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Os socialistas na Argentina (1880-1980). Um século de ação política; The Socialist Party in Argentina (1880-1980) a century of political action

Rojas, Gonzalo Adrian
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Esta tese tem como objetivo o estudo e a análise da evolução dos partidos políticos de matriz socialista na política argentina durante um século (1880 e 1980). Ainda notamos a ausência no âmbito acadêmico de uma análise minuciosa e coerente de e do conjunto das organizações que formaram parte do Partido Socialista (PS). O mesmo ocorre com suas múltiplas divisões e incorporações ou com os vários aspectos políticos, sociais e culturais que sua praxis implicou. Neste sentido, esta tese tem dois objetivos, por um lado cobrir a mencionada lacuna e por outro colaborar com a reconstrução da memória histórica das classes subalternas. Relaciona os partidos socialistas argentinos com o socialismo internacional, o marxismo e seu impacto na América Latina, no marco da formação econômico-social argentina e dos processos políticos argentinos em sua interação com outras esquerdas, os dois grandes movimentos nacionais, o radicalismo e o peronismo, os conservadores e os militares.; The object of this thesis is the study and analysis of the evolution processes of the socialist political parties in argentinian politics during a century (1880 to 1980). We can even now notice the absence in the academic level of a minute and coherent analisys of the hole picture involving the organizations that took part in the formation of the Socialist Party (PS). The same happens in the multiple divisions and mergers or the various political...

O Código Florestal e os processos de formulação do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal (1996-2012): ambiente político e política ambiental; The Forest Act and the formulating processes of the mechanism Compensation of Legal Forest Reserve (1996-2012): political environment and environmental policy.

Cunha, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo analisar os processos político-legislativos que culminaram na criação e nas modificações do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal, previsto no revogado Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei Federal nº 4.771/1965) e na lei que o substituiu (Lei Federal nº 12.651/2012). A questão central que orienta esta pesquisa é a seguinte: por que, desde o seu surgimento, a compensação de reserva legal sofreu constantes modificações? As hipóteses para a pergunta formulada consideram que, no complexo jogo político de alteração do Código Florestal, prevaleceram as proposições de dois agrupamentos de atores: o agronegócio (e de outros interesses associados, como mineradoras e hidrelétricas) e a bancada ruralista do Congresso Nacional. Assim, focalizando na compensação de reserva legal, estabeleceu-se um recorte temporal de 1996 a 2012, onde se analisou os processos políticos das seguintes etapas: (i) a formação da agenda governamental em 1996, que culminou na alteração do Código Florestal por medida provisória; (ii) a criação da compensação em 1998; (iii) a modificação desse instrumento no anteprojeto de lei do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA) (2000); e (iv) a alteração proposta pelo projeto de lei aprovado na Comissão Especial Temporária do Código Florestal (2010)...

Political leadership change: A theoretical assessment using a human capital “learning by doing” model

Rocha de Sousa, Miguel
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This article presents an economic growth model with human capital, based upon Arrow(1962), which evaluates the impact of political leadership change either in governments or political parties. The change of leadership might be seen as a change in embedded human capital, and thus we might evaluate the loss or gain for society due to these political activities. The approach is theoretical using Arrowian economic setting and formulates the conditions in which it is worth it, or how long does it take to recover from a political leadership change. The embedded process is an economic one, known as “learning by doing”, but this time applied to political processes.

Processos políticos e avaliação do desempenho: o caso da administração pública

Chainça, Ana Sofia de Carvalho
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Mestrado em Ciências do Trabalho e Relações Laborais; O presente estudo procurou comparar a avaliação no Sistema Integrado de Avaliação do Desempenho na Administração Pública (SIADAP) com a avaliação numa situação informal. O estudo analisou ainda a influência dos processos políticos no SIADAP e numa avaliação informal. Nesse sentido, definiu-se como objectivos do estudo verificar se os avaliadores tendem a inflacionar mais a avaliação das competências no SIADAP do que na avaliação informal, assim como, se os avaliadores tendem a inflacionar mais a avaliação global na avaliação formal do que na avaliação informal. Por outro lado, definiu-se como objectivo verificar se a influência dos processos políticos no SIADAP é maior do que na avaliação informal. Para a análise dos resultados foram utilizados os resultados do SIADAP de um organismo público. Para além dos dados relativos ao SIADAP recolheu-se também uma avaliação informal sobre as competências e atitude de cada colaborador junto do respectivo avaliador. Juntamente com a Avaliação Informal foi solicitado aos avaliadores o preenchimento de um questionário relativo a políticas de avaliação. Os resultados sugerem que existe uma motivação por parte dos avaliadores para inflacionar as avaliações do desempenho no SIADAP...

Political Alternation as a Restraint on Investing in Influence : Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

Milanovic, Branko; Hoff, Karla; Horowitz, Shale
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The authors develop and implement a method for measuring the frequency of changes in power among distinct leaders and ideologically distinct parties that is comparable across political systems. The authors find that more frequent alternation in power is associated with the emergence of better governance in post communist countries. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms seek durable protection from the state, which implies that expected political alternation is relevant to the decision whether to invest in influence with the governing party or, alternatively, to demand institutions that apply predictable rules, with equality of treatment, regardless of the party in power.

Democracy, Public Expenditures, and the Poor : Understanding Political Incentives for Providing Public Services

Keefer, Philip; Khemani, Stuti
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The incentives of politicians to provide broad public goods and reduce poverty vary across countries. Even in democracies, politicians often have incentives to divert resources to political rents and private transfers that benefit a few citizens at the expense of many. These distortions can be traced to imperfections in political markets that are greater in some countries than in others. This article reviews the theory and evidence on the impact on political incentives of incomplete information for voters, the lack of credibility of political promises, and social polarization. The analysis has implications for policy and for reforms to improve public goods provision and reduce poverty.

Does Female Reservation Affect Long-Term Political Outcomes? Evidence from Rural India

Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Nagarajan, Hari K.; Fang, Xia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Although many studies have explored the impacts of political quotas for females, often with ambiguous results, the underlying mechanisms and long-term effects have received little attention. This paper uses nation-wide data from India spanning a 15-year period to explore how reservations affect leader qualifications, service delivery, political participation, local accountability, and individuals willingness to contribute to public goods. Although leader quality declines and impacts on service quality are often negative, gender quotas are shown to increase the level and quality of women's political participation, the ability to hold leaders to account, and the willingness to contribute to public goods. Key effects persist beyond the reserved period and impacts on females often materialize only with a lag.

The Political Economy of Policy Reform : Issues and Implications for Policy Dialogue and Development Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
This study addresses the political economy of sector reforms. Sustainable reform processes which improve equity, efficiency and effectiveness in key economic and social sectors are often important elements of national poverty reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. For international development agencies wishing to engage in these processes, understanding the significance of power relations within the sector, vested interests, and the links to national political processes can be critical to being an effective actor in policy dialogue. This study explores these issues through the analysis of case studies of World Bank engagement in two areas: agricultural liberalization, and public-private partnerships in water supply and sanitation. The objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to analyze the political economy of reform by looking at stakeholder interests, incentives, institutions, risks, opportunities, and processes from a social analysis perspective; and (b) to illustrate 'what works...

Conditional Cash Transfers, Political Participation, and Voting Behavior

Baez, Javier E.; Camacho, Adriana; Conover, Emily; Zárate, Román A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This paper estimates the effect of enrollment in a large scale anti-poverty program in Colombia, Familias en Accion, on intent to vote, turnout and electoral choice. For identification the analysis uses discontinuities in program eligibility and variation in program enrollment across voting booths. It finds that Familias en Accion had a positive effect on political participation in the 2010 presidential elections by increasing the probability that program beneficiaries registered to vote and cast a ballot, particularly among women. Regarding voter's choice, the authors find that program participants expressed a stronger preference for the official party that implemented and expanded the program. Overall, the findings show that voters respond to targeted transfers and that these transfers can foster support for incumbents, thus making the case for designing political and legislative mechanisms, as the laws recently passed by the Colombian government, that avoid successful anti-poverty schemes from being captured by political patronage.

A political ecology of community-based forest and wildlife management in Tanzania: politics, power and governance

Humphries, Kathryn
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Geography Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Geography
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The full text of this thesis is restricted until December 2014 for publication reasons; My research is focused on investigating the socio-political processes taking place within Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Tanzania. I draw on a political ecology approach in an investigation of the politics of struggles over natural resources, their management and the benefits that can be derived from this. I bring together theories of policy processes, African politics and scale into an examination of power within two case studies of CBNRM from the wildlife and forestry sectors. I carry out a comparative analysis of these case studies, employing a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews, focus groups, participatory activities, participant observation and document analysis. My research is clustered around three core themes. Firstly, I trace the process of policy reform that introduced CBNRM in both the forest and wildlife sectors, and examine the differences between the governance systems prescribed in policy as a result of these processes. The contrasts between the two sectors in Tanzanian CBNRM are important and multiple. Different policy pathways were adopted, relating to the distinct political economies of forest and wildlife resources and their politicisation within the context of power devolution for CBNRM. The prescribed governance systems in the two sectors contain important differences in the processes by which local communities can apply to participate in CBNRM...

New worlds in political science

Dunleavy, Patrick
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Political Studies Publicador: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Political Studies
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Political science’ is a ‘vanguard’ field concerned with advancing generic knowledge of political processes, while a wider ‘political scholarship’ utilising eclectic approaches has more modest or varied ambitions. Political science nonetheless necessarily depends upon and is epistemologically comparable with political scholarship. I deploy Boyer's distinctions between discovery, integration, application and renewing the profession to show that these connections are close woven. Two sets of key challenges need to be tackled if contemporary political science is to develop positively. The first is to ditch the current unworkable and restrictive comparative politics approach, in favour of a genuinely global analysis framework. Instead of obsessively looking at data on nation states, we need to seek data completeness on the whole (multi-level) world we have. A second cluster of challenges involves looking far more deeply into political phenomena; reaping the benefits of ‘digital-era’ developments; moving from sample methods to online census methods in organisational analysis; analysing massive transactional databases and real-time political processes (again, instead of depending on surveys); and devising new forms of ‘instrumentation’...

State failure and success in Uganda and Zimbabwe: the logic of political decay and reconstruction in Africa

Brett, Edwin
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to the post-colonial history of Uganda and Zimbabwe and shows that the way in which regimes responded to contradictory political and economic demands explain the processes that led to state failure or consolidation. It provides a review of the claims of the competing theories used to explain these processes, and shows that they all explain some, but not all, of the critical changes that occurred. The outcome of interventionist or neo-liberal policies depended on contextual circumstances, and produced changes in the social, economic and political capital in each country that will determine the success or failure of future policies.

Representation, participation, and development: lessons from small industry in Latin America

Shadlen, Kenneth C.
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Although it has become accepted as a matter of course that small firms are important for economic development and there exists an abundant literature on small enterprise promotion, very little attention is given to understanding the factors that affect small firms' capacity to participate in politics. Filling this gap is important, for supporting small firms is not a technical choice but rather the outcome of political processes involving conflicts between actors with competing interests. In the simplest terms, representation affects policy, so anyone concerned with small enterprise development needs to consider the process by which small firms can secure representation. This paper addresses this political vacuum, analysing the capacity of small industrialists to construct durable mechanisms of representation. Emphasis is placed on representation outside of the electoral realm. Using Stepan's distinction between "civil society", where interest groups and social movements articulate their interests, and "political society", the arena that hosts formal contestation among parties over policymaking authority, the analysis here is focused on civil society. Rather than focusing on political parties, attention is paid to the aggregation and articulation of actors' interests through business associations. The analysis is presented in two stages. The first section presents a framework for analysing small industry politics. By drawing attention to the core characteristics that define small firms as political actors...

Understanding the legacies of political violence: an examination of political conflict in Mpumalanga Township, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Bonnin, Debby
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This paper explores the severe rupture that occurred in the politics of KwaZulu-Natal in the mid 1980s. This rupture is captured in the violent form political conflict took as it griped the province during the latter 1980s and early 1990s. This broader process is examined through an investigation of local level political violence in Mpumalanga Township. During the 1980s, Mpumalanga Township (located about half way between Pietermaritzburg and Durban) was one of the areas most acutely affected by political violence. In order to understand how this rupture occurred and its consequences, it is necessary to look back at a complex set of processes that interlocked over space and time. Violence, it is argued, is embedded in the articulation between local, regional and national dynamics. There are complex relationships between, on the one hand, political interests, social groups and organisational forms, and on the other, the dynamics of gender and generation, with both feeding into political violence. A second dynamic that this paper explores is the form violence took. The legacies that remain ten years after peace was negotiated are a direct result of the modalities of the preceding violence. It is suggested that political violence exhibited a profoundly spatialised form in combination with gendered and generational forms. This can be seen at a number of levels. Firstly...

The city as frontier: urban development and identity processes in Goma

Vlassenroot, Koen; Büscher, Karen
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This innovative paper from the Crisis States Research Centre challenges traditional studies that explore sites located on borders from a central or capital city perspective. Focusing on processes and expressions of identity in the city of Goma, (capital of the North Kivu's, DRCongo), this paper illustrates how the struggle for political, social and economic control impacts local urban life and has broader implications for regional relationships and realities. Conclusions from this research suggest that Goma must be understood as a site of dynamic change and fluidity rather than (as borders are commonly depicted) a static and dependant environment. An increasing sense of independence and freedom in Goma, this paper argues, is directly linked to state decline and to the dynamics of regional conflict. Paradoxically, Goma has become an area of military rebellion, political struggle and economic competition. At the same time, it has evolved into a city of flourishing trans-border trade, political independence and economic opportunity. The presence of the international humanitarian community, the role of natural resource trade and trans-border mobility have shifted the structures of the city, altering both Goma's relationship with the state and its citizens' relationship with their city. This paper highlights the need to closely follow the increasing national and regional role that Goma...

The dissipation of political capital among Afghanistan’s Hazaras: 2001-2009

Ibrahimi, Niamatullah
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
This paper examines the historical background and political processes behind the formation of Hizb-e Wahdat-e Islami Afghanistan (The Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan). It lays out the evolving political agendas and strategies of the party during the years of civil war, Taliban rule and the post-2001 political process. The author concludes that by 2009 the party was so fragmented and divided that the political weight it carried in Afghanistan bore little resemblance to what it had first enjoyed.

The transition from war to peace: politics, political space and the peace process industry in Mozambique, 1992-1995

Ebata, Joanne Michi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The 'peace process' is a common expression in international politics. It describes and explains events in seemingly disparate locations as Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Southern Africa, which share only the common occurrence of violent conflict. One outstanding feature of these peace processes is the active participation of international actors or external 'third parties'. Whether they are states, international organisations or nongovernmental organisations, these external actors comprise an industry focussed on the peace process. However, in providing assistance to countries making the transition from war to peace, as an industry these external third parties often reconfigure the political space of host societies in a manner which frustrates the intended goal of attaining peace. The following analysis focuses on the process of implementing a comprehensive peace settlement to show how the peace process industry operates, using the case of Mozambique. The Mozambican peace process was selected because it is generally presented as a success which justifies similar activities in future cases. Therefore it is crucial to examine whether the intervention was a success, what kind of success and a success for whom. As Mozambique was inundated with international actors engaged in all kinds of activities...

A theory of constitutional change -- Game theoretical analysis of socio-political processes in Poland, 1976-81.

Mizrahi, Shlomo
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This study develops a theoretical framework to explain processes of constitutional change and applies it to socio-political processes in Poland, 1976-81.1 develop a dynamic game- theoretical approach within the framework of public choice theory. Events are explained by individual actions under given structural conditions. The study contributes to this field in two aspects. First, through theoretical arguments and empirical analysis it illuminates how structural changes and dynamics of collective action influence individuals' beliefs and preferences. Secondly, it provides a framework for the analysis of constitutional change specifying the starting and ending conditions as well as the mechanism of such processes. The study explains events of constitutional change as the outcomes of complex processes of belief change in which three interacting factors play a major role: the available information to the players, the level of coordination within the dominant groups in the process and individual entrepreneurship. Asymmetries in these parameters influence power relations thus leading to particular institutional changes. The theoretical arguments are used to explain two events of constitutional change which took place in Poland during 1976-81: 1) the Gdansk agreement (31.8.80) which granted political rights to Polish workers allowing the establishment of Solidarity as an independent trade union; 2) the imposition of martial law on 13 December 1981. These events provide a special environment to study the internal mechanism of constitutional change since they were isolated from any 'wave' of transition or major international events. They involved complex interactions between social and political factors which have not been systematically analyzed so far. The empirical analysis explains the Polish events using primary sources in form of statements...

A conditional theory of the ‘political resource curse:’ oil, autocrats, and strategic contexts

Ahmadov, Anar
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
A burgeoning literature argues that the abundance of oil in developing countries strengthens autocratic rule and erodes democracy. However, extant studies either show the average cross-national correlation between oil and political regime or develop particularistic accounts that do not easily lend themselves to theorizing. Consequently, we know little of the causal mechanisms that potentially link oil wealth to undemocratic outcomes and the conditions that would help explain the ultimate, not average, effect of oil on political regime. This study develops a conditional theory of the “political resource curse.” It does so by undertaking a statistical reassessment of the relationship between oil wealth and political regime and a nuanced qualitative examination of a set of carefully selected cases in order to contribute to developing an adequate account of causal mechanisms that transmit and conditions that shape the relationship between oil abundance and autocracy. It draws on qualitative and quantitative evidence collected over eighteen months of fieldwork in oil-rich former Soviet countries of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan, and the ‘counterfactual’ oil-poor Kyrgyzstan. Employing a theoretical framework that draws on insights from the rentier state theory...

Transformations in the Korean and Brazilian processes of capitalist development between the mid-1950s and the mid-2000s: the political economy of late industrialisation.

Grinberg, Nicolas
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
This thesis examines the specificities of Late-industrialisation, focussing on Korea and Brazil. The growth and development experience of both economies between the mid-1950s and the mid-2000s is explained in terms of their pattern of integration into the international division of labour. Challenging conventional accounts, the thesis does not consider these patterns as resulting simply from economic policies and institutions, but rather determined by global economy developments and their interaction with local structural factors that affect the conditions of valorisation of capital in different productive sectors. This thesis argues that the Brazilian process of capitalist development revolved around the appropriation of land rent – i.e. extraordinary profits available due to the monopoly of an irreproducible means of production, land. Industrial capital was able to maximise profits despite producing for domestic markets at relatively small scale. Capital compensated for its high production costs by appropriating a portion of the abundant land rent. Since the late-1960s, industrial capital in Korea maximised profits through the production for world markets, taking advantage of relatively cheap and disciplined labour. Due to skill-replacing technological changes associated with computerisation and electronics-based automation...