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A pena e o cadafalso: observações sobre a literatura carcerária relativa ao período do Estado Novo; The sentence and the scaffold: comments on the incarceration literature in the period of New State

Poli Junior, Ovidio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2009 PT
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Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo da literatura carcerária brasileira (escrita no cárcere ou sob a forma de reminiscência), com ênfase nos escritores que viveram durante o período do Estado Novo (1937-1945). A partir do exame de textos de caráter ficcional, epistolar e memorialístico, procuramos investigar como os autores operaram em suas obras a representação do cárcere, ou, mais precisamente, como refletiram sobre o universo carcerário e como o recriaram enquanto matéria literária. No âmbito historiográfico, procuramos demonstrar que o fenômeno do encarceramento percorre a história da literatura brasileira, sobretudo após a instauração do regime republicano. Trata-se de um trabalho de caráter panorâmico, que parte de apontamentos introdutórios para depois aprofundar-se nos autores inscritos no período referido anteriormente, situando mais detidamente alguns pontos que seriam comuns às suas obras e, ao final, procurando esboçar uma caracterização geral acerca da literatura carcerária brasileira. Acreditamos que o estudo dos escritos do cárcere constitui ocasião privilegiada para examinar a questão do resgate da memória histórica e da identidade individual enquanto fenômeno que conduziria à idéia de uma ética e de uma estética da resistência...

Mass incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries

Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10–0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes...

The privatization age? : which services are privatized and why

Zehavi, Amos J., 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 417 p.; 22908155 bytes; 22966568 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This dissertation examines the determinants of the extent of privatization of service delivery. Despite the fact that right-wing governments extolling neo-liberal policies have placed privatization at the top of the policy agenda in recent years, there are some services that have experienced very little privatization, if at all. The aim of this dissertation is to explain the considerable variation in privatization experiences across service programs in different policy domains, political systems and over time. The research is based on a qualitative analysis of privatization of service delivery, while funding remains public, in three policy domains - education K-12, mental health care, and incarceration - across three different political systems - Massachusetts, Texas and England. The comparison of the nine case studies revealed significant differences in the extent of privatization across the three policy domains. Privatization rates in education were considerably lower than in the two other domains, while privatization rates in mental healthcare were higher. Despite considerable differences in institutional structure and the balance of right-left power, the differences in privatization rates across political systems did not follow any clear pattern. The explanation for the difference across policy domains primarily focus on institutional factors. Programs in policy domains with many stakeholders are less likely to be privatized than programs that are smaller by comparison. Also...

Psychiatric aspects of detention: illustrative case studies

Koopowitz, L.; Abhard, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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Although the two political systems cannot be equated, the psychiatric and psychosocial issues raised by people detained under the migration regulations of the present Australian government, and those detained under the security legislation of the last apartheid government in South Africa, are similar in many aspects. We present two case scenarios representative of the cumulative clinical experience of the authors in their work (as part of their routine clinical practice and medical school experience) with asylum seekers and political detainees in acute psychiatric units in both South Africa and Australia. Similar issues raised included the validity of a psychiatric diagnosis in these patients and the debate this conundrum provoked among the multidisciplinary teams. The pressures placed on clinicians by politicians in terms of clinical management of hospitalized detainees raised similar ethical questions across both countries. The clinical syndromes of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were similar. The effect of the 'non-person' status conferred upon refugees by the 'temporary protection visa' could be equated with the effect of 'banning orders' imposed on opponents of the Apartheid regime. In South Africa, political detainees entered into the struggle expecting to face hardship and torture at the hands of the government of the time. Asylum seekers flee to Australia expecting support from a democratic system and generally had not prepared themselves for further incarceration and yet another political struggle. Despite this seemingly fundamental difference...

Stolen past: Shattered futures, aboriginal justice in Canada

Crow, Catharine L. L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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It is acknowledged that Canada's criminal justice system has some major flaws, particularly with respect to its application to various ethnic subgroups. Aboriginal Canadians are one subgroup particularly sensitive to the problems in the system as is reflected by their disproportionately high rates of criminality and incarceration. Over the past 50 years many programs have been developed and recommendations have been made to alleviate the tensions Aboriginals find within the system. However, the situation today is essentially the same. Aboriginals are still overrepresented within the system and solutions that have been brought forward have had little success in stemming their flow into the system. Blame for Aboriginal mistreatment in the system has been placed at all levels from line police officers to high-level officials and politicians and attempts to resolve problems continue as an on going process. However, many of the recommendations and reforms have revolved around culture conflict. Although this thesis recognizes the importance of culture conflict in the overrepresentation of Aboriginals within the Canadian criminal justice system, it has also recognized that culture conflict alone is not responsible for all the flaws within the system as it pertains to Aboriginals. This thesis is of the opinion that in order for reforms to the criminal justice system to be successful...

Carceral Acoustemologies: Sonic Enactments of Space and Power in Prisons

Hemsworth, KATIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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26.64%
Cultural geographers have long been interested in “the everyday,” but rarely is everyday life acknowledged in the context of incarceration. In Canada, the recent adoption of “tough-on-crime” policies has meant that increasing numbers of individuals spend their daily lives behind bars. In this dissertation, I ask: what do prisons sound like, and what is the role of sound in the way prisons are managed, conceptualised, and embodied? The recent flourishing of scholarship on carceral geographies has made crucial inroads in the study of the cultural politics and spatialities of incarceration, yet the notion of incarceration as a multi-sensory, embodied experience remains under-researched. Drawing on Feld’s notion of acoustemologies, or auditory knowledges, I argue that one way to better understand the production of carceral space is through engagement with sonic techniques, histories, and materialities of prisons. Thinking about sound as a tangible and intangible force, I show how different conceptualisations of sound – including silence, noise, and music – (re)shape power relations in Canada’s prisons. In the midst of overcrowding and segregation in prisons, Canada’s political climate reverberates through its carceral soundscapes...

Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.

Wildcat of the Streets: Race, Class and the Punitive Turn in 1970s Detroit

Stauch, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
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This dissertation is a social history of the city of Detroit in the 1970s. Using archives official and unofficial - oral histories and archived document collections, self-published memoirs and legal documents, personal papers and the newspapers of the radical press - it portrays a city in flux. It was in the 1970s that the urban crisis in the cities of the United States crested. Detroit, as had been the case throughout the twentieth century, was at the forefront of these changes. This dissertation demonstrates the local social, political, and economic circumstances that contributed to the dramatic increase in prison populations since the 1970s with a focus on the halls of government, the courtroom, and city streets. In the streets, unemployed African American youth organized themselves to counteract the contracted social distribution allocated to them under rapidly changing economic circumstances. They organized themselves for creative expression, protection and solidarity in a hostile city, and to pursue economic endeavors in the informal economy. They sometimes committed crimes. In the courts, Wayne County Juvenile Court Judge James Lincoln, a liberal Democrat long allied with New Deal political alliances, became disenchanted with rehabilitative solutions to juvenile delinquency and embraced more punitive measures...

We are still largely in the dark as to whether incarceration reduces recidivism

Mears, Daniel P.; Cochran, Joshua C.; Cullen, Francis T.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN; EN
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One of the aims of prison is to reduce recidivism. Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, and Francis T. Cullen find, however, that research tells us little about the effects of prison on offending. They argue that if we want more effective punishment policy, we need better research on the conditions under which incarceration reduces recidivism or achieves other goals.

The U.S. public’s support for being tough on crime has been a main determinant of changes to the incarceration rate

Enns, Peter K.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2014 EN; EN
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The U.S. is famous for being the country with the highest incarceration rate in the world – but what has driven the massive expansion of imprisonment in the last forty years? In new research that tracks public attitudes, Peter K. Enns finds that the public’s punitiveness is closely related to changes in the incarceration rate. He suggests that this stems not only from voters enacting laws such as ‘Three Strikes’, but also through the influence on criminal justice policy of state and federal legislators, who rely on public support for reelection.

Although the “get-tough” approach is popular among the American public and policymakers alike, incarceration does not reduce crime

Dawkins, Marika
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2014 EN; EN
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The prevalence of crime has been of great concern to policymakers for decades, with many factors being blamed and many solutions suggested. Since the 1970s’ punitive incarceration policies have found favor, and are now being replicated for juvenile offenders as well. Using state-level data on crime and juvenile residential placement (which have now become very similar in their operations to those of adult facilities), Marika Dawkins finds that such placements do not lead to a reduction in juvenile offending or crime. She argues that, in this light, community-based sanctions as well as greater support for families should take precedence over institutionalization.

While many factors affect states’ criminal justice policies, the size of the black population is often a significant driver of harsh practices

Neill, Katharine A.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2014 EN; EN
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What drives criminal justice policy in America? Using data from a study of criminal justice policy from 2002 to 2007, Katharine A. Neill finds that criminal justice policy is complex and multidimensional, with many factors influencing policies. For example, states with more violent crime are more likely to arrest people for ‘immorality’ crimes, such as drug abuse and prostitution, and those with higher rates of property crime tend to have less punitive incarceration practices. She also finds that states with larger Black populations are also more likely to have more punitive incarceration practices, conditions of confinement and juvenile justice policies.

Despite signs of less punitive policing and incarceration policies, 2014 will be remembered for Michael Brown and Eric Garner

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2014 EN; EN
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This year saw the trend away from mass incarceration continue and signs of what might be the emergence of an end to the ‘War on Drugs’. In his review of the year in criminal justice and policing policy, Tim Newburn writes that while there have been some encouraging signs of a less punitive and exclusionary means of dealing with crime, the killings of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in New York by police, and the protests that followed, are likely to be the most memorable events of 2014.

Policies aimed at reducing racial wage inequality should be geographically targeted

Kerr, Craig
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2014 EN; EN
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Despite the progress made in Civil Rights since the 1960s there are still huge wage disparities between black and white workers in America. In new research that examines wage disparities in metropolitan areas in the U.S., Craig Kerr finds that the idea of a national wage gap is misleading. Instead, he argues that wage disparities often differ markedly between different cities and regions due to factors that include black population numbers, workplace discrimination, union membership, segregation, and incarceration rates. With this in mind, he writes that policies aimed at reducing wage inequalities should be targeted at specific areas, rather than using a one size fits all approach.

Having a father incarcerated can increase an adolescent’s destructive and violent criminal behavior.

Porter, Lauren; King, Ryan
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/01/2015 EN; EN
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Despite the slowdown in incarceration rates that has occurred in recent years, more than one child in every 50 has a parent in prison in the U.S. today. In new research that samples more than 12,000 children and young adults, Lauren C. Porter and Ryan D. King find that children whose father was incarcerated were likely to have a level of violent or destructive crime 23 percent greater than their peers.

Intensive community supervision for high-risk offenders does little to reduce crime

Hyatt, Jordan; Barnes, Geoffrey
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/01/2015 EN; EN
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America’s prisons are becoming increasingly overcrowded, with many authorities seeking to shift the supervision of offenders into the community as a result. In new research, Jordan M. Hyatt & Geoffrey C. Barnes investigate the use of intensive supervision for the most serious offenders. In a study of more than 800 high risk probationers, they find that those who were closely supervised were just as likely to reoffend as those who were not, and in a similar time frame. They also find that closer supervision is linked with higher rates of absconding, incarceration and probation violations.

States are less likely to reform “three strikes” laws if they use them regularly and have higher levels of prison privatization

Cravens, Matthew; Karch, Andrew
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2014 EN; EN
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In the mid-1990s nearly half of U.S. states adopted “three strikes” laws, which impose lengthy sentences after a third serious conviction, as part of a “tough on crime” policy approach. Many states, however, began to reform or modify these laws in the 2000s. In new research, Matthew Cravens and Andrew Karch find that states that use their three strikes laws regularly were less likely to reform them if they had more extensive prison privatization and organized prison officer unions. In addition, those states with a higher proportion of African-American residents were also less likely to modify their laws. While fiscal pressures and political ideology also influenced reform, the results suggest that stakeholders seeking to maintain an incarceration-heavy status quo had an outsized influence.

The politics of punishment in America are slowly moving away from the mass incarceration policies of the past

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2013 EN; EN
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46.38%
Decades of punitive crime policies, frequently linked with the ‘war on drugs’, have given the US the highest incarceration rate in the world, with African Americans vastly overrepresented in the prison population. Tim Newburn argues, however, that there may be some small cause for optimism. In a recent speech, the US Attorney-General, Eric Holder, announced changes to the way offenders would be punished, including a desire to reduce the prison population. In addition to Holder’s speech,, the declining use of the death penalty, falling state-level prison populations, and gradual changes to drugs laws, appear to indicate that the politics of punishment in America are beginning to shift.

Paternal incarceration has complicated and countervailing effects on family life

Turney, Kristin
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2013 EN; EN
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With more than 2 million citizens incarcerated, the United States currently has the largest prison population in the world. Although more than 1.7 million children currently have a parent behind bars, the actual effects of imprisonment on families are not well understood. Drawing on her current research, Kristin Turney challenges the notion that male incarceration is universally negative for families, painting, instead, a complicated picture of how fathers’ imprisonment impacts family relationships.

Repressive Dynamics and Political Subjectivities: the Case of Peniche Prison

Cardina,Miguel
Fonte: Universidade do Porto; Brown University Publicador: Universidade do Porto; Brown University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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This paper analyzes the experience of political prisoners in the final stages of theEstado Novo dictatorship. It uses the Peniche Fort prison as a case study, exploring the way in which political identities were defined, and even reinforced, throughout the struggle against coercive dynamics. Physical confinement, rules, isolation, surveillance, and punishment laid the foundations for a punitive structure that aimed to produce “docile bodies.” On the other hand, prisoners built up resistance strategies intended not only to escape the objective reality of incarceration, but also to assert their militant subjectivity. The article explores how ideological splits led to distinct cultures of protest and ways of experiencing everyday life inside the prison, whilst also revealing how prison life interacted with broader political dynamics.