population are penalized in the allocation of the federal budget independently of whether they are large or small.

Politicizing Europe: the challenge of executive discretion

White, Jonathan
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 EN; EN
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Political decision-making in the Euro-crisis has relied heavily on executive discretion, exercised at speed and rationalised with reference to the pressing demands of emergency. This paper explores the challenges raised for political opposition, notably challenges of a temporal kind. With its deviations from policy and procedural norms, discretionary politics tends towards a politics without rhythm, leading to major asymmetries between decisionmakers and voices of opposition. These centre on issues of timing and the ability to identify authorship and content of decisions. Such asymmetries arguably correspond to an underlying one between the temporality of political decision-making and of contemporary finance capitalism, with agents of the former increasingly inclined to pursue ‘fast policy’ as a means to keep pace. A democratic response is likely to involve strengthening and synchronising the rhythms of parliamentary politics, as well as being receptive to forms of opposition less reliant on the rhythms that discretion subverts.

While the Obama administration acted fast to protect US interests in Iraq, it now needs to devise a way of tackling the threat posed by the Islamic State

Coates Ulrichsen , Kristian
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2014 EN; EN
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Late last week, President Obama announced that the US would begin targeted airstrikes against Islamic State artillery positions in northern Iraq. Kristian Coates Ulrichsen writes that facing a war-weary public, the administration should use this as an opportunity to develop a new approach to Iraq with local and regional partners that builds upon and does not squander the temporary convergence of policy in overcoming the threat from the Islamic State.

Contemporary socio-political issues of the Arab Gulf moment

Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 EN; EN
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Things are changing fast in the Arab Gulf States (AGS) or are they? Conventional wisdom tends to reinforce the prevailing view that these relatively small yet oil rich states have been experiencing rapid changes for the past three decades. Sociopolitical realities, however point towards continuity and more of the same tribal, conservative and mainly traditional way of life just as much as they support arguments for change. The same fundamental drivers that are producing massive changes are simultaneously preserving sociopolitical continuity in the AGS. Relentless debate over societal change and continuity and old thinking versus new thinking are just one of several sociopolitical issues hotly debated in the AGS. Other key contemporary sociopolitical issues publicly debated include: the political reform/political stagnation debate, the Kuwait/Dubai development model debate, the rentier state/post rentier state debate, the local/global debate, the exceptionalist/normalist paradigm debate, and needlessly the thorny national identity/ demographic imbalance debate. These are among some the most divisive sociopolitical issues currently preoccupying governments and societies of the AGS. Much of the next phase of political development depends on how the AGS manage to successfully attend to these pending old and new challenges. How all these sociopolitical issues are handled in the next few years could determine the transition of the AGS not just towards good governance and stable and prosperous entities but their eventual emergence as the major center of power shaping Arab politics in the first half of the 21st century. This paper examines some of the key issues and concepts that are at the forefront of the intellectual and academic debate in the AGS. The central questions posed have to do with how much of the new thinking is in essence old thinking.

Book review: thinking, fast and slow

Suss, Joel
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2012 EN; EN
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Daniel Kahneman, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology challenging the rational model of judgment and decision making, is seen by many as one of the world’s most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound impact on many fields – including business, medicine, and politics – and in Thinking, Fast and Slow he takes readers on a tour of the mind, explaining the two systems that drive the way we think and make choices. Joel Suss feels that the book should be made required reading for anyone who still holds fast to the notion that people make decisions rationally.

Fast-tracking 'green' patent applications: an empirical analysis

Dechezlepretre, Antoine
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 EN; EN
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This paper presents the first empirical analysis of programmes to fast-track ‘green’ patent applications in place in seven Intellectual Property offices around the world. We find that only a small share of green patent applications (between 1% and 20% depending on the patent office) request accelerated examination, suggesting that patent applicants have a strong incentive to keep their patent applications in the examination process for as long as possible. Fast-tracking programmes reduce the examination process by several years compared to patents going through normal examination procedure and have seemingly accelerated the diffusion of technological knowledge in green technologies. In addition, we find that applicants require accelerated examination for patents of relatively higher value and that fast-tracking programmes seem to be particularly appealing to start-up companies in the green technology sector that are currently raising capital but still generate small revenue.

‘Best in world’ broadband for the UK will never happen unless the government stops pledging what they cannot deliver and starts fixing the implementation gaps that have marred all earlier efforts

Fishenden, Jerry
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2010 EN; EN
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The government has announced that ‘super-fast broadband’ will be available across the UK by 2015. But is this just the latest in a long line of similar announcements, or will it succeed where others have failed? Jerry Fishenden argues that in order for the government to deliver on these latest promises, it must close the gap between aspiration and delivery by focusing on better regulation, and ensuring that investments, incentives, and competition are balanced in a way that finally improves the UK’s digital infrastructure.

Government inquiries into phone hacking and the media’s role must ensure a wide debate and lead to genuine reforms. The public must have fast, free and fair access to redress in cases of press intrusion

Tambini, Damian
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/07/2011 EN; EN
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As part of British Politics and Policy at LSE’s new series of articles on Reforming the press (after the hacking scandal), Damian Tambini looks at the deficiencies of the current media self regulatory framework, and calls for genuine reforms which will create a regulatory body that belongs to the journalistic profession rather than the owners of newspapers.